During 1789, the French Revolution occurred in France and in 1791, the Haitian Revolution in Haiti; the causes of both revolutions were similar and different. Both were inspired by Enlightment ideas or thoughts and were driven for equality to be given to all citizens. On the other hand, inequality was essentially defined by race in Haiti while class defined the French. Also, the French Revolution was sparked by a financial crisis and state while rumors of abolition of slavery sparked the Haitian Revolution. Similarity 1 Inspired by Enlightment ideas or other revolutions.
Evidence: One important Enlightment idea was from John Locke, that people had natural rights: life, liberty, and property that made both countries inspired with this principle Jean-Jacques Rousseau stated that men were all equal causing the French to question the King and the slaves of their owners Analysis: The Enlightment ideas questioned the political and social authority, which spread globally. These enlightenment ideas were so strong in the slaves and the French that it forced them to fight for what they believe in.
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They had to fight for their freedom because someone was taking it away from them Similarity 2 Wanted equality for all of its people Evidence: While the bourgeoisie prospered, France’s peasants (80% of the population), its artisans, workers, and small shopkeepers, were suffering in the 1780s from economic depression caused by poor harvests Haiti was influenced by the Petit Blancs (poor whites), who wanted citizenship for all whites making them question the social structure
Analysis: Influenced by the idea of every men is equal and realizing that both countries had to fight back in order to establish these rights, they pursued to grant equality for every citizen Before the Revolution, Haiti had enormous inequality: 500,000 slaves; 40,000 whites, and 30,000 gens de couleur libres (free blacks) Difference 1
Inequality essentially was defined by race in Haiti while class defined the French. Evidence: There was more slaves whose rights were always less (500,000) than the whites (40,000) in Haiti In France, the First Estate (clergy) and the Second Estate (hereditary nobility) controlled vast amount of wealth while the Third Estate (everyone else except the bourgeoisie) had no such rights. Analysis:
When Haiti was conquered by the French, slavery was a huge part that came along with these conquerors, for that reason inequality was going to exist by race since there would be more slaves everyday to work on plantations for sugar production and coffee production France’s classes inequality is due to the fact that the clergy and nobility took advantage of having more wealth and considering themselves superior than the Third Estate Difference 2 French Revolution was sparked by a financial crisis and state while rumors of abolition of slavery sparked the Haitian Revolution. Evidence:
During the 1700s the expenses of wars drove France into debt and inspired the French Kings to try to introduce new taxes and fiscal In 1791, a rumor spread among the slaves of Haiti that the king of France has abolished slavery Analysis: The introduction of new taxes has made a huge problem related to the distribution of wealth causing the lower class to express opposition Slaves wanted to end slavery because they thought they deserved the right to be free men just like the French Conclusion Therefore, the causes of the French Revolution and Haitian Revolution were similar and different.
The inspiration by the Enlightment ideas or prior Revolutions like the French helped these two countries drive themselves to win the rights they deserved. Also, for both, all citizens, no matter what class, must have equality. On the other hand, a difference included the fact that inequality in Haiti was driven by race while the French by class. The spark to each revolution differed: Haitian Revolution was led by the rumors of slavery being stopped by the French unlike the French that was triggered by a financial crisis 2) Compare the consequences of the Latin American Revolutions with the consequences of the Haitian Revolution
Thesis Between the early 1800s, the Latin American Revolutions and Haitian Revolutions occurred of whose outcomes are similar and different. Both possessed political instability and led to nationalism. Unlike Latin American countries, radical change in social structure occurred in Haiti Also, abolition of slavery was truly effective for Haiti than in Latin American countries. Similarity 1 Both had political instability Evidence: In Latin American countries, battles continued between liberals, conservatives, and military over how to best rule Haiti ended with an unstable authoritarian government
Analysis: Both would create problems especially when not everyone agreed how to establish the way the new government should operate With everyone having equality, there’s little room for rule and order to be placed Similarity 2 Both led to independent countries and nationalism Evidence: Haiti was the first independent nation to reject slavery which boosted abolitionist movements For Latin countries, the breakdown of original states and groups were Gran Columbia, an original union between Bolivia and Peru and United Provinces of Central America Analysis:
Before, the ruler would be the source of political power until they started to lose power so people started taking in consideration the rule of law’s political importance Both represented a major shift away from local loyalties with little connection to the empires that controlled them, often associated with the early modern era Difference 1 Abolition of slavery was truly effective for Haiti than in Latin American countries Evidence: Haiti became the first country to revolt against slavery inspiring 3 other important revolts The last country to abolish slavery was Brazil in 1888
Analysis: The Slaves were inspired by the American and French Revolutions and caused them to realize the only way to get what they wanted was to fight The Portuguese ruled Brazil with slaves working as plant owners and would make a huge profit and it lasted so long for a revolt to occur Difference 2 The radical change in social structure in Haiti was their main goal but Latin American countries didn’t have a huge transformation related to social class Evidence:
