Explain the Sequence and Rate of Each Aspect of Development from Birth
To better explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development, the development will be divided into age groups: # 0-6 months: *Physical development : By the time he is six months old, a baby will be able to turn their head to sound and movement, watch their parent’s face while feeding, smile at familiar faces and voices, reach their feet when lying down, reach for and grab objects, and put things in their mouths independently. *Social and emotional development: A six month old baby will respond to their mother’s face, smile, and need comfort and cuddles from their parents. Language development
A six month old baby will be able to make a variety of happy sounds, will respond to music and singing, and will mirror their parents’ movements and expressions. # 6-12 months: *Physical development: By the time he is one year old, the toddler will have learnt to sit first with support, and then without, he will be able to roll over, he will begin to crawl or shuffle, he will be able to stand with support, he will raise his arms when he wants to be lifted, he will respond to his name, he will pass objects from hand to hand, look for hings that have been hidden, and reach for food. *Social and emotional development: A one year old will enjoy the company of others and will enjoy playing simple games, and will show affection to his parents, but remain shy with strangers. *Language development: a one year old will start to babble, will turn his head towards the source of a sound, and will show their feelings. #1-2 years: Physical development: Between the ages of 1 and 2, a child will start to walk, will sit unaided for long periods of time, feed themselves, wave, indicate wants by pointing, look at books, shake his head to say no to something, crawl upstairs, stoop, begin to show preference to one hand, build a tower with Lego bricks, hold a crayon and make marks on paper. *Social and emotional development
A child between these ages will try to please adults, will possibly become anxious when separated from his main carers, may use a teddy for comfort, will be mostly cooperative and can be distracted when behaving badly, and will play with other children. Language development: Between the ages of 1 and 2, a child will progress from using single words to making phrases, he will start to understand the use of conversation, and by the age of two they will be using up to 150 words. #2-3 years: *Physical development: Between the ages of 2 and 3, a child will learn to kneel to play, throw, kick a ball, build a bigger tower, and pour. Social and emotional development: a child will develop a sense of identity and will want to be more independent, he will demand attention from adults and will not be willing to share it, he will start throwing tantrums if he doesn’t get what he wants immediately, and will enjoy playing with adults and other children. *Intellectual development: By the time a child is three years old, he will have begun to realise that other people are separate beings from themselves, he will imitate others, and become more confident with the reassurance of his parents and carers. Language development: A child will be able to put words together into a sentence, will start asking questions, can participate in sing-alongs, and uses several hundred words. #3-4 years: *Physical development: At the ages of 3 and 4, a child will learn to jump, tiptoe, go up and down stairs, catch, climb and throw, paint, thread beads, use scissors, draw people and houses. *Social and emotional development: at this age the child becomes more independent and confident, they like to help adults, they start sharing with other children, and considering other people’s feelings. Intellectual development: he can now understand 3 part instructions, and organise objects by type, size, colour, or shape. *Language development : he can now use different tones of voice, and use the past tense, he can use up to 1500 words, and is getting better at drawing. #5-7 years: *Physical development: At this stage the child learns to hop, write, sew, skip, ride a bicycle, jump from height, thread a needle, and do buttons and shoe laces.
*Social and emotional development: Children now begin to make friends, understand rules, they enjoy helping others and being given responsibility, they like routine and need structure. Intellectual development: At this stage, children learn how to accept differences, and they also learn about perspective. *Language development: By now the child can speak fluently, and is able to invent stories, and can use books appropriately, and can recognise more and more letters while associating them to sound. #7-12 years: *Physical development: At this stage, a child can comfortably run, jump, skip, hit a ball and climb. He also enjoys playing team games, but might misjudge his ability. Social and emotional development: the child is now gaining independence, he enjoys being in groups of other children of the same age, and can be easily influenced by his peer group. He is starting to develop closer friendships. The child is also increasingly aware of his own gender and prefers playing with children of the same sex. He develops a sense of fairness and justice, but still needs the help of an adult in case of an argument. *Intellectual development: The child will now read to themselves, and will have developed an interest in certain particular subjects. Language development
At this point the child’s vocabulary is still expanding, and he has not yet mastered spelling. The child can also explain complex situations, read out loud, and knows the different tenses and grammar. #12-16 years: *Physical development for boys: At this stage boys gain in height and in muscle mass, this gives them a more manly physique. Genitals and body hair also develop. His voice may break, and he may develop acne. For some boys the growth spurt will appear later, this may cause some distress. Physical development for girls: At this stage the girls’ breasts become more rounded, as does the body in general. The body hair also begins to develop, and the periods begin. *Social and emotional development: At this stage, teenagers go through so many physical changes, teenagers can often become self-conscious. They need a lot of reassurance. Teenagers also spend a lot of time going back forth between childish needs and adult desires, this is caused by the many changes their body and emotions are going through.
In preparation for independence, teenagers tend to be less and less close to their parents, and more and more close to their friends, and although they may not be ready for a relationship, they will develop a keen interest in the opposite sex. *Intellectual development: Teenagers focus mainly on getting the approval and acceptance of their peers. They want to do the same and look the same as their friends. The opinions of their parents become less important. *Language development: Now their mental disabilities have developed, teenagers tend to become very sarcastic and witty. They also tend to enjoy debating.