& # 8217 ; neil Essay, Research Paper
Eugene O & # 8217 ; neill
Through poorness and celebrity, & # 8220 ; An creative person or nil & # 8221 ; ( Miller p6 ) , was the slogan of a adult male named Eugene O & # 8217 ; Neill, who wrote from his psyche in an effort to happen redemption. In the twelvemonth 1888, the Barrett House hotel in Time Square, New York saw the birth of a adult male who would be called the greatest American dramatist. His male parent James, was an histrion, and was celebrated across the United Sates for his function in the popular drama Monte Cristo. Eugene & # 8217 ; s female parent was a beautiful adult female named Ellen who was besides gifted with a great artistic endowment. Through out his life, he would go all over the universe, marry three adult females, have three kids, and compose some of the best American Drama that would of all time be written. & # 8220 ; Much of his life would be devoted to composing dramas of tragic power & # 8221 ; ( David p11 ) , and & # 8220 ; His plants reveal the unsated searching of a psyche for truth & # 8221 ; ( David p11 ) .
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When Eugene was born, he was a great incommodiousness to his parents, who already had one kid, and spent most of their clip going around the state playing in different metropoliss. As a consequence of this, he was raised in the attention of a Cornish nursemaid, maintaining him isolated from the remainder of his household. He would go on to pass most of his young person off from his household as he would be educated about wholly in embarkation schools. When he was still a immature male child, his parents enrolled him in St. Aloysius Academy for male childs in Riverdale New York. He was a good pupil and didn & # 8217 ; t truly stand out as a young person. He passed through De La Salle Institute and really stayed at place for the first twelvemonth of school at that place. He attended Betts Academy which is no longer in being today but at the clip it was one of the finer preparatory schools in the state. While he was get oning at that place, his household moved their place from New York City to New London Connecticut where O & # 8217 ; Neil would pass most of his life. His jobs, arose when he entered into Princeton University in 1906. He held strongly to the doctrine of & # 8220 ; all drama and no work & # 8221 ; ( Miller p4 ) , and he was finally suspended. This was because he was caught by the pace maestro interrupting power overseas telegrams and Windowss in the University train station. His suspension was to last merely for two hebdomads but he ne’er returned to campus. Officially he was expelled from the school for hapless academic standing.
Eugene moved into a New York flat with his friend Frank Best after go forthing Princeton. He held a fiddling occupation as secretary to the president of a little transportation company. He spent his net incomes and his male parent & # 8217 ; s allowance on wild life, he met James Findlater who was to go his best friend and bases for the character Jimmy Tomorrow from Iceman Cometh and was the same character in Tomorrow which was one of O & # 8217 ; Neil & # 8217 ; s merely short narratives. James would finally present Eugene to Kathleen Jenkins, the girl of a affluent New York concern adult male. Her parents objected to any matrimony taking topographic point and so did his. They would finally run off though in the autumn of 1909 when Eugene discovered his male parent was directing him to Honduras to look for gold. Fourteen yearss after the nuptials, Eugene found himself in Mexico where he ended his journey South due to a tough conflict with Malaria. He would return to New York
after his recovery, but still refused to populate with his married woman. He took up a occupation
with his male parent & # 8217 ; s moving troop but that did non last long.
Eugene and Kathleen shortly had a boy, Eugene Gladstoone Jr. and his male parent would merely see him one time through out his babyhood. In order non to hold anything to make with his boy, he took on a occupation as a mariner on a Norse line drive that had regular trade mobs all along the seashore of North and South America. After sailing for 50 seven yearss, Eugene jumped ship in Buenos Aires. Here he spent clip making several different occupations & # 8220 ; considered one of the lone high points in his early life & # 8221 ; ( Miller p5 ) . He applied for occupations he was unqualified to make so in a affair of hebdomads he was fired, and he had to travel back to sea to happen a life. He spent the following several months in the south Atlantic and even made a few Michigans in South Africa. He finally discontinue this occupation to inquire in poorness up and down the seashores of Argentina and Brazil. Finally returned to New York stowed on a British Liner. He still would non populate his married woman and boy so with a three dollar a month allowance he rented a topographic point on the docks called Jimmy the Priest & # 8217 ; s Waterfront Dive. He still did non work and drop deeper into poorness. His male parent forced him to acquire a occupation so he signed on as a mariner on a trans.-Atlantic luxury line drive. Eugene hated the sea so much though that he returned to Jimmy the Priest & # 8217 ; s merely to try self-destruction by monolithic consumption of veronal. He was saved by his friend James Byth and he was now made to travel travel with his male parent & # 8217 ; s vaudeville company, but that did non last long due to Eugene & # 8217 ; s hapless acting ability.
