Early Civilization Matrix
Using your readings and outside sources complete the following matrix. Be sure to address the following in your matrix: Provide names, titles, dates, brief descriptions of important events, and other details as necessary. Note the details of key political, socioeconomic, technological, artistic, musical, architectural, philosophical, and literary developments for each civilization listed in the table, which were evidenced in the humanities. Be sure to properly cite the sources that you use in completing this matrix. Civilization Politics Society/ Economics Technology Art Music Architecture Philosophy
Literature Prehistoric “Division of Labor” which meant men hunted, and woman gathered. The specialization of traits between men and womanexisted since 250,000 or more years ago (Lyons, 2013) Petroglyphs, megaliths, stone figures were created and built (State Hermitage Museum, 2011) Evolution of music was slow. Music may have started with drumming using sticks and stones to make music. There is no written music prior to the Egyptian time (Hollis, 2014) Caves, tent, or tent-like dwellings occurred possibly about 35,000 years ago. Real round swellings began to surface around 8,500 B. C. (Historyworld.com, 2014) During this period, there are no written documents of philosophies. The earliest form of literature was Cuneiform, in which was made up of symbols representing different things (Pope, 2014) Mesopotamian They started building their own empires, iin which would have one king. Within societies/groups, people began taking on roles (Luoman, 2010) Agriculture and farming started trading and commerce (Dlott, 2002) Farming tools such as sickle, plows and hoes were used. More villages were created (Luoman, 2010). Sculptures representing the Sumerians were found in a temple from 2700 B. C. (Luoman, 2010).
Evidence of written music, and musical instruments such as harps, were found as early as 2500 B. C. (Luoman, 2010) Columns and domes, in which were made of mud were reated by the early mestopotamians (University of Chicago, 2014) Creation of various gods and goddesses such as Sky-God, Enlil or Earth Goddess (Luoman, 2010) Cunieform tablets were found but were largely untranslated due to the complexities of its’ earliest language. Ancient Egyptian Pharoahs had unlimited power over people, and had government that reported only to the pharaohs (“Ancient Egypt Government”, 2008) Fishing and farming was a huge intregal part of ancient Egyptians.
Crops were used as taxes and mining was useful to produce goods (“Ancient Egypt Economy”, 2002) Usage of stones were used by highly skilled workers who used tools like saws, drills and polishers. Important figures and pharaohs had elegant burial mummy cases. Relief art was popular during this time. High and massive statues were also popular. Music was everywhere, in the temples, tombs, and palaces. The most common musical instruments were the stringed, wind, and percussions (“Music in Ancient Egypt:, n. d) Stones were used to build the Great Pyramids, tomb buildings, and statues, including temples.
Bricks were also used. Wood was rarely used since there were little or no trees (Fadi, 2013). Stars and astronomy were huge and popular during this era. Egyptians believed in Heavens and seemed to notice the relationship between the sun and the stars (Eternal Egypt, 2005). Religious text including hyms, mythologies, ad it had stories, poems and texts which were written after 325 B. C. (“Ancient Eygptian Literature”. 2014). Archaic Greek They had multiple self-governing states, and political standing was determined by age, foreign status, slave status, and by sex. Men had more political rights than women (History.com, 2014) Sailing was important because there were difficulties with farming.
Fishing, trading and priacy was related to sailing. Sheep-herding and hunting was also used (Carr, 2014) Steam engines, water/air pumps were utilized during this era (Kostanas, n. d) Works of arts may have been influenced by Egyptian arts. Metal working, jewelry making, gem cutting, and ivory carving was heavy during this time, including pottery scultupre (metropolitan museum of Art, 2013) Poems and songs were often told verbally with the use of lyre Doric phase included columns with no bases.Ionic phase included columns with bases (Metroplotian Musem of Art, 2013) Free men who were born in the city wre allowed to vote, enter political debates. Famous philosophers of this era were Plato, Aristole, and Socrates (Violatti, 2013) Poetry was created before literature and writing used for singing or reciting verbally (Violatti, 2013) Aegean Minoan and Myceaeans were the two civilizations of this period. King Minos ruled the Minoans and King Agamemnon ruled the Mycenaeans (Guisepi, 1992). Food, herbs, wine currants, and clothes were exported while ivory, stones, copper an gold were imported (Guisepi, 1992).
During the Bronze Age, agriculture was vital with the use of oxen and plow system (Guisepi, 1992). Pottery, sculpture and jewelry were popular. Aegean art were natural and vivid. Musical instruments suh as lyres, harp, wind symbols, shell instruments were used heavily. Palaces were built for kings, including tombs and burial chambers. Minoans had the Mother Goddess and their Greek mythologies (Guisepi, n. d) Greek dialect was discovered on tablets, in which language was formed using texts and symbols. Classical Greek Democracy was present.
Men could vote in Assembly meeting, in which the goal was to gain power. Athens was one of the most powerful city in Greece, It was one of the political and economical might of that time (Metropolitian Museum of Art, 2013) Military power was because of great technological advancement (D’Angour, 2012) Artistists, at that time, focused on harmony and clarity so sculptures were popular in displaying the human body in reality, either in clothes or in the nude (Metropllitian Museum of Art, 2013). Music was used in loarge social gathering like funerals, wedding, religious festivals or banquets.
