Environmental Policy of Bangladesh Essay Sample

9 September 2017

What is Meant by “Environment” ?
Environment means our milieus. which comprises of land. H2O and air and other organic structures. Environment is affected by the physical belongingss of these constituents. It is besides affected by the alterations in interrelatedness prevailing between an among the constituents runing from microorganism to human organic structures ( ref: subdivision 2 ( vitamin D ) . ECA. 1995 )

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Why is the Environment so Important?
Our life-support system’s is maintained by all the species that make up the biosphere-biodiversity. The endurance of all these species are interconnected and dependent on each other. Human being is besides a portion of this biosphere. extinction of one species is truly the extinction of many species and the diminution of our lifesupport system for ourselves and future coevalss. So. all the constituents of the environment are every bit of import for human being every bit good as for the other species.

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

What is meant by “Development” ?
Development is intended to convey a positive alteration for human existences and its milieus. Development may take topographic point by conveying about a alteration in policy. undertakings and statute law

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

“Sustainable Development”
Sustainable Development is development that meets the demands of the present without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands ( ref: Our Common Future. World Commission on Environment and
Development. 1987 )

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Background of Environment Policy
Enterprises for protection of environment in Bangladesh day of the months back to 1972 when United Nations Conference on Human Environment took topographic point in Stockholm. Sweden. The conference brought leaders of the industrialised and developing states to chart an Action Plan on Human Environment. Realization of assorted inauspicious impacts on environment as evident from H2O pollution. air pollution. dirt debasement. depletion of forest resources. unplanned urbanisation. discharge of untreated industrial wastewaters. etc. and impairment of environment. Recognition of the integrate linkage of poorness. population force per unit area. illiteracy. unequal wellness attention installation. deficiency of public consciousness – have a serious hindrance to the environment. Recognition of the demand to turn to these state of affairss in an incorporate mode lead to the establishment Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1989 and felt the demand for an well defined national environment policy. National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Environment Policy 1992
Bangladesh National Environment Policy approved in May 1992. sets out the basic model for environmental action. together with a set of wide sectoral action guidelines. Cardinal elements of the Environment Policy are: Care of the ecological balance and overall advancement and development of the state through protection and betterment of the environment. Protection of the state against natural catastrophes. Designation and ordinance of all types of activities which pollute and degrade the environment. Guaranting proper Environment Impact Assessment prior to project of industrial and other development undertakings. Guaranting sustainable usage of all natural resources. National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Coverage of Environment Policy 1992
Environmental activities encompass all geographical parts and development sectors of the state. As such. policies towards realisation of the overall aims of this Environment Policy are delineated in 15 sectors. These are – 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Agriculture Industry Health Energy H2O Development. Flood Control and Irrigation Land Forest. Wild Life and Biodiversity Fisheries and Livestock

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Food Coastal and Marine Environment Communication and Transportation Housing and urbanization Population Education and public Awareness Science. Technology and Research

6. 7. 8.

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

The policy recognizes that – Since planetary and regional environmental pollution and debasement affect the nature. environment and resource base of Bangladesh. is indispensable to hold coordinated watchfulness and undertake necessary action programme to turn to such issues. It is necessary to set about activities at local and national degree. It is besides executable and indispensable to guarantee betterment of national environment and therefore planetary environment at big. every bit good as environmentally sound and sustainable usage of resource through regional and planetary cooperation in relevant Fieldss. National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Legal Framework of Environment Policy
The policy directs to amend all Torahs and ordinances related to protection of environment. preservation of natural resources. and control of environmental pollution and debasement with a position to run into present day’s demands without compromising the ability to run into future demands. Frame new Torahs in all sectors necessary to command activities refering environmental pollution and debasement. Ensure proper execution of all relevant laws/regulations and make broad dispersed public consciousness in this respect. Sign all concerned international laws/conventions/ protocols which Bangladesh considers ratifiable and amend/modify bing national laws/regulations in line with the sanctioned international laws/conventions/protocols.

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Environment Policy and Sustainable Development Linkages
The ultimate aim of ‘Environment Policy’ is to guarantee environmentally sound development in all sectors. Thus Environment policy is to supply the basic premiss to specify the ends of economic and societal development in footings of sustainability in the respective sector and in overall national planning.

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

What are MEAs?
International instruments that: have a end of environmental protection are concluded between a big figure of provinces or international organisations as parties concluded in written signifier governed by international jurisprudence can be embodied in a individual instrument or in two or more related instruments ( framework understandings )

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Milestones in the development of MEAs ( cont. )
Stockholm Conference on the Human Development ( 1972 ) :
foremost effort to turn to inter-relationships of environment and development at planetary degree adopted first planetary action program for environment established the United Nations Environment Program ( UNEP ) accelerated development of modern MEAs: more than 60 % of bing MEAs are adopted after Rio

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Milestones in the development of MEAs ( cont. )
1989: World Commission on Environment and Development ( WCED ) or the “Brundtland Commission” in it’s study titles Our Common Future gave a clarion call for turn toing planetary environmental jobs for protecting life on Earth.