Slavery ended in Haiti, which granted full equality and citizenship Social structure with Latin American Countries remained the same although the Creoles’ goal was to rule over the Peninsulares but instead were excluded from political leadership Analysis: Haiti’s main reason for revolution was to grant equality for all its people rather than focusing on establishing one class (Creoles) into the highest position of power The slaves in Latin American Revolution didn’t play a huge role like the Haitian slaves did because of the inspiration Haiti got from prior revolutions
Conclusion As a result, the aftermaths of the Latin American Revolution and Haitian Revolution possessed good results and bad results of which some are related to each other and the rest isn’t quite. Leading to nationalism and forming political instability were major similarities. However, abolition of slavery was more effective for Haiti than in Latin American countries. Plus, Latin American countries didn’t have a huge radical change in social structure like Haitians did. Industrial Revolution 1) Compare the process of industrialization in Russia and Japan Thesis
During the late 1800s and early 1900s, Russia and Japan experienced similar and different processes of industrialization. Both had states lead to industrialization and included change in social structure. On the other hand, Japan was more successful than Russia and Russian industrialization led into a Revolution unlike Japan. Similarity 1 States led industrialization Evidence: The Russian Czars promoted the building of railroads which resulted with significant railroads such as the trans-Siberian railroad The Japanese Meiji government hired thousands of foreign experts to instruct Japanese workers and managers in the late 1800s
Analysis: Russia lacked a middle class so the state played a critical role in capital reformation and investment Japan had transformed itself into a different country, one where after being isolated, it became one of the most powerful thanks to foreign knowledge Similarity 2 Both included change in social structure, Evidence: Serfs were set free in 1861 Feudalism ended in Japan in 1871 Analysis: Industrialization led to many new technologies and factories which made Russians to allow serfs set free to work as factory workers Japan was entirely supplied with resources by cheap labor and feudalism was not as cheap Difference 1
Japan was more successful than Russia Evidence: Japan was the most industrialized land in Asia by the 1900s, and was set to become a 20th century power Even with its early success, Russia’s industrialization was far behind many countries Analysis: Japan was able to connect more with foreign countries after the isolation which spread great knowledge to them and prove to have better factors like closer supervision on the industrialization and nationalism allowed no revolution to occur Russia had low technical standards in factories unlike Japan who clearly didn’t have such problems
Difference 2 Russian industrialization led into a Revolution while Japan didn’t have such effect Evidence: Uprisings by peasants, business and professional people who wanted liberal reforms occurred in Russia Japan carefully attended people’s needs like labor organization was repressed Analysis: Japan supported nationalism helping them avoid revolution Russian industrialization wasn’t as smart to be conservative as Japan in taking consideration of satisfying every class to avoid problems in the future Conclusion
As a result, industrialization in Russia and Japan caused similar and different impacts on its society. Being led by the state to start industrialization and the social structure having changed greatly were major similarities. A difference, on the other hand, was that Japan was known to be more effective in the good way about its industrialization than Russia had. And what they differed also was that the industrialization in Russia resulted with revolution while Japan was careful with that not happening.
2) Analyze the continuities and changes in European industrial society in the years 1750-1900 Thesis During 1750 to 1900s, the industrial society in Europe maintained several factors and also had major changes that affected greatly the society. What stayed the same was that Great poverty remained in the West and women were still subordinate to men. One of the changes was that the demography has shown increasing results over time. Another change was the fact that education became available to people that hadn’t been provided with such privilege before.
Continuity 1 Great poverty remained in the West Evidence: A wealthy elite made up 5 percent of the European society controlling 40 percent of the wealth The lowest class, the working class, made up 80 percent of the European population Analysis: People were influenced by the idea of Social Darwinism, stating that poverty was a natural condition for inferior individuals With the development of bourgeoisie, wealth was distributed less to the working class but more to the higher classes Continuity 2 Women were still subordinate to men Evidence:
Women were legally inferior and economically dependent of men As women took more and more of the textile industry jobs, they were unskilled and paid half less than men Analysis: Patriarchal societies was still the major definition for gender roles in social society most countries because of the big idea that men are stronger than women Respect for women was always low even though it grew over the years Change 1 Europe’s demography had changed greatly over time Evidence: Europe’s population nearly doubled between 1750 and 1850 to 266 million Cities kept experiencing growth
Analysis: Reasons why population doubled was due to decline in death caused by diseases or famine and increased food supply allowed to feed better the people Cities were the home to many industries which prompted people moved from the country to find work there Change 2 Education was introduced to people that weren’t previously granted this privilege Evidence: Before, education was primarily for the wealthy and middle class Between 1870 and 1914 Western governments started state-sponsored primary schools for boys and girls between ages 6 and 12 Analysis:
The firms of the Second Industrial Revolution needed skilled, knowledgeable labor By allowing boys and girls of the working to aspire in fields previously not accessible to them, they could grant benefit in creating constructing new ideas that would help the country in becoming the best Conclusion Therefore, as years passed through 1750 to 1900, many events took place thank to the industrialization. Some events remained the same and some had caused important changes in the society. A great amount of poverty remained in the West and women were still considered subordinate to men.
