Female Nursing Students in the Operating Room

1 January 2017

Clinical competency is the ability of an individual to use his knowledge effectively in doing something. Clinical competence can be perceived as a way of demonstration on which learner attempts to perform the skill with cues from the teacher as needed. This competency is necessary in nursing profession (Bastable, 2004). Mimi (2006), pointed out that nursing profession is a tedious job on which primary goal is to render health care services towards patient.

Its practice is the actual provision of nursing care through nursing care plan that is encompassed in nursing process. With all of this process, nursing sectors exemplifies by education, administration and service, collaborating with each other just to uplift the standard for safe and quality nursing care. In fact, Chung (2009) affirmed that, nursing students are required to participate in clinical education, training and assessment in order to ensure that they can apply their knowledge in a competent manner for the care of their patients.

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He also agreed that although the study of medicine, anatomy, physiology, pharmacology and clinical research is important for the practice of becoming a nurse, nursing students must also acquire the skills necessary to achieve competency. Clinical performance of nursing student is measured through observation and feedback during clinical rotations they are also assessed using stimulated scenarios with patients in a fair and objective way.

Moreover, clinical performance of nursing students can be assessed and compared objectively through assessing their cognitive skills, psychomotor skills and their effectiveness. (Adah 2009) Truly that, to better attest the student’s learning in regards with these certain topics, they are allow to apply their knowledge into practice, however, assurance is not well imposed – for insufficiency in acquired insights has been empirically observed through passing years.

According to Ashby (2009), an estimated of 56. % of those students who commits mistake in their respective clinical areas were attributed to medication calculation. They admitted that not all information were reflected well in nursing curriculum, there were times when a student must explore within himself some of the pertinent information to aid in developing critical thinking that can possibly use during difficulties related with patient care. Statement of the Problem The main objective of the study was to determine the clinical performance of NCM 105 students particularly in the Operating Room.

Specifically, this study sought to answer the following: 1. What is the clinical performance of NCM 105 male nursing students in the operating room? 2. What is the clinical performance of NCM 105 female nursing students in the operating room? 3. Is there any significant difference between the male and female NCM 105 students in terms of their clinical performance? Hypothesis There is no significant difference between the male and female NCM 105 students in terms of their clinical performance.

This segment consists of a collection of pertinent readings, published and unpublished, in local or foreign settings. It tends to specify where the previous study ends and where the current study begins, and the similarities and differences of related researches to the current research. Clinical performance is the capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care – an ability that is necessary nowadays. With an increase shortage of qualified nurses in the health care workforce, as consequence of this, there had been several significant government nquiries into issues associated with the recruitment and retention of nurses.

Hass (2004) stated that it could be reasonably argued that the effort and resources, that are employed to recruit nursing students, has little value when the educative resources and curricula may not be preparing graduates for academic success. He further implied what is required is a mechanism to predict academic and clinical success for nursing students during the course of their studies. In this way, educational resources can be best honed to meet best the needs of the students and the profession/workforce.

In response with this problem, lots of effort and preparation have been made to help students in molding their clinical performance. In fact, based on the study of Wiliam (2008), he affirmed that in order for the students to be well prepared, it is must for them to participate in a formal education program, either at an associate’s degree or bachelor’s degree level. Moreover, formal education includes course work in areas such as pathophysiology, chemistry, psychology, nutrition and anatomy. An appropriate background in clinical knowledge and theory will help prepare nursing student for competent clinical performance.

This was supported by Kernel (2010), when he asserted that the first year and second year baccalaureate and associate degree students completed a portion of their clinical experience in a Regional Simulation Center, supported through a partnership of both nursing programs and a regional medical center. Students had an opportunity to respond to the evidence – based patient scenarios programmed into the patient simulators. The goal of these clinical assignments was to encourage the critical thinking skills of the various levels of students, as well as develop appropriate psycho – motor patient care skills.

