Encounters and Transformations Volume
Objective: What is the link between food-producing revolution of the Neolithic era and the emergence of civilization? (The shift from hunting and gathering to farming and herding because it changed the way humans organized society. ) Neolithic Age: The New Stone Age (10,000-3,000 B. C. ), characterized by the development of agriculture and the use of stone tools. How do shifts in food production impact other cultural changes in a society? (It shifts the way human societies are organized. ) The Fertile Crescent was home to the world’s first farming communities.
The shift from hunting and gathering to farming and herding brought a corresponding shift in human social organization. As a result of this Neolithic Revolution, the world’s first civilizations developed. Mesopotamia: Land between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers. Shifts humans from being nomadic and following migratory patterns to more stable and permanent habits. They constructed buildings of Religious and State establishments. The act of domestication creates roles for humans (Jobs! ). Domesticating animals means humans no longer follow them, and instead use them as a function of economics (barter, labor, etc.) What gave rise to the first writing system? (The need to record information, such as business and government transactions of present and past events. ) Cuneiform: The style of writing that involved using clay tabled and reeds. Cuneiform developed first as a pictorial writing system. The earliest written records track business and tax transactions. Cuneiform was used for three thousand years, dying out in the Second Century, B. C. Cuneiform was deciphered with the aid of the Behistun inscriptions. Shifts from pictorial writing system to abstract alphabet.
Checklist for Civilization: Cities Warfare Writing Social Hierarchies Advanced Arts & Crafts Culture: The knowledge and adaptive behavior created by communities that help them to mediate between themselves and the natural world through time. Civilization: The term used by archaeologists to describe a society differentiated by levels of wealth and power, and in which military, religious, economic, and political control are based in cities. Early Europeans did not develop to meet the civilization checklist: Cities Warfare Social Hierarchies Writing Arts and Crafts
Developed Civilizations included India, China, Central Asia, and Peru. Western Civilization developed out of Egypt and Southwest Asia. Homo sapiens sapiens: “most intelligent people”; applied to physically and intellectually modern human beings that first appeared in Africa 200,000-100,000 years ago. Southwest Asia: First food producing communities Levantine Corridor (Fertile Crescent) Zagros Mountains in Mesopotamia Anatolia (Turkey) Levantine Corridor: 25 mile strip that runs from the Jordan River Valley (modern Israel and Palestine) to Euphrates River Valley (Iraq).
Levant: Eastern Mediterranean coastal region. “The Rising Sun” (French); Territory to the east, where the sun rises. Division of labor along gender lines indicates a growing complexity of social relations within the community. Fertility & Death are the main concerns of ancient societies. Catal Huyuk: Anatolian town, 6,000 people. Wealthy community that relied heavily on trade in obsidian, a volcanic stone that would be used to make sharp-edged tools. The ritual of burying the dead with jewels signified a distinction between the rich and the poor.
Early Europeans farmed range of crops and herded domesticated animals. They lived in clusters of permanent family farmsteads. Technology Shifts: Metallurgy (Art using fire to shape metal) The Plow Long distant networks evolved and provided basis for meeting and blending of different groups of peoples and different cultural assumptions and ideas. Technology and Wealth caused divisions between the rich and poor. Megalith: Communicable tombs with huge stones (such as Stonehenge in England). Three Possible Uses for Megaliths: Measure movement of stars. Place for religious ceremonies. Devoted to healing ceremonies.