Problem Recognition: consumers recognize a problem as a need or want. Of course. The most frequent problem occurs when consumers realize they are out of the product. For example, when the gas tank gets near empty, or you run out of lunch meat for your sandwiches, or when your car Is due for maintenance. Problem recognition also occurs when a consumer receives new information about a good, service, or business. New fashions, for example, can make people recognize that their current clothing is not in style or up to date.

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Different circumstances can hanged and force a consumer to recognize a major buying problem. A stay at home mom who returns to the work force may need a new wardrobe. A first year college student may need a personal computer. A recently retired couple may now have the time and money to take a European vacation. Information search: consumers search for Information that is helpful in making a purchasing decision. They may get this Information In one or In many ways. Marketers are Interested In the major information sources that consumers use and the influence each has on the final purchase decision.

Information Evaluation: follows the information search. During this stage consumers usually compare products with respect to their various features and benefits. They may compare product brands, styles, sizes, colors, prices, and related services. They may also compare products at various stores. They consumer may also evaluate the importance of certain information. For many consumers, perceived reliability is extremely important. For others, price, ease of operation, related services, or prestige may be paramount. Other Information may be more Important to consumers when evaluating services. Ill vacation, traveling, for example some consumers may want to only stay at the Hilton, while others are more prone to lodging at the less expensive locations. Consumers generally evaluate goods and services by the features or benefits that are Important to them, retailers and other marketers often try to Influence the type of criteria that consumers use In their product evaluations, they frequently use ads that compare the features of their products with those

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of their competitors. Purchase Decisions: At this stage in the decision making process, consumers have recognized a need, done some research on he product. ND evaluated available alternatives. They are now ready to make a purchase decision, the actual buying of a specified product. Many factors influence the purchase decision. These include the cost of the product compared to how much money the consumer can afford to spend, the opinions of family or friends, and the sales and services polices of the marketer. Some customers may wish to try a product before making a major purchase. Evaluation After Purchase: After customers make buying decisions, they often continue to evaluate them.

Post-purchase valuation occurs when a customer seeks reasons to supports purchase decision. Retailers use the term buyer’s remorse to describe a customer’s second thoughts after a purchase. Marketers use the term cognitive dissonance to refer to post- decision doubt that a customer has about an original purchase. This doubt stems 1 OFF have rejected certain attractive alternatives. Doubt is created when the motive for buying the alternative overshadows the actual purchase. Marketers take positive steps to reduce cognitive dissonance and to help buyers feel good about their purchases.

Successful marketers know that a satisfied customer is an excellent advertisement for the company and its products. They try to fulfill their customers’ needs and wants. Customer oriented practices usually result in customer recommendations, called word of mouth advertising, and customer loyalty and repeat business

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