Explain Different Psychological Approaches to Health Practice
Explain different psychological approaches to health practice. (P3) – Explain different psychological approaches to social care practice. In this criterion, the different psychological approaches to health practice and social care practice will be outlined and explained. Health practice is the act of a care professional that performs activities, methods and treatments in order to keep an individual health whether it is to do with diet, exercise, or bad habits such as smoking and excessive drinking.
Social care practice is the act of a care professional that concentrates on and supports the social and personal needs of an individual. This can be demonstrated with activities and methods such as counselling and therapy. These methods are used to improve the quality of life of individuals who may be mentally ill or may be victims of abuse. Individuals can receive this care at any age. There are a variety of approaches that can be applied to health and social care practices, such as the behavioural approach, social learning approach, psychodynamic approach, humanistic approach, cognitive approach and the biological approach.
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Behaviourist Approach The behaviourist approach as explained in P1, suggests that learning is what changes an individual’s behaviour. Therefore, any changes in behaviour of an individual are the result of events that have taken place within the environment. (P2) – This approach can be applied in a health practice such as within a health clinic or a hospital. For example, if a service user is being sexually abused and seeks help within a hospital, a care provider such as a doctor will be able to determine what behavioural approach will be best suited for the individual. P3) – This approach can be applied in social care practice such as therapy. For example, a child or young person may need to go to a therapist as a result of witnessing physical abuse within their home. The care provider will need to know of any event that has taken place in the individual’s environment to suggest the best course of action. Social Learning The social learning approach as explained in P1, suggests that learn new behaviours and information by observing other that are around them. This is also known as observational learning. (P2) – This approach can be applied in health practice such as a health clinic.
For example, if a service user is unsure of how to use a form of contraception, they can seek assistance in a health clinic. A nurse can demonstrate how to use different contraception, so that the service user is able to imitate and learn. (P3) – This approach can be applied in social care practice such as within a school. For example, a care provider such as a teach may conduct experiments in lessons such as science so that service users such as children are able to understand and perform the experiments themselves by imitating what they have been taught.
Psychodynamic Approach The psychodynamic approach as explained in P1, suggests that it is the brain that controls and determines the way an individual makes sense of their relationships, experiences and how they see the world. Therefore, the function of the individual is based upon the drives and forces within. (P2) – This approach can be applied in health practice such as a Doctors surgery. For example, if a service user is diagnosed with cancer, their treatment may depend on the ill-strength of the individual and whether or not they are able to fight the cancer mentally. P3) – This approach can be applied in social practice such as counselling. For example, a service user may be attending counselling sessions to boost their confidence. The care provider may encourage the individual to boost their confidence using different activities and methods but it is ultimately up to the individual to change their way of thinking. Humanistic Approach The humanistic approach as explained in P1, suggests that for an individual to grow as a person, they need an environment that provides them with genuineness, acceptance, and empathy.
If an individual has all of these components, self-actualisation will take place. (P2) – This approach can be applied in health practice such as a hospital. For example, if a service user does not feel as if they have all the components to cater to their basic needs, they may seek assistance from a hospital for shelter, and safety and food. (P3) – This approach can be applied in social care practice such as foster care. For example, if a child or a young person is not able to meet their needs within a family home, they may need to live in a foster home to fulfil their safety or basic needs.
Cognitive Approach The cognitive approach as explained in P1, suggests that there are four stages that all include abstract level of thought. Each stage occurs in the same order, and builds on what the individual learned in the previous stage. (P2) – This approach can be applied in health practice such as a health clinic. For example, if a service user is unsure of what is the healthiest way of looking after their unborn child, they may attend classes that teach them the best ways to look after their child.
These classes may build on the prior knowledge of the service user. (P3) – This approach can be applied in social care practice such as pre-school. For example, a care professional such as a teacher may do activities with children repeatedly and add information each time to build the knowledge and confidence of the children. Biological Approach The biological approach, as explained in P1, suggests that the changes in an individual’s body and behaviour are a result of the ageing process.
Therefore, the way an individual thinks and acts influenced by events that occur within neurons that make up the nervous system. (P2) – This approach can be used in health practice such as a hospital. For example, a service user may be going through puberty at an early age, and may not understand what is happening to their body. They may seek assistance from a Doctor who will be able give them the relevant information and may even treat them with medication or make a referral for therapy. (P3) – This approach can be applied in social care practice such as a play centre.
For example, children that have been affected by witnessing abuse within their home may attend play therapy sessions. The therapist will use the observational notes from the play session and suggest methods and maybe even medication that will be suitable for the child. In this criterion, the different psychological approaches to health practice and social care practice have been outlined and explained. Bibliography Pearsons Education, Edexcel LTD, 2012 – www. edecxel. com Hidden Hurt, 2002 – 2011 – http://www. hiddenhurt. co. uk/ Mind, 2012 – www. mind. org. uk