Employment and Staff
Motivating staff is essential to a business, because if the staff are motivated that means they’re happy, and are happy to do the job and are more likely to do a better job than someone who’s unmotivated and unhappy. To motivate staff, business can use one of the motivational theories, researched by theorists such as Taylor, McGregor, McClelland, Vroom, Herzberg, Maslow and Mayo. Mayo’s research found that after a number of experiments testing incentive schemes, rest period, hours of work, and changes in lighting and heating whatever changes were made, output continued to rise.
This motivated the staff, and Tesco uses this theory to motivate their staff. All of their staff gets breaks, so when they are tired of the job, they can go to a canteen to get some food, or just sit down and rest. Also nowadays a lot of people smoke, and if a person has been smoking for a while, they tend to get stressed easily, and they need a cigarette to calm themselves down, so Tesco lets people to have cigarette breaks when people get stressed out.
Also the conditions of work will help to motivate the staff, for example in summer when it’s really hot all of their stores have air conditioning, so all the staff and their customers are cool, because people tend to work better and are happier when they are cool. Tesco also uses Maslow’s theory, which suggests that the staff needs to be ranked into hierarchy, so for example the bottom of the hierarchy will have basic needs, when the top of the hierarchy will have greater needs. So someone who works in a store stocking shelves, their needs will be to have a break when they’re working, to get a new uniform etc.
Where the area manager for example will have greater needs, for example because they have to travel a lot from store to store they will want to get a car for them to be able to travel, also the petrol to be paid for. Also because their role involves a lot of responsibility they will expect to get paid more for doing the job than someone who works in a store and their only responsibility is to make sure that all of the shelves are stocked up. If all of their staff needs are unsatisfied, then it means the staff will be unhappy and unmotivated which will reflect in their performance.
Tesco also uses McGregor’s theory, which suggests that all employs should be punished if they did a bad job and rewarded if they did a good job. For example if an employee does a bad job they will be threatened and get a disciplinary, which means if they do it again they might lose their job. If a person does a good job, they will be recognised, and their manager might have a chat with them to reflect on their performance and make sure that they are aware that they did a good job and the person is in a higher position, such as a manager, they will get a bonus. M3) Performance indicators Business have many ways of measuring their staff performance, for example they can use time periods for measuring, for example ASDA might measure their employees performance by how many customers they’ve served in one hour. This method does not work for all businesses, for example clothes manufacturer might not use this method because they need quality not quantity, and if they push their staff to make shirts faster they might make them poor quality or they might not fit.
This helps develop their staff because they set themselves a target and this motivates people because people like challenges, and they are clear on what they need to do for the day. Also by achieving their target they might get a reward for it so it motivates them. Goal theory Another method of measuring performance is setting their employees goals. The best goals are when the employee and the employer both agree on what’s important and working together to achieve that goal. Clear and challenging goals can motivate their staff.
For example ASDA might use this method on people who are stocking up the store. For example the manager might say that today they need to move couple shelves somewhere else and stock them up and they have 2 hours to do it. This help the staff to develop, because they know what’s their performance, and what they can do to improve it next time. SMART Targets SMART is a technique used to work out how useful a set of objectives are. All the targets needs to be specific, they should have a focus and not be vague. They need to be measurable, so they should include something that can be measured.
They also need to be achievable, so if staff do not think they can achieve their targets they will be demotivated. Also it needs to be realistic in relation to both the resources and skills available, and the overall goals of the organisation and it needs to have a time-bound, so it must have an end so that success can be measured. This helps to develop staff because using SMART technique the staff are clear about the objective and they are sure that it is achievable, because if staff thinks that it is unachievable they get demotivated. Benchmarking
Benchmarking can be used to measure organisations performance by comparing themselves to other organisations and matching or exceeding their performance. For example ASDA will compare itself to all big supermarkets in UK such as Sainsbury’s, Morrison’s, and Tesco etc. This help to develop staff because they compare themselves to their competitors and it is very clear on how they are doing, and this helps to improve the business, because if other business is doing better then they need to figure out what they are doing wrong and how to change it. Probation Pretty much all businesses will have a probation period for new employees.