Archaic and Classical Greek had the same ideas, and there were no differences between these two. Theatres were made out of stones making them permanent (Carr, 2014). Plato, Aristole, and Socrates, iin which logics and ethics were widely discussed in this period (Carr, 2014). Comedies and drama were popular in this period. Hellenistic Alexander the Great was a famous icon who thought of creating a multi-national emprire but most of that power went to Rome. Military Powers was the primary focus at that time (Guisepi, 1992) Because of Alexander the Great, agriculture and stockbreeding was the main focus of the economy.
This is similar to Classic Greece era. Two greatest mathematicians, Euclid whose elements became standard, and Eratosthenes was able to igure out the circumference of earth by measuring the shadows by using sticks (Ancient-Greece. org, 2014) Artists worked on showing more realistic waty of showing the human figures (Metropolitian Museum of Art, 2013) Experienced and achieved musicans were allowed to play musical instruments. Gymnasias, forts, theatres, and other public building began to become more visible and usable (Carr, 2011).
People during this time began to resist the reasons so it was regressed; however, philosophers began to focus on saving humanity and evolution of humankind. Biographies, dramatic poetry, and histories were dominated by historians. Comedy in poetry was popular. Roman Their government was similar to the Greek government. It was under the one-man rule until the first century of B. C. It changed into a republic state, and eventually the balance of power was shared by three branches (UNRV. com). The economy was based on slavery. Agriculture and trading helped fueled the economy.
Trading skyrocketed among Asia, Europe, and Africa (UNRV. com, 2011) Sewage systems, aqueducts, and the ampphitheatres were Roman’s greatest technological advancements. Large wall paintings and murals were used to represent cultures including statues, portraits, and sculptures of important people including Gods and Goddesses (Metropolitian Museum of Art, 2013) Romans incorporated music from other cultures they conquered into their music. Music were performed only in the military ceremonies, theatre or ritual religion practices Arches and columns of many different shapes and sizes were prevalent through and within the city.
Bridges and buildings also showcased arts of the Roman period. Roman philosophy mocked the Greek philosophy, and much of the language was translated from Greek into Latin. Lucertius was one of the first Roman philosophers of this period (Carr, 2011). Literature began as drams with no songs or dialogues. Eventually, comedy and tradgies were written by the Roman writers (Carr, 2011). Judaic The Jewish government were known as the Qahai, in whih many Jews saw as brandishing Jewish principles. It had control over Jewish communities in any region.
They also controlled commerce, hygiene, charity, sanitation, education, and relations between landlords and tentants (Katz, 2014) Their economy was bsed on live-stock, fruit, vegetables in which were the main source of iincome. Cermaics, jewelry were produced locally by the local merchants, and exotics tradings with the Orient helped fuel the economy (Borochov, 1917). The Judaic merchants had learned the silk productions in China in order to become profiecnet in silk-dyeing. The merchants had developed a better way to bring color or ink into tetiles by using soap in which made the cloth clean and pure (Kurinsky, n.d. ) Judaic art saw numerous of elaborate mosaics, in which incorporated many Jewish symbols such as ram’s horns, branched lamps, and Torah shrines. The symbols would appear with pomegranates, birds, lions and fountains along with human figures. Wealthy Romanas favored the marble sarcophagi, in which were adapted by the Jewish people by adding a fancy relief image of a menorah (Metropolitian Museum of Art, 2013) Musical instruments were the harp, lyre, ram’s horn, trumpet, small drum, cymbal, bell, and a big flute.12-man choir was established after a ban on music was lifted. At first, no music or signing were allowd outside the temples, and then later music and singing were allowed at feasts, weddings, or any religious celebrations (Wikipedia, n. d. ) Early builders build with clay for bricks, wood for ceilings, and stone for walls.
Their structures were either circular or rectangular in shape. The use of wooden posts were used to support thatched ceilings; however in an environment that did not have trees, builders used corbelled stones for the ceilings. In the 10th century B. C., builders began to use spiraling volutes in doorjambs of important buildings, and beams were crisscrossed across the ceilings to ensure stability, to minimize the damages from earthquakes (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2013) The Jewish people believed that the world view of the Bible was simple and unreasonable. They found it difficult to accept that the Bible did not have true meaning. They viewed the bible as twofold, on a literal level that represent the true philosophy behind the Bible. They also felt that Greek philosophers and poets took their teachings from the words of Moses, and interpreted the Bible wrong.
They believed that the Torah was present prior to Heaven and earth that God’s power extends through all things (American-Isreaeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2013) Their rabbinic tets are usually filled with narratives, love stories, war stories, tragic stories and stories of miracles, and redemptions. Stories were kept alive by being passed from Jews to Jews. Stories were told with fancy creatures or colorful personalities that implied how Jews should live righteously, and to praise God with joy. Most of the stories’ messages are universal, but the people and places are confined to Jewish life and Jewish belief (Bronner, n.