Factors Explanation

1 January 2018

Learning style

Students with analytic learning style use contrastive analysis and rule learning, whereas global students use such strategies as guessing, scanning, and predicting (to find the meaning) or paraphrasing and gesturing (when they deal with unknown words). Ko (2001) proved that students with a multiple style and students with a visual/nonverbal style had higher English achievement than students with other style preferences. No significant difference was found among groups with different perceptual style preferences. Kinesthetic/tactile-style learners used significantly more memory-related, compensation, and social strategies than did other style groups. Visual/nonverbal and multiple-style learners used significantly more affective strategies than other style groups.

Personality type

According to Ehrman and Oxford (1989), there is a relationship between language-learning strategy use and personality type, though it is far from straightforward. Ehrman and Oxford (1990a) came to the conclusion that psychological type appears to have a strong influence on the way learners use language learning strategies.

Gender

Males do not use as many strategies as females, though males surpassed females in the use of a particular strategy. Ehrman and Oxford (1989) and Oxford and Nyikos (1989) discovered distinct gender differences in strategy use. Politzer (1983) found that female ESL learners employed more social strategies than male learners did. In research on EFL students in China, Sy (1994) concluded that females reported greater use of cognitive, metacognitive, and social strategies than their male counterparts did.

Age and L2 stage
Students of different ages and L2 stages use different strategies. Only advanced learners use certain strategies.

Attitudes and beliefs
Learners with negative attitudes and beliefs are characterized by poor strategy use

Motivation
Less motivated students tend to use fewer strategies (lack of motivational orientation related to career field). Oxford and Nyikos (1989) proved that motivation is the most influential of the variables affecting strategy choice. Ehrman and Oxford (1989) discovered that career choice had a major effect on reported language learning strategy use

Cultural background
Asian students tend to memorize. Griffiths and Parr (2000) reported that European students use language-learning strategies significantly more frequently than students of other nationalities, especially strategies relating to vocabulary, to reading, to interaction with others.

Type of task
The task nature determines the used strategy

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