This means that they will be closely monitored for a certain period of time and their performance will be measured so the business is certain that this person is capable of doing the job and is a right candidate. Business such as Tesco will have a short probation period because the job doesn’t require a high skill and it doesn’t take long to find out if the person is right for the job, but jobs like teachers or doctors will have longer probation periods, because it takes some time to find out if the candidate is capable of doing a job, and their probation period will be around 9 months but can be longer.
Also when people are on probation period this gives the right to the employer to fire them for no reason. Probation period helps to develop staff because if they are on a probation period, they are under more pressure and makes them more focussed about understanding the business and doing their job at their best ability. Appraisal Appraisal is another method of measuring performance in a business. This means that at the end of the year the employee and employer will sit down and review the year, the employee will say what he thinks he’s done very well, and the employer will say what they think they’ve done well and what they need to work on. This is helps to develop staff because the employer tells the staff on how they are performing and what they have been doing very well and what they have been doing not so well, and gives them advice on how to improve or change it. Supporting employees There’s couple ways of how you can support employees. One of them is mentoring, this means that someone in the workplace will help them that is just above their positions and has been in their position previously, so they can pass on some of their knowledge and explain the job. There’s two types of mentoring; formal and informal.
Formal mentoring means that the mentor will have paper work with them and will monitor them and will write everything down. Informal mentoring means that the mentor will only have a chat with them or help them but wouldn’t write anything down. Also another way to support the employees is buddying up. For example in ASDA a new employer will be partnered up with someone that is on the same level as them but has been working for a long period of time and knows their job very well, so the new employer can work with them for couple of days to get to know the job and the other person can help them if they get confused or stuck.
This helps to develop staff because people get demotivated and getting support from other staff or the manager helps to improve their performance, because some people get stuck and are not sure how to do a job they’ve been given, and some help from the manager can sort that out, also just having a chat with them might also help because some people just need to know that someone cares about them and how they’re getting on.
Occupational Health People are human beings and can get stressed when they are pushed to work hard, so the employers need to think about how to release that stress. For example they could put some plants in the office, because plants produce oxygen which helps people to relax. Also if the office is very warm think about putting an air con to cool it down, because when people are hot they tend to get very stressed out.
For example all Tesco stores have air con, so all of their employees are cool and don’t get stressed out as much. This helps to develop staff because for example, if the working conditions in Tesco are very hot the employees might not work very well, and they will get very stressed, but if they install air conditioning and make the store cool, the staff will work a lot better and will be a lot happier, because they are not hot and they’re comfortable. Managing workloads
People get very stressed out when they are under pressure and have a lot of things to do, so it is very important for a business to balance it out, and spread workload equally, for example Tesco will divide people into section and give the same amount of shelves to stock up, so it’s fair on everyone. This helps to develop staff because giving them a lot of workload will demotivated them and sometimes even push them into leaving the job because they are stressed and lose motivation, so by reducing workload and sharing the workload equally, this will release the stress and staff will have more motivation.
Delegating authority and responsibility By giving more authority and responsibility can motivate employees but it is very important to monitor how it is working, in order to avoid errors and costly mistakes, which can affect employer in terms of money and reputation, also it might lead to dismissing the employee. For example Tesco manager will be responsible for hiring new people and they might hire someone that is not capable of doing the job which might cost Tesco money.
This will help to develop staff because they will feel like they are trusted, so they will be more focussed and will try to prove to their employer that they are capable of doing the job. Capacity Capacity relates to the amount of work or products that can be produced or is being produced. Using as much capacity as possible should lead to lower costs for the business, so employers need to ensure that employees are performing well without putting them under so much pressure that they suffer with stress and then become ill.
Linking rewards to performance Giving rewards to people for doing a good job or achieving or exceeding a target motivates people to work harder. For example Tesco manager will get a bonus for achieving or exceeding the stores targets. He then might share it with the team, to keep them motivated. This helps to develop the staff, because everyone loves getting a reward if they do a good job, because it shows that their employer cares about them and also gives them a sense of achievement, and makes themselves feel good, because they did a good job.