Eugene & # 8217 ; s composing endowment was discovered on accident when his male parent got him a occupation with the New London Telegraph. He ran a poesy column and frequently filled it with his ain work utilizing several different pen names. He would besides at this clip supply poems to the New York Call. & # 8220 ; The Masses, & # 8221 ; and Franklin P. Adam & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; Conning Tower & # 8221 ; were among his best verse forms written during this clip. Still merely composing as a avocation, he found it was a good manner to fund his excessive societal life. Due to his life style, his married woman Kathleen became disquieted and one time when he was with a cocotte she barged in and demanded a divorce on evidences of criminal conversation. They were lawfully separated on October 11,1912. Shortly after this event, he came down with TB and was in and out of several medical establishments. He recovered in a affair of months and he went to populate with his friend James Rippen. During this clip, Eugene began earnestly composing dramas and he began directing books to New York with small success. & # 8220 ; The Web & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; A Wife For A Life, & # 8221 ; were bought but ne’er performed. Shortly following his rejection he began composing & # 8220 ; Bound East For Cardiff, & # 8221 ; considered one of his chef-d’oeuvres. He besides applied to the Harvard play section to analyze modern drama authorship and with the encouragement of friend Clayton Hamilton, he decided he would go to the category.
This is the clip when he came up with the motto & # 8220 ; An creative person or nil & # 8221 ; ( Miller p6 ) , which would steer the coarse of the remainder of his
life. When eventually, & # 8220 ; Thirst, & # 8221 ; a book of one act plays was published, he was
exited to eventually be published. However, the book was an immediate failure and O & # 8217 ; Neill would forestall it of all time from being released in his life-time. When he eventually attended categories at Harvard, he was unimpressed with the plants of other modern poets and therefor was non really active. Spent another summer of failed love affair and parties, and would finally travel into his ain topographic point in Greenwich Village. While life in the small town, he frequented the Golden Swan Bar, and became an alky. In fact, & # 8220 ; the lone tie he stopped imbibing was when he was composing & # 8221 ; ( Miller p7 ) .
& # 8220 ; Bound East for Cardiff, & # 8221 ; became
Eugene’s fist hit and when it was staged by the Provincetown participants it was an instant success. He stayed in Provincetown for a piece and wrote several other short dramas. Moved back to the small town and got involved with Louise Bryant. He lived in a love trigon with her and her hubby until 1918. When “Bound East for Cardiff was eventually performed in the small town, Stephen Rathburn of the New York Evening Sun praised O’Neil for his work. During W.W.I he was arrested in Provincetown for vagrancy and intuition of espionage. He was released instantly but he was continuously tailed for several hebdomads due to intuition.
Eugene following failure was his effort to fall in the naval forces, he was turned down because of his earlier conflicts with TB. He besides in this clip lost what he had written of & # 8220 ; Hairy Ape, & # 8221 ; but his short narrative & # 8220 ; Tomorrow, & # 8221 ; which was a miniaturized version of & # 8220 ; The Iceman Cometh, & # 8221 ; and was published in The Seven Arts Magazine. In late 1917, he met Agnes Boulton who was to go his 2nd married woman. She was herself a author of several short narratives and mush fictions. Finally, his first long drama was performed by the Provincetown participants and was his first drama to be widely criticized. He now lived with Agnes Boulton and was still populating on his male parent & # 8217 ; s allowance. A few months subsequently he married Agnes and he began doing money on Royalties from the Provincetown Players. He rented out a level in Provincetown and began composing & # 8220 ; Chris, & # 8221 ; his brother James besides lived with him. One twelvemonth subsequently now populating in New Jersey, his 2nd boy Shane was born. Besides, in 1919 Eugene & # 8217 ; s father James came to see Beyond the Horizon and left his boy with this memorable statement & # 8220 ; What ate you seeking to make direct the audience place to perpetrate suicide & # 8221 ; ( Miller p10 ) .
In 1920, he won his first Pulitzer Prize for & # 8220 ; Beyond the Horizon, & # 8221 ; but, his joy was cut short by his male parent & # 8217 ; s decease that August. After his male parent died though, he wrote several great success. & # 8220 ; Gold, & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; Emperor Jones, & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; Diff & # 8217 ; rent, & # 8221 ; and due to its failure he modified & # 8220 ; Chris & # 8221 ; to do it & # 8220 ; Anna Chrisite. & # 8221 ; He moves about several times from Provincetown to New York, and while he was in New York resuscitating the short drama & # 8220 ; Hairy Ape, & # 8221 ; he met his eldest boy Eugene Jr. and begins funding his private school instruction. In 1922 his female parent eventually dies shortly followed by his brother & # 8217 ; s decease in 1924. While he was taking clip off in Bermuda, the Provincetown Players dissolved and Greenwich small town companies take over bring forthing O & # 8217 ; Neil & # 8217 ; s dramas. In 1925 his girl Ooma was born and he had returned to his authorship. Along with going aquatinted with his future 3rd married woman Carlotta Montorey, he besides received an honorary Literary Doctor’s degree from Yale. In order to go from his household, in 1928, he left to travel on a trip around Europe and the Orient. He refused to return to the United States until Agnes consented a divorce. After one twelvemonth, Agnes was granted a divorce on the evidences of abandonment. He shortly after married Carlotta and he left France to return to New York.
