English Vocabe

1 January 2017

Their meanings and correct usage in sentence Abolish verb abolish something to officially end a law, a system or an institution This tax should be abolished. 1 sudden and unexpected, often in an unpleasant way an abrupt change/halt/departure The accident brought his career to an abrupt end. 2 speaking or acting in a way that seems unfriendly and rude; not taking time to say more than is necessary abrupt manner She was very abrupt with me in our meeting.

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The interview ended abruptly. Absolute adjective 1 total and complete a class for absolute beginners absolute confidence/trust/silence/truth ‘You’re wrong,’ she said with absolute certainty. Around them the darkness was absolute, the silence oppressive. 2 [only before noun] used, especially in spoken English, to give emphasis to what you are saying There’s absolute rubbish on television tonight. He must earn an absolute fortune. 110 MB is the absolute minimum you need to run the program. What an absolute idiot I’ve been ! 3 definite and without any doubt or confusion There was no absolute proof.

He taught us that the laws of physics were absolute. The divorce became absolute last week. 4 not limited or restricted absolute power/authority an absolute ruler/monarchy (= one with no limit to their power) 5 existing or measured independently and not in relation to something else Although prices are falling in absolute terms, energy is still expensive. Beauty cannot be measured by any absolute standard.

It was absolutely pouring with rain. 2 absolutely no…, absolutely nothing used to emphasize something negative She did absolutely no work. There’s absolutely nothing more the doctors can do. 3 used with adjectives or verbs that express strong feelings or extreme qualities to mean ‘extremely’ I was absolutely furious with him. She absolutely adores you. He’s an absolutely brilliant cook. 4 used to emphasize that you agree with somebody, or to give somebody permission to do something‘ They could have told us, couldn’t they? ’ ‘

Absolutely! ’‘Can we leave a little early? ’ ‘Absolutely! 5 absolutely not used to emphasize that you strongly disagree with somebody, or to refuse permission ‘Was it any good? ’ ‘No, absolutely not. ’ Absolution NOUN (especially in the Christian Church) a formal statement that a person is forgiven for what he or she has done wrong Absolutism noun 1 a political system in which a ruler or government has total power at all times 2 belief in a political, religious or moral principle which is thought to be true in all circumstances Abstain verb 1 abstain (from something) to choose not to use a vote, either in favour of or against something Ten people voted in favour, five against and two abstained. abstain (from something) to decide not to do or have something, especially something you like or enjoy, because it is bad for your health or considered morally wrong to abstain from alcohol/sex/drugs 3 abstain (from something) (Indian English) to stay away from something.

What she did was an abuse of her position as manager. 2 unfair, cruel or violent treatment of somebody child abuse sexual abuse reported abuses by the secret police She suffered years of physical abuse. 3 [uncountable] rude and offensive remarks, usually made when somebody is very angry Synonym SYNONYM: insults to scream/hurl/shout abuse a stream/torrent of abuse The man burst into a torrent of foul-mouthed racist abuse. Acquaint verb acquaint somebody/yourself with something (formal) to make somebody/yourself familiar with or aware of something Please acquaint me with the facts of the case.

You will first need to acquaint yourself with the filing system. Acquiesce verb acquiesce (in/to something) (formal) to accept something without arguing, even if you do not really agree with it Senior government figures must have acquiesced in the cover-up. She explained her plan and reluctantly he acquiesced. Acquiescence noun the fact of being willing to do what somebody wants and to accept their opinions, even if you are not sure that they are right There was general acquiescence in the UN sanctions. Acquire verb 1 acquire omething to gain something by your own efforts, ability or behaviour She has acquired a good knowledge of English.

How long will it take to acquire the necessary skills? He has acquired a reputation for dishonesty. I have recently acquired a taste for olives. 2 acquire something to obtain something by buying or being given it The company has just acquired new premises. How did the gallery come to acquire so many Picassos? I’ve suddenly acquired a stepbrother. IDIOM: an acquired taste a thing that you do not like much at first but gradually learn to like Abstract art is an acquired taste.

Acquisition noun 1 [uncountable] the act of getting something, especially knowledge, a skill, etc theories of child language acquisition 2 [countable] something that somebody buys to add to what they already own, usually something valuable His latest acquisition is a racehorse. The money will be spent on acquisitions for the university library. 3 [countable, uncountable] (business) a company, piece of land, etc. bought by somebody, especially another company; the act of buying it They have made acquisitions in several EU countries. he acquisition of shares by employees.