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Milestones in the development of MEAs ( cont. )
1992: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development ( UNCED ) . Rio de Janeiro. Brazil. Besides known as “Earth Summit” or “Rio Summit” . Following five international paperss were signed: UNFCCC CBD Earth Charter Forestry Principles Agenda 21

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Major bunchs of MEAs
MEAs are internationally agreed environmental pacts Some are negotiated on a regional footing and some are planetary Main bunchs of MEAs are: Biodiversity atmosphere land chemicals and risky wastes regional seas and related issues

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

MEA Commonalties
Shared Goal: Sustainable Development Cross-cutting issues: Air and Water pollution. Land Degradation. Biodiversity and waste direction etc.

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Strengths of modern MEAs
Strengths:
Turning committedness to research synergisms Increased attending to rules of safeguard and bar

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Failings of modern MEAs
Failings:
Lack of synergisms among MEAs Inadequate execution and coordination of MEAs at the national degree Inadequate conformity and enforcement Lack of environmental and public presentation indexs to mensurate the effectivity of MEAs Inadequate support for selected MEAs Weak Relationship with other Multinational Agreements. For exampleWTO. IPR etc.

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Fiscal mechanisms
Regime Budgets
MEAs can set up one of more of mandatary or voluntary trust financess. most frequently administered by the international organisations that provide the Secretariats. Budgets are proposed by Parties and approved by the COPs

Development Assistance
Fundss can be provided via foundations ( e. g. UN Foundation ) . bilateral agreements. private sector givers and NGOs

Other many-sided funding mechanisms
Global Environment Facility. The Kyoto Protocol climaterelated mechanisms. the World Bank. UNDP. UNEP National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

MEA Implementation
Mechanisms for Implementing MEAs – Enacting Torahs
ordain a domestic jurisprudence that incorporates what has been agreed upon at the related MEAs Many international understandings are non lawfully adhering in nature. However. when commissariats of these understandings are incorporated in domestic jurisprudence. they become lawfully adhering in the state

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Bangladesh Position on MEA’s
It has signed. ratified or accessed a good figure of International Conventions. Treaties and Protocols ( ICTP’s ) The major 1s include – The Climate Change Convention The Biodiversity Convention Montreal Protocol on the Control of Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification ( UNCCD ) BASEL Convention RAMSAR CITES Stockholm Convention on the Control of Persistent Organic Pollutants ( POPs )

MOEF is the responsible Ministry to set about national actions under these Conventions & A ; Protocols and besides to take portion in international meetings and dialogues refering these ICTP’s My presentation on MEAs hence shall be limited to the abovementioned ICTP’s. National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC ) 1992
Footing for Action
Green House Gases ( GHGs ) are emitted due to faulty combustion of fossil fuel ; like gasoline. Diesel. kerosine. gas. coal. etc. The GHGs are Carbon dioxide. Azotic Oxide. Methane. Ozone. etc. They cause planetary heating. In position of planetary heating and attendant sea degree rise. Bangladesh with its low-lying coastal countries is likely to endure worst economic & A ; rehabilitation jobs. The IPCC study has mentioned that half a metre low-lying rise will for good deluge 10. 9 % of our district. displacing 5. 5 million of our people. Sundarbans. the world’s largest Rhizophora mangle wood and a World Heritage Site. will be at interest.

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Kyoto Protocol to UNFCCC
Control Measures
Adopted in 1997 Industrialized states to cut down GHG emanation by 5 % compared to 1990 degree Established flexible mechanism ( Clean Development Mechanism. Joint Implementation & A ; Emission Trade ) for run intoing the decrease mark 55 states. including developed states accounting for 55 % of entire 1990 Carbon dioxide emanation are to sign to convey it into force Expected to be in force shortly

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Issues of Importance for Bangladesh
NAPA –
Preparation of National Adaptation Programmes of Action ( NAPA ) . Undertaking undertaken with aid from GEF.

CDM –
Establishment National Designated Authority ( DNA ) and CDM board. Initiatives undertaken.

Capacity Building –
Development of prognostic capacity for hazard & A ; exposure appraisal. Undertaking undertaken with aid from DFID National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Convention on Biological Diversity ( CBD ) 1992
Footing for Action
Conserve biodiversity and its sustainable usage. Ensure just and just sharing of benefits originating from the usage of familial resources. “Cartegena Protocol on Biosafety” 2000. The Protocol seeks to protect biological diverseness from the possible hazards posed by transboundary life modified organisms ensuing from modern biotechnology.

Enterprises Undertaken
National Biodiversity preservation programs and scheme is presently under readying with aid from GEF. MOEF is besides implementing another GEF financed undertaking for saving of coastal wetland and biodiversity. The ongoing Sundarban Biodiversity Conservation Project is being reshaped in the visible radiation of the existent state of affairs of biodiversity preservation and eco-tourism. Programmes under the RAMSAR Convention have been undertaken to conserve Tanguar Haor. better fish resources. create room for the migratory birds and protect overall biodiversity. National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Convention on Biological Diversity ( CBD ) 1992
( Cont. )

Issues of Importance for Bangladesh
Preparation of National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan ( NBSAP ) . Preparation of Bio Safety Framework and Guidelines.

