Evolution of Community and Public Health Nursing
Key health issues during the American Revolution, there were high rates of smallpox, yellow fever, cholera, typhoid, typhus, tuberculosis, malaria and infant mortality. Community and public health’s major goal was Improving sanitation among all areas in all communities. The AMA developed a committee to take surveys on sanitation and taking vital statistics. A few years later the Shattuck report would be published, and state and local health departments would be established from that.
During this time, the role of community and public health services included “monitoring water quality, constructing sewers and a waterfront wall, draining marshes, planting trees and vegetables, and burying the dead” (Stanley & Lancaster, 2012,p.
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24). There were several local community and public health foundations during this time. The Ladies’ Benevolent Society of Charleston, South Carolina, provided charitable assistance to the needy, while in “Cincinnati, Ohio, the Roman Catholic Sisters of Charity began a visiting nurse service”( Stanley & Lancaster, 2012,p. 24)
Florence Nigthengale Key health issues at the time were typhus, cholera, yellow fever, and wounded soldiers from the Crimean war. Perspectives and goals of community and public health nursing were that all nurses were trained using a nursing education model. This would improve care, and patient outcomes. Nurse’s goals were focused on disease prevention and health promotion rather than just treating the sick. Visiting nursing associations were established.
Public health emphasized on meeting urban health care needs and caring for the needy (Stanley & Lancaster, 2012, p.25). A few groups of Roman Catholic and protestant women cared for the needy and visiting nursing services began to be established, caring for the ill and the needy.
As the population lived longer, advances were made in medicine, vaccinations, education, and nursing, more patients suffered with heart disease, cancer, and cerebral vascular disease (Stanley & Lancaster, 2012,p.33). The goals of community and public health nurses were treating and preventing chronic diseases and to address areas of psychological issues such as stress and anxiety. Roles and functions of community and public health nursing was in home health agencies, screening communities for chronic illness, providing communities with vaccinations. Community and public health partnerships at the time were the home health agencies and insurance programs.