The group has announced its first overseas acquisition: a successful software company. Acquit VERB 1 acquit somebody (of something) to decide and state officially in court that somebody is not guilty of a crime The jury acquitted him of murder. Both defendants were acquitted. She was acquitted on all charges. He was acquitted on the grounds of insufficient evidence. Opposite:convict 2 acquit yourself well, badly, etc. to perform or behave well, badly, etc He acquitted himself brilliantly in the exams.

Adapt verb 1 to change something in order to make it suitable for a new use or situation nonym SYNONYM: modify, adapt something These styles can be adapted to suit individual tastes. adapt something for something Most of these tools have been specially adapted for use by disabled people. 2 to change your behaviour in order to deal more successfully with a new situation m SYNONYM: adjust It’s amazing how soon you adapt. The organisms were forced to adapt in order to survive. adapt to something We have had to adapt quickly to the new system.

A large organization can be slow to adapt to change. adapt yourself to something It took him a while to adapt himself to his new surroundings. 3 adapt something (for something) (from something) to change a book or play so that it can be made into a play, film/movie, television programme, etc Three of her novels have been adapted for television. Adequate adjective enough in quantity, or good enough in quality, for a particular purpose or need an adequate supply of hot water The room was small but adequate. There is a lack of adequate provision for disabled students.

He didn’t give an adequate answer to the question. adequate for something The space available is not adequate for our needs. adequate to do something training that is adequate to meet the future needs of industry OPPOSITE: inadequate adequacy noun [uncountable]The adequacy of the security arrangements has been questioned. OPPOSITE: inadequacy adequately adverb Are you adequately insured?

Clean the surface first, or the paint will not adhere. There was oil adhering to the bird’s feathers. Praisal Verb Use: adhere to something to behave according to a particular law, rule, set of instructions, etc; to follow a particular set of beliefs or a fixed way of doing something For ten months he adhered to a strict no-fat low-salt diet. She adheres to teaching methods she learned over 30 years ago. Staff should adhere strictly to the safety guidelines. The diet will work if it is adhered to.

Adolescence noun the time in a person’s life when he or she develops from a child into an adult SYNONYM: puberty Adolescence brings about major changes in a young person’s body. Adolescent noun a young person who is developing from a child into an adult adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 Adopt verb CHILD 1 to take somebody else’s child into your family and become its legal parent(s) a campaign to encourage childless couples to adopt adopt somebody to adopt a child She was forced to have her baby adopted. ethod 2 adopt something to start to use a particular method or to show a particular attitude towards somebody/something

All three teams adopted different approaches to the problem. suggestion 3 adopt something to formally accept a suggestion or policy by voting to adopt a resolution The council is expected to adopt the new policy at its next meeting. new name/country 4 adopt something to choose a new name, a country, a custom, etc. and begin to use it as your own to adopt a name/title/language Early Christians in Europe adopted many of the practices of the older, pagan religions. ay of behaving 5 adopt something (formal) to use a particular manner, way of speaking, expression, etc He adopted an air of indifference. candidate 6 adopt somebody (as something) (British English, politics) to choose somebody as a candidate in an election or as a representative She was adopted as parliamentary candidate for Wood Green. Adore verb (not used in the progressive tenses) 1 adore somebody to love somebody very much It’s obvious that she adores him. 2 (informal) to like something very much adore something I simply adore his music!

Don’t you just adore that dress! adore doing something She adores working with children. Adorn VERB to make something/somebody look more attractive by decorating it or them with something adorn something/somebody Gold rings adorned his fingers. Graffiti adorned the walls. adorn something/somebody/yourself with something The walls were adorned with paintings. The children adorned themselves with flowers. adornment . noun A plain necklace was her only adornment. Advocate (v) VERB to support something publicly advocate something The group does not advocate the use of violence. dvocate (somebody) doing something Many experts advocate rewarding your child for good behaviour. advocate that… The report advocated that all buildings be fitted with smoke detectors.

The report advocated that all buildings should be fitted with smoke detectors. Aesthete (Esthete) NOUN a person who has a love and understanding of art and beautiful things Aesthetic (Esthetic) concerned with beauty and art and the understanding of beautiful things an aesthetic appreciation of the landscape The benefits of conservation are both financial and aesthetic. made in an artistic way and beautiful to look at Their furniture was more aesthetic than functional. aesthetically (North American English also es-):adverb aesthetically pleasing colour combinations.

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