Action Undertaken
Undertaking undertaken with aid from GEF to fix NBSAP. Coordinated attempts undertaken in cooperation with Agriculture & A ; Science & A ; Technology Ministry to Prepare Bio Safety Framework and Guidelines. National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances ( ODS ) that deplete Ozone bed Basis for Action
To Protect Ozone bed in the Stratosphere which act as shield for world and all sorts of vegetations and zoologies from harmful UV beams of the Sun.

Global Action
Protocol enter into force in 1989. Control steps include phasing out of all ozone consuming substances in different clip frame including Chlorofluorocarbons. By 2010. the universe to be wholly free from major Ozone consuming substances including Chlorofluorocarbons.

Action in Bangladesh
Bangladesh has reduced its 60 % ingestion of ODS through Aerosol Sector phase out. State programme has been prepared for run intoing the 2010 deadline.

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Basel Convention for Controlling illegal international traffic in toxic and risky wastes Basis for Action
With weaker regulative government. Bangladesh could go the dumping land or be located in the path of transboundary motion of risky wastes.
Bangladesh hence needs to take actions under the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous wastes and their disposal ( accessed ) .

Action required
Develop national policy and regulative government to curtail the motion of risky wastes through Bangladesh.

Action Undertaken
Technical aid has been sought to fix Rules under Environment Conservation Act 1995. A reconnaissance study has been completed on the coevals of risky wastes. National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification ( UNCCD ) Adopted in 1994. Chiefly to battle desertification in the African states. Have proviso for anti-desertification programme in land degraded states.

Enterprises undertaken
Undertaking undertaken for readying National Plan of Action. Further undertakings shall be submitted to the convention secretariat based on the National Plan of Action

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Stockholm Convention on the Control of Persistent Organic Pollutants ( POPs ) Adopted in 2001. Identified 10 relentless organic pollutant chemicals. Targets control steps on the usage of these substances.

Deduction for Bangladesh
Bangladesh does non bring forth these chemicals. Few of these restricted chemicals have their limited usage in our industries and in public wellness. These are concern for public wellness.

Action Undertaken
Initiated a undertaking with GEF aid to do a elaborate study on the usage and designation of their possible replacements.

National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Recent Events that took topographic point
WSSD:
World Summit on Sustainable Development ( WSSD ) . 26 August-4 September 2002. Johannesburg. South Africa. The acme took stock of developments since the Earth Summit. 1992 and execution position of Agenda 21. The result of the acme was the “Johannesburg Plan of Implementation” . WEHAB enterprises of UN Secretary General 2002 ( Water. Energy. Health. Agriculture and Biodiversity ) .

UN Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) – Target for 2015
Eradicate utmost poorness and hungriness Achieve universal primary instruction Promote gender equity and empower adult females Reduce kid mortality Improve maternal wellness Combat HIV/AIDS. malaria and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a planetary partnership for development National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Accomplishments in the Global Forum on ICTP’s
Bangladesh is presently the Chair for the twelvemonth 2002-2003 of the tenmember execution commission of Montreal Protocol Bangladesh has been elected Vice President of Seven member CBD agency in the last COP held in the Hague Role of Bangladesh as an alternate member of the Governing Council of GEF has been activated Bangladesh is presently the Vice Chair of the LDC Expert Group under the UNFCCC and has emerged as the leader of the LDCs in the Climate Change dialogue procedure and a lead member of Group 77 for dialogues with other groups. It has successfully organized a three twenty-four hours International Workshop at Dhaka last September 2002 on Capacity Building for the National Adaptation Plan of Action ( NAPA ) for the LDCs Bangladesh has been elected as the Chairman of the Global Tiger Forum for 2nd clip Bangladesh has been elected Vice Chairman of the Conference of Environment Ministers of Islamic Countries in its first conference held in Jeddah. Saudi Arabia. 10-12 June. 2003 National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

MEA’s and Capacity Building demands
MEA’s are the footing of national actions towards turn toing planetary environmental jobs. Therefore. the success of execution of the MEAs depend on local actions by several state. MOEF considers that Capacity Building is a high precedence for effectual execution of MEA’s in Bangladesh. where national attempts need to be supported and reinforced by international cooperation. Bangladesh like other developing states & A ; LDCs deficiency capacities and fiscal resources in many instances to run into its duties under different MEA’s. MOEF is seeking its best to acquire its due portion of support & A ; proficient aid from GEF and other protocol financess to get the better of the challenges faced with. The MOEF considers that Expertise significantly lies within the NGOs and Academic sectors. The Government is ever active in tapping these resources whenever required and members of the civil society have been included in the Government deputations. MOEF is besides be aftering to set up a MEA Cell in the Ministry to organize the activities on MEA’s. National Environment Policy. MEAs and Bangladesh

Decision
Efficient and just direction of the natural biological resource base and the life support systems. globally. regionally. nationally and locally are the basic rules of our Environment Policy and good as of all MEA’s for the precaution of our planet ‘Earth’ . We all owe to the future coevalss for such Acts of the Apostless and workss.

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