Ethics And Governance
It raises the interelated notions of individual rights, fairness, equality and entitlement. The principles vary in numerous dimensions. These issues explore the appropriate distribution of social and economic benefits and related costs. There are five principles included an equal share for each individual, a share according to the needs of each individual, a share according to the efforts of each individual, a share according to the social contribution of each individual and a share according to the merits of each individual.
There are three theories of distributive justice included Libertarianism, Utilitarian and Egalitarianism. Libertarianism approach It is a theory that defends unlimited laissez-faire capitalism as the only morally justified regime. Libertarian required for the maximization of freedom and liberty or the minimization of violations in these as long as the corporations don’t harm other’s freedom and not breaking the law. Following Locke, Nozick, the entitlement theory depends on the original acquisition of holding, the legitimate transfer of holdings to/ form others and the illegal acquisition of holdings.
Libertarianism is doesn’t consider actual distributing in society. It means that the right of every individual to unlimited utilization of his own person (self-ownership); and the right to unrestricted, or relatively mildly limited, appropriation of external resources without suffering others and fraud from these transactions. In addition, an individual has exclusive right to all the goods that are product of use of his talents and efforts and he has either the right to appropriate all natural resources, which he finds and takes before others.
Whether the distribution is just depends solely on how holdings were acquired. Property rights are derived from an individual’s basic moral rights, which take priority over all social or legislative arrangements imposed by society. This theory is interested only in this that the above procedures are satisfied and that nobody has used violence to take some goods from others. Forceful intervention of the state for the sake of helping the poor is not allowed. Therefore, any taxation involves violating of libertarianism and allowing some people to own other people.
As my choosing company – PARKnSHOP Supermarket which organized by Hutchison Whampoa Limited, it is affecting environment that stop handing out plastic bags automatically for customers. For libertarian view, they have used the libertarian approach on their corporate actions and the legitimacy of their actions. The customers have their freedom and choice and right to buy something with plastic bag. Everyone kwon that the plastic bag offered by PARKnShop’s which is not good for the environment. However, most of people like to buy something with plastic bag because they have their freedom and self-ownership.
For libertarian, it is ethic for PARKnSHOP’s can offer biodegradable bags and do the promotion on use biodegradable bags and involuntary levy on bags to the customers. It is because PARKnSHOP’s is rewarded so long as they are not breaking the law and don’t harm other’s freedom. However, it’s has some arguments against the libertarianism. It is because any taxation and helping environment involves violating of libertarianism. But, it always helping environment and do a lot of community activities such as involvement in the “Say No to Plastic Bags” campaign. Utilitarian approach
Utilitarianism is the ethical doctrine that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall utility. Following John Stuart Mill, utilitarian approach is a theory that takes as its primary aims the attainment and concern with maximum possible personal happiness of a society as a whole, which should ultimately determine what is just or unjust behavior. This goal is to be achieved in such a way that one first checks what makes every particular individual in a society happy, then sums up all these various wants and preferences, and finally finds out how to satisfy the greatest number of them.
John Stuart Mill acknowledged that the society can receive more return from the more efficient laborer and it is just that talented workers can receive the greater remuneration. It is obtain efficient us of the resources if allow people to benefit from labor. A redistribution of resources increases general happiness of a society. However, the arbitrary and great disparity of distinctions and advocate strict equality may cause the unjust behavior and may cause social breakdown. It is because it would have an adverse influence on the working motivation of the able individuals, and thereby on the overall wealth of the society.
Therefore, the utilitarian standard is essential for resolving any conflict between rival principles of justice and increases the allover happiness of a society. The main task is to find a balance between factors that point towards equality and those ones that go against it. It seems that the utilitarian view can be found in PARKnSHOP’s. For PARKnSHOP’s, it concerned with the maximization of happiness of society. It’s has providing a lot of jobs opportunity for the people. Also, PARKnSHOP’s are willing to do the supports community programs, which operate at the grassroots level, usually focused on local, global environment-related issues.
It’s always giving back to society and help to create a better end and achieved to the utilitarian. However, it is not mean that can justify the ends. It is because the plastic bag of PARKnSHOP’s is a big problem. The research from the Friends of Earth (HK) shows shoppers want a bag whose need to pay 20 cents for each one. If the levy is constrained, they will initiative to reduce plastic use. One of the reasons of this research is because of they have already build up a habit of using plastic bags. They are driving a change with making profit and contributions.
It is a big problem and not concerned with the maximization of personal happiness and argues to the Utilitarian View. Egalitarian approach John Rawls explores the egalitarian approach and tries to determine principles of just society with the help of hypothetical contract among members of a society. His hypothetical introduces the notion of an abstract social contract to establish principles of justice. It is supposed by John Rawls that individuals who make this contract primarily care for their self-interest, that they are rational, well informed about human nature and functioning of society, and that they are placed under so called veil of gnorance. They are also assumed to know nothing about those of their characteristics, individual situation and circumstances that might influence impartiality of the decision-making. In egalitarian, that all members of a society should have the equal social, political, and economic rights and opportunities. John Rawls addressed that each person has equal right to the most extensive scheme same basic liberties and defends this notion that every individual would be assured justice as equal treatment for all once the veil of ignorance is removed.
In addition, John Rawls addressed that social and economic inequalities are to meet two conditions. The two conditions are economic inequalities are allowed but only if they benefit even the least advantaged individuals and attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair quality of opportunity. The basic social structure, not the transactions between individuals, should establish justice as a cooperative project for the mutual benefit of society, and minimize the socioeconomic consequences or random natural differences between people.
For PARKnSHOP’s, the stakeholders of it is included employees, customers, suppliers materials, wholesales, creditors, government and the environment society. It seems that the equalitarianism can be maintained. It’s paid the high taxes. It’s has always been committed to serving the community through involvement in the territories many social services for all stakeholders as well as charity work such as World Wide Fund for Nature.
In addition, they are care about the welfare of people and built up the Li Ka Shing Foundation for the people who in hospital, education, construction and support the community activities and benefit people worldwide. It’s help people in need around the world and gives the equal social, political, and economic rights and opportunities for the people. It is the mutual benefit of society, and minimizes the socioeconomic consequences or random natural differences between people. Moreover, It’s gives the equal job opportunity to the minority and women.