What happens after 2-3 minutes at the same pace when you hit a hill or have to increase speed? Increased demand for o2 and fuel, but the CV system cannot immediately supply Start over on the timeline Decreased demand of O2 and fuel (rest, downhill, decreased intensity) = recovery – go into your stores Can fill in stores while you are still being active If you have that capacity and your opponent does not then you can out compete your component These ideas should dictate how you train for your sport

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Athlete constantly changing intensity – have to practice that type of exercise If you train only how you perform you are going to limit your potential and your performance 2. Can you alter your CV System, increase stroke volume, to alter the window in the time line discussed? I. e. , pick up portions sooner or make portions shorter? Yes! Maximize O2 stores with good OP training past 2-3 minutes (aerobic fitness) If you train past 2-3 minutes in 60-85 minutes 3-6x a week for 6-8 weeks you will store more O2 in muscles More fit people CV system will kick in closer to 2 minutes

Individuals will be able to shorten the resources they use in that period of the time line leaving more later when they have to later speed up and go back to the beginning With more stores in first 0-2 seconds of timeline we can do more work With better CV (aerobic) fitness the CV system is quicker (closer to 2 than 3 minutes) We can decrease our anaerobic use and save for later 3. Does a marathon runner ever go back to the start? When? Does he ever have to do add anaerobic sessions to training? Why? Aerobic athletes Yes! Hill, kick at the end, etc. (any increase of intensity Yes!

Must train for the use of anaerobics (1-2x/week) so it is there as needed Do about twice a week so the kick is there if she needs it. 4. How do you start a cardiovascular program with a

Page 2 Exercise and sports Essay

sedentary individual in order to establish HFS guidelines, before ultimately accomplishing their MFS goals? Assess – gain a starting point Start at 40-50% HRR with moderate frequency 3-5x/week After a microcycle, increase to 60% HRR, if able and progress with Overload Principle SMARTE goals Motivate = cross train, re-assess, creative + fun 5. Does a baseball player need to distance run? Why? Yes!

Only increased CV fitness with aerobic training increases O2 stores for use between 0-2 seconds on timeline. Pitcher? Position Player? Pitcher YESmax explosion 0-2 seconds Max each pitch with O2 storesswing, throw, sprint, field Max endurance with O2 stores@ best with aerobic base Max recoveryintervals; 100% Mental aspect There is a lot that you do in 0-2 seconds of any activity 6. What is the best way in which to train a LAX or Soccer player? General Phase = run or x-train to period of play Special Phase = interval training (best) Aerobic + Anaerobic, varying %, distance, + time

Mimic sport and monitor HR (HR monitor training) Specific Phase = progress through OFF and PRE seasons applying all concepts 7. Interval training can and should be designed with the specific needs of the athlete in mind. To explore this we should consider HIIT training as well as its DIRT variables. Explain the concepts of HIIT and DIRT as they are applied into the details of a workout. HIIT = hig intensity interval training; increased intensity Cv intervals interspersed with low moderate CV intervals. (increase CV, fat burn, sport specific).

Depending on %HRR and Duration ratios are typically 1:3 1:2 or 1:1 work/rest… SPORT More time for recovery if do quicker intervals Start HIIT closer to 1:3 and work closer to 1:1 Most of our workouts would generally resemble the sport you play DIRT = 4 parameters to govern HIIT training D – distance of increased % interval I – interval of recovery between increased %’s R – reps of increased % work to be done T – time of each increased % interval Heart doesn’t know the difference if you are swimming or biking or running You can push yourself to get the best workout out of any machine that you use 8.

Is there ever a need to recalculate HRR and alter beats/min. to ensure an effective cardiovascular workout? When? Why? Yes, every 6-8 weeks; as SV increases and RHR decreases Every birthy; as age increases your MHR decreases These numbers are used to calculate HRR so when these numbers change you must re-calculate 9. How does altitude training work and why would it be effective for athletes? Aerobic? Less O2 = increased demand, accelerates O. P. to increase SV in 4-6 weeks.. quicker than @ sea level Leads to increased performance @ sea level… _^_ RBC production _^_ SV_v_HR_E_@_^_VO2 max _v_ recovery time _^_endurance

Anaerobic? Would work BUT… 4-6 weeks is a long time away from sport specifics Becomes Risk vs Reward? All on the mountain, living and training on the mountain Do you want to live higher than you train or train higher than you live? Live high train low To keep stress systematic, establish a situation where put tents over the bed 10. What are 2 reasons why some individuals may have a larger SV than others? Why? Body size Fitness level 11. Using a football player as an example, describe how the 3 Principles included in Specificity of Training are applied through the Mesocycles of Periodization for CV training and activity.

In season = general (cross training) special, specific Post season = ADL’s, enjoyment, general Off season = general (run), special (interval, sprint) Pre season = specific, sport application 12. What is/are the benefit(s) of cross training for cardiovascular workouts? Give a detailed example of how you would cross train a swimmer, but ensure the effectiveness of their alternative workout? Decrease wear and tear while preventing exhaustion phase training and fatigue Increase mental wellness Increase alarm and resistance stage training Heart only knows intensity (FITT) (60-85% exact..90%) 13. How do you go about organizing cardiovascular workouts to decrease the % body fat of an athlete and then ultimately focus on performance? Start with HFS knowing Aerobic workouts (over 2-3 min) specific 30-50 minutes. Burn the most fat. Most of the fat burning in 45 minutes Start in post season after a short break be patient Shift toward sport performance; cross train and additional workouts to maintain fat loss. 14. Why is building effective cardiovascular endurance so crucial after a significant injury in order to return the athlete to play?

Think performance and recovery… CV endurance is key to everything else Transport system; delivers O2, fuel and removes waste Deliver more O2 and recover faster with better healing O2 stores for 0-2 seconds on timeline to increase strength CV endurance will increase overall endurance CV endurance decreases exhaustion training and decreases risk for re-injury Where you feel weaker is where you are going to feel your fatigue first 15. We discussed the benefits of cross-training to ensure the safety of our workouts for our athlete’s body. However, do we even need to be concerned about overtraining the heart muscle?

If so, what kinds of concerns exist and how do these concerns affect the performance of the CV System and the health of the athlete. Secondary to the health of the athlete – how can these concerns effect their performance? The heart muscle can over train – increased myocardial fibrosis (thickening of the heart muscle walls/ septum) to the hearts of life long marathon runners. It become less flexible and rigid. Decreases the effectiveness and increases the strain on the heart muscle. This can be threatening to the heart and CV system. Results can plateau/ decrease performance and increase the risk of heart attack through various means.

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