What differed was the numbers that grew in Europe’s demography and introduction to education for those who weren’t granted the privilege before. Imperialism 1) Compare the impact of European Imperialism on Africa and India Thesis Between the 1800s and 1900s, Africa and India experienced similar and different consequences caused by the imperialism of European nations. Both had societies change with European influence and economic methods as well. What differed was that greater division occurred in Africa than India and Africa converted to European’s religion while India maintained native religions as the main religion
Similarity 1 Europe changed economic ways in both countries Evidence: British policies called for India to produce raw materials for British manufacturing and to buy British manufactured goods but competition against European products was prohibited Economic expansion occurred in Africa as Europe colonized all the continent Analysis: The British wanted the raw materials India produced- cotton, indigo, jute, spices, sugar, and teas for use in factories Europeans wanted Africa’s natural resources: peanuts, cocoa, rubber, copper, tin, and diamonds Similarity 2 Society changed with the influence of the Europeans
Evidence: Africa becomes a continent of European colonies with its citizens second class to Europeans Britain gave improved health care and sanitary conditions in India that led to population growth plus they set up schools and colleges to educate higher-caste Indians Analysis: After Europeans took over and granted Africa better technology, new knowledge, and health, they easily changed how society worked prior to control gave advantage for Britain Good effects from foreign countries allowed these countries to develop Difference 1 Greater division occurred in Africa than India.
Evidence: Britain was the only European country that controlled India converging into one language and common practices Africa had been colonized by many European countries and taken as a perfect place for economic power Analysis: Indians wanted self-rule with support of Western-style modernization Africans was overpowered by Europe, with hem controlling most of the continent. They couldn’t and didn’t have the chance to win Europe who was more powerful than them Difference 2 Africa converted to European’s religion while India maintained native religions as the main religion Evidence:
Majority of Africans practice Christianity Indians still practiced majorly Hinduism and Buddhism Analysis: African’s convergence has changed the culture including the religion due to the number of European countries convergence Britain was only one European country to colonize India and their religion convergence wasn’t as strong compared to many European nations combined together Conclusion As a result, similar and different impacts caused by European imperialism occurred to India and Africa. Similar events were that European changed economic methods and social structure in these countries.
On the other hand, India’ nationalist movement was more effective than Africa. Another difference includes the fact that India was more advanced in transportation than Africa. 2) Within the period of 1750-1900 compare the reaction to the foreign/Western interference in China with the reaction to the foreign/Western interference in Japan Thesis Within the period of 1750 to 1900, Japan and China experienced similar and different reactions to the foreign or Western interference. Both had to sign treaties in order to establish peace and had rebellions form inside the country due to internal problems.
What was different was that China resisted foreign technology becoming weaker while Japan instead embraced it becoming a major industrial and military power. Another difference was that China had fought Foreigners with battles and wars while Japan didn’t. Similarity 1 Both were forced to sign unequal treaties in order to establish peace and trade with the foreign countries. Evidence: The Chinese were forced to sign the Treaty of Nanchang, to allow trade between the British and the Chinese The Japanese signed The Japanese signed the Treaty of Kanagawa and Harris Treaty ending 200 years virtual exclusion of foreign countries
Analysis: China was easily defeated thanks to lack of modern weapons and fighting methods After what happened to the Chinese, Japan were forced to sign because they preferred to not have war that would greatly affect the country Similarity 2 Both had rebellions develop within the country Evidence: In China, peasants rose in the Boxing (attacks on anything Western) and Taiping Rebellion ending the Qing Dynasty Japan had the Meiji Restoration and Samurai Revolt, which the daimyo and samurai led with results of removing shogun from power and restored emperor to power
Analysis: Internal problems in China that caused the Rebellion included poor maintenance of irrigation systems & canals, lack of food for bigger population, heavy taxation on the poor, and a corrupt government In Japan, dissatisfaction with the shogunate’s capitulation to American and European demands led to a civil war and the overthrow of the shogunate in 1868 Difference 1 China resisted Western technology becoming weaker while Japan instead embraced it becoming a major industrial and military power. Evidence:
Japan was introduced to capitalism, industrialization with shipbuilding, weapons, railroads, and factories China imported technology, built arsenal factories, and much more but didn’t meet at Japan’s level of achievement compared with the little support they had Analysis: By getting modernized, Japan could get rid of unequal treaties China wanted to develop military industries in order to defeat the foreigners but government did not support movement so little progress was made Difference 2 China had fought Europeans or foreigners with battles and wars while Japan didn’t Evidence:
Opium Wars (1839-1842) between the British merchants and Chinese warships began after the Qing refused to listen to British protests of the trade ban but ended when the Chinese were forced to sign a treaty to keep on trading After signing the treaties, the Japanese allowed establishment of foreign concession and opened two Japanese ports to US trade Analysis: Europeans had very little that the Chinese wanted to buy, also the fact that China was already a powerful Empire with no need of outside influence Japan knew what happened to China after resistance and thought the best way was to agree to open trade with the US.
Conclusion As a result, similar and different reactions to West/foreign countries followed China and Japan. What they had in common was that the forced signed treaties that would establish peace within the countries plus the internal rebellions that formed in both countries. On the other hand China resisted Western technology becoming weaker while Japan instead embraced it becoming a major industrial and military power. Another difference was that China had fought Europeans with battles and wars while Japan didn’t.