With all the knowledge that they had been acquired from previous curriculum, students must be put into scenario wherein they can develop critical thinking like emergency room or operating rooms – for pressures more likely to occur. Evans et. al. ,(2010) stated that all nursing education programs have a clinical component, in which student are supervised by clinicians in clinical setting, such as a hospital, a clinic home care or long – term care. Most education programs prescribed a number of hours of clinical work that nursing students are required to complete, with learning objectives specific to the nursing student’s level of learning.

A preceptor is responsible for ensuring that nursing students receive the clinical experiences necessary to meet the learning objectives and also for providing feedback to the nursing student. Michael Pfiel (2010), exemplified that operating rooms are considered to be special in any hospital setting. Extra precautions are needed. The practice of the principles of sterile technique is strictly implemented such as proper gloving and gowning in order to ensure not only the client’s safety but also the health care practitioners.

Instrument used in procedures done in these area are also mastered by the student to assure the proper handling. One of the duties of the competent nursing student is to be able to perform proper nursing intervention during and after the procedure to ensure the patient’s fast recovery and prevent further complications. The competency of each nursing student is not only measured academically but also in hospital – setting experiences. Nursing school facilities and Dean’s efforts are not effective without help of the student.

In order for the administration to capture students’ interest, they must first provide a basic knowledge in regards with the objective, as well as scope of nursing. The primary objective of measuring clinical performance in nursing education is to ensure students can provide safe care. Core competencies are evaluated in a real – world setting, usually alongside a licensed nurse who serves as a guide and a mentor. The development of critical – thinking skills is one of the most important learning objectives of clinical performance.

In applying the acquired knowledge coming from nursing curriculum, students may possibly enhance their skill and competitiveness. It is important for an evidenced – based practice. To determine the clinical performance of students, they must be measured through lots of way. Truly that, to better attest the student’s learning in regards with these certain topics, they are allow to apply their knowledge into practice, however, assurance is not well imposed – for insufficiency in acquired insights has been empirically observed through passing years.

Most of research attributed failures of students to insufficient support coming from the Nursing Administration or education. Professors tend to provide less strategy to elevate the learning of their students. Rogers (2010) supported this as he stated that most of us in the field of education will admit that learning is not limited to classroom, and it is possible for learner’s to “learn” something different than what was intended in the classroom.

Very often, instructors have to spend inordinate amounts of time trying to design curriculum and presentation techniques to frustrate those students who wish to only learn the path of least resistance through a course. This learned behavior by students, though, is at least partially a result of a curriculum design that focuses on memorization (imitation/repetition) as the dominant method of assessment. It is an environment where students are judged their ability to imitate. However, it contrast on the study of Pitman et al. (2011) when the result revealed that there was invariant relationship between educational achievement and clinical performance.

They concluded that students who did well academically in semester 4 (NCM 105) tended to rate themselves as needing more supervision in order to show clinical competence. While students who did not perform as well in semester 4 rated themselves as needing less supervision clinically. Although, schools contributes to the failure of students, the blame must not be place directly to them because there are lots of factor that precipitate a student to focus less on their education.

Some declares that gender is one of these factors, for the behavior of an individual depends on their environment and how they are willing to be affected by this problem. American Society of Registered Nurses when they affirmed that nursing student relate new knowledge directly of their areas of work and such relevance to practice helps motivate them to learn more about the subject, thereby increase their self confidence and developing problem solving and decision – making skills.

Moreover, gender is associated with differences in attitudes within the operating room. They further added that according to the latest statistics, male student represents just a small fraction of the nursing workforce. The popular notion that the nursing is not for men and admission capacity constraints of nursing schools seem to be major obstacles towards bringing men to the profession. Based on Jeffreys (2003), he stated that some factors may also affect why male nursing students got a lower grade compare to female nursing students in the operating room.

