Research question/Aim Extract copper from copper oxide by reduction using butane gas Hypothesis The butane gas will reduce the copper oxide and leave behind pure copper. This will allow us to find the empirical formula of the copper oxide as well as the masses of oxygen and copper Variables Dependent variable The dependent variable will be the reduction of the copper oxide which will be calculated at different temperatures. Independent variable The independent variable here would be the temperature at which the copper oxide is heated. Controlled variables

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The mass of copper oxide used in the test tube The mass of the test tube Apparatus 1 test tube with a small opening towards the bottom 1 Bunsen burner 1 Electric Balance Safety goggles Constant supply of butane gas 5 grams of the copper oxide Heat proof mat Rubber bung Tube connecting test tube to gas supply Retort stand Procedure Add 0. 8 grams of copper oxide to the test tube and weigh it and record its mass Attach a tube connecting the test tube to the gas supply using a rubber bung to prevent the gas from escaping Suspend the tube using a retort stand

Turn on gas supply into the test tube Light the small opening at the end of the tube to prevent butane gas from escaping Place the Bunsen burner on the heat proof mat and light it. Place it under the test tube Record any color changes to the copper oxide After 7 minutes, turn off the burner and measure the mass of the tube and record it Repeat until mass of the test tube remains constant after heating Mass of test tube: 28. 1 Go Mass of test tube + copper oxide: 28. Egg Observations: First heating: color of copper oxide turns from black to dark brown to reddish brown

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