Bio 100 Lecture Final Study Guide

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(All answers are true or false)

1. The level of scientific thought that we have the most certainty in is the hypothesis.

2. Controlled science experiments have no validity in biology research.

3. All living things obtain energy from their environment.

4. The four organic macromolecule groups common to all living things are carbohydrates,

proteins, nucleic acids, and fats.

5. All living things are composed of one or more cells.

6. Humans are unicellular creatures.

7. Mitosis is cell Xeroxing that occurs in prokaryotic cells.

8. Homeostasis is the process of maintaining a dynamic equilibrium of factors within which

living things can exist.

9. Of the cellular metabolic processes, Glycolysis is the only one that occurs in all living

10. Plant and animal cells share many common features, including a cell wall.

11. The four bases in the DNA molecule are Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Uracil.

12. The most accurate classification scheme is one that most closely mirrors the

evolutionary history of the group being studied.

13. The sequence of organization from least to most inclusive is: atom, molecule, organelle,

cell, tissue, organ, and organ system.

14. DNA is transcribed from RNA in the process of reverse transcription.

15. Evolution is the change in living things over time.

16. Living things tend to produce more offspring than can survive.

17. Energy flows through ecosystems.

18. Biology is the study of life.

19. ATP is the energy currency in cells.

20. The amount of thymine is equal to the amount of adenine in DNA for all organisms.

21. A pedigree is a chart of a family’s history with regard to a particular genetic trait.

22. Photosynthesis converts solar energy into the chemical energy of a carbohydrate.

23. Fertilization restores the diploid number of chromosomes in a cell that will develop into

a new individual.

24. Meiosis increases the chromosome number in such away that the daughter nuclei

Page 2 Final Lecture Study Guide Essay

receive only one of each kind of chromosome.

25. The diffusion of oxygen across a differentially permeable membrane due to

concentration differences is called osmosis.

26. Fungi are photosynthetic despite their lack of chlorophyll.

27. Mendel carried out most ofhis research with Guinea pigs.

28. Archaea is a different group of organisms from bacteria because it has a nucleus.

29. All single-cell eukaryotes belong to the kingdom Protista.

30. During the process of transcription, the information in DNA is converted into RNA

31. For Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment to occur, the alleles must be at a different

location on the same chromosome.

32. Huntington’s disease is an autosomal dominant disorder.

33. Mitosis has three stages.

34. Only women can have Turner’s syndrome.

35. Transmission microscopes are the most commonly used microscopes.

36. Prokaryotes lack a membrane-bounded nucleus and the chromosome is in a nucleoid

that lacks an envelope.

37. The nuclear membrane reappears in mitosis during metaphase.

38. An individual with the genotype tt will have the dominant phenotype.

39. Photosynthesis mainly occurs in the leafy part of the cactus.

40. NADPH and ATP are produced in the cyclic electron pathway.

41. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can be neither created nor

42. Covalent double bonds occur when one electron is shared between two atoms.

43. Corn is a plant.

44. Carbon dioxide and water are the end products for aerobic cellular respiration.

45. Crossing-over occurs during Prophase II.

46. In humans, there are 24 pairs of chromosomes.

47. Alcoholic fermentation yields alcohol and carbon dioxide.

48. Actively metabolizing cell must continually produce ATP.

49. Homologous structures contain identical genes.

50. Ciliates can move by pseduopods.

51. Lichens cannot reproduce

52. Chemoautotrophic bacteria acquire energy by parasitizing other organisms.

53. Prokaryotes are all parasitic.

54. Someone can have too few or too many chromosomes because of non-disjunction.

55. Bacterial endospores function in survival.

56. When energy is released by endergonic reaction and it is used to drive an exergonic

reaction, this is called a coupled reaction.

57. Cellulose is found in animals cell walls.

58. In the citric acid cycle, carbon dioxide is released.

59. Bacteria are smaller than viruses.

60. When bacteria enter into the bloodstream, they are killed by antibiotics released by

human T cells.

61. The red algae share the most characteristics with terrestrial plants.

62. Enzymes are unaffected by metabolic poisons

63. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that one form of energy can be completely

converted into another form.

64. Plant leaves are green because of the grass that surrounds them.

65. The powerhouse of the cell, the organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production, is

the mitochondrion.

66. ATP is formed during the Calvin Cycle.

67. The oxygen atom in a water molecule has a slight positive charge.

68. Transcription is the process that synthesizes mRNA.

69. Linkage groups are all the genes in a single chromosome.

70. Cold weather can change the phenotype of a Himalayan rabbit.

71. A cross that involves two traits is called a dihybrid cross.

72. The cell membrane architecture is made of lipids and protein with glycolipids and DNA.

73. The reverse of exocytosis is endocytosis.

74. Dinoflagellates cause a