Moreover, to consider the maturity level of both, the female take the activity seriously and maturely compare to male. Most male nursing students take the rotation as nothing or they are physically present but mentally absent. Furthermore, there are also some factors that we are going to consider as well, when requirements needed. They may be good during assisting in the operation but when it comes to the quiz and as well as the requirements, the male nursing students do not take it seriously.

It was supported by the study of Blackman et al. (2004), when they used the achievement in the clinical assessments in nursing and in particular using the OSCE assessment format, and found out that female students achieve at a level significantly higher than males in certain specific medical assessment. In order for the students to resolve their interpersonal dilemma, they must be first aware on their attitude towards prioritization. When a student had already made some personal changes, it is now the time that professors as well as administration must provide great support. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework The study was anchored on the Benner’s Novice to Expert Model.

In the landmark work From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice, Dr. Patricia Benner introduced the concept that student nurses has competency and understanding of patient care over time through a sound educational base as well as a multitude of experiences. She proposed that one could gain knowledge and skills (“knowing how”) without ever learning the theory (“knowing that”). Applying this in the context of the study, student nurses as a beginner needs to be educated. It is a must for them to master every lesson related to their future practices.

Schools and professors on the other hand must be the one who assess and maintain their competency level. Along with students, they should be the one who are able to bridge the gap between nursing education and nursing services. But obviously, students themselves must know how to be proficient in an independent manner. Behavior is important regardless of a social norm evolving in gender. As time goes by, if students gain an enormous amount of knowledge, they will be able to provide an evidenced – based practice but with an aid of a books or a supervisor.

With eagerness to be competent, they’ll do everything to be educated through advance practice and lots of experience, thus making them an expert one. However, it is a must to remember that learning is not only important during the study process; it is needed throughout the life of a nurse. Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study. Illustrated is the independent variable which is the clinical performance in the operating room along with moderator variables, the male and female nursing students.

The researchers provided a connection between the variables understudied to point out as to whether the moderator variables differ significantly in relation to their clinical performance in the operating room. This was designed to guide the researchers throughout process of study. Moderator Variables Independent Variable Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the Study Significance of the Study This section emphasized the significant contributions of the research study to its targeted population, to the different sectors in nursing education and nursing service and its implication to future researches in nursing.

To the Nursing Administrators, the findings of the study serves as an additional insights about clinical performance of nursing students knowing that they had a dilemma in producing competitive students clinically, may this be given priority in planning and implementing policy and guidelines. To nursing Students, being aware of their status will make them develop ways on how to improve their skills as well as their knowledge. Knowing the level of their clinical performance students can help evaluate themselves as well as their learning and to find some effective strategies to study harder to improve their performance.

To Future Researchers, the findings of the study will provide future researchers information which could be relevant for future research studies.. Definition of Terms This portion facilitates further understanding of study by defining the terms according to their operational use. Clinical Performance in the Operating Room. This refers to the demonstration of the different nursing procedures in the special area particularly in the operating room, by which cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills were incorporated as reflected in their progress reports graded by their respective clinical instructors.

Male and Female Nursing Students. They refer to the subjects of the study who were the B. S. in Nursing students, male and female, enrolled in the NCM 105 concept during the first 1st semester of school 2011 – 2012. CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY This chapter includes the research, the research subjects, the instruments, the data gathering procedure and the statistical tools used in the study. Research Design The researchers utilized the descriptive – comparative design. The researchers tried to compare two variables with a view to discover something about one or all of the being compared.

Applying this in the context of study on the Clinical Performance of NCM 105 Male and Female Nursing Students in the Operating Room, the researchers determined the level of performance of male and female nursing students and whether a significant difference existed between the two. Research Subjects The subjects of the study were the fourth year nursing students of John Paul ll College of Davao, enrolled in NCM 105 concept during the 1st semester of school year 2011-2012. In choosing sample subjects, the proponents utilized non – probability sampling, the quota sampling wherein 40 students were taken, 20 male and 20 female nursing students.

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