1937 brought on the beginning of W.W.II and a Nobel award in Literature for Eugene O & # 8217 ; Neil, after this he sank into privacy with his married woman. Finally he emerged with his great chef-d’oeuvres in manus, in 1943, he had eventually completed & # 8220 ; The Iceman Cometh, & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; A Long Day & # 8217 ; s Journey Into the Night. & # 8221 ; The remainder of his life was plagued by the self-destruction of his darling oldest boy, his lone girl married Charlie Chaplain, and he disowned his girl and in-between boy. He and his married woman were besides in and out of several infirmaries until he died in 1950 and was laid to rest in Boston ne’er to see the success of his two greatest plants. & # 8220 ; The Iceman Cometh & # 8221 ; is about a adult male Larry, who considers himself a philosopher, but his over analysis is finally his undoing & # 8220 ; I was born and I am condemned to be one of those people who see all sides of a inquiry. When you & # 8217 ; re damned like that, the inquiries multiply for you until in the terminal it & # 8217 ; s all a large inquiry and no reply & # 8221 ; ( Raleigh p13 ) . Larry moves from one blue thought to the following until he loses site of truth and finally of hope. & # 8220 ; Truth, to hell with the truth! As the history of the universe proves, the truth has no bearing on anything. It is irrelevant and as the attorneies say, it is immaterial & # 8221 ; ( Raleigh p13 ) . Larry & # 8217 ; s concluding decision is that he is non a philosopher instead merely a rotter and one without hope. & # 8220 ; By God there is no hope! I & # 8217 ; ll ne’er be success in the grandstand or anyplace else & # 8230 ; I & # 8217 ; ll be a hebdomad sap looking with commiseration at both sides of everything boulder clay the twenty-four hours I die & # 8221 ; ( O & # 8217 ; Neil 726-727 ) . Larry at last is bare and broken for he does non hold hope or truth, he has lost all. Larry, is in actuality a confession of O & # 8217 ; Neil, & # 8220 ; His plants reveal the unsated searching of a psyche for truth & # 8221 ; ( David p11 ) . His other great success was & # 8220 ; A Long Day & # 8217 ; s Journey into the Night. & # 8221 ; This work brings about a expression into the depression that was O & # 8217 ; Neil & # 8217 ; s life. The scene for this was his really childhood place in New London, & # 8220 ; He revealed and analyzed the assorted calamities of his household: his female parent & # 8217 ; s periodic pot dependence ; his male parent & # 8217 ; s sense of defeat at holding been seduced from going a great Shakespearian histrion by the fiscal enticement of popular Monte Cristo ; his older brother & # 8217 ; s destructive and suicidal traits which were subsequently lead him to imbibe himself to decease & # 8230 ; compulsion with guilt and sense of calamity. A friend remarked & # 8220 ; he had six senses, sight, odor, gustatory sensation, touch, hearing, and tragedy. & # 8221 ; The last was the most extremely developed & # 8221 ; ( Raleigh p1 ) .
O & # 8217 ; Neil was non utilizing his authorship to derive public acknowledgment, instead, he was utilizing it as an mercantile establishment for his ain life. He wrote about his personal calamity and his personal lose he merely changed the names. & # 8220 ; His head purpose was neither popular acclamation or success, nor even literary immortality, but his ain redemption. Through his Hagiographas he sought to ease his inner force per unit areas and storms, to warrant himself to himself non to the universe & # 8221 ; ( Shain p2 ) . His subjects were strongly positioned on the province of world being one of solitariness and disaffection. He spoke of the natural battles between the sexes and between household members. As O & # 8217 ; Neil set the benchmark, modern writers like Lorca are seeking to copy him & # 8220 ; O & # 8217 ; Neil was a precursor, at least in the American theatre, of subjects that have come to bulk big in 20th century literature & # 8221 ; ( Shain p2 ) .
David, Sister Mary Agnes, SSJ, ed. , Modern American Drama New
York: The Macmillan Company 1965
Miller, Jordan Y. , Eugene O & # 8217 ; Neill and the American Critic Hamden Connecticut: The Shoe String Press. Inc. 1973
O & # 8217 ; Neil, Eugene, The Plays Of Eugene O & # 8217 ; Neil New York: Random House Inc. 1974
Raleigh, John Henry, erectile dysfunction. Twentieth Century Interpretations of the Iceman Cometh Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1968
Shain, Charles E. , & # 8220 ; Eugene O & # 8217 ; Neill & # 8211 ; The Man & # 8221 ; Eugene O & # 8217 ; Neill Theater Center Brian Rodgers, particular aggregations Librarian, at Library at Connecticut College Internet Eugene O & # 8217 ; Neill & # 8220 ; An Artist or Nothing & # 8221 ; English-9 7 April, 1997