Environmental Causes BY 1193 Air Quality: Air pollution – contamination of the environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent Mostly affected by transportation – pollution result from incomplete combustion of fuel How to know how air pollution is affecting people? From hospitals… X% of respiratory diseases affected from air pollution. This percentage is standard given from US research but has correction factors Causes of Air pollution: 1. Natural Sources: a. Forest fires b. Dust storms c.
Climate conditions 2. Antropogenic Sources: l. Economic: A. Transport (public/private cars, military cars, aircrafts boats) B. Energy (power plants, private generators, gas stations) C. Industry (manufacturing processes) D. Other economic activities (agriculture, construction/quarries) II. Oher Sources: A. Accidental fires B. Fireworks C. Burning tires D. Wars E. Open dumping/burning Car fleet in Leb estimated to 1. 2 million.. 1 vehicle for every 4 people 15% annual increase in vehicle registration.
Environmental Causes Essay Example
Many vehicles operate illegally (no license) Energy industries: one of largest contributor to air pollution in Lebanon Stacks/chimney not quipped with effective treatment units (largest producer of C02 emissions) 4033 large industries, around 20000 industrial establishments in Lebanon overall 50% of industries in Lebanon not licensed Large industries generate combustion and process emissions. Zouk Mikael/Zouk Mosbeh most polluting industries Most critical industries: cement industry and phospho-gypsum industry. 5 cement plants in Leb)
Technology: replacing power generation plants – improve energy efficiency and reduce harmful emissions Lebanon imports around 97% of energy needs Most severe environmental disaster – Jiyeh power plant oil spill Six principal sources of primary energy: 1) Imported hydrocarbon fuels in liquid 2) Imported hydrocarbon fuels in gaseous form 3) Imported electricity 4) Locally produced hydroelectricity 5) Biomass 6) Alternative energy Main impacts: a. Degradation of natural habitats b. Gaseous Fugitive Emissions (GFE) (venting, evaporation) c. Cargo spillage d. Ballast unloading (Ballast water contains hydrocarbons as well as sewage from tanker ships) e. Sludge accumulation in storage tanks How much does a low income household pay? a. Limited income household consuming 2200 kWhr Imo pay $5. 6 of direct charges and $9 of indirect charges b. Cost of the consumed kWhr multiplied by 2. 5 In 2007, 61% of all residences in Lebanon equipped with private generators Energy consuming sectors: buildings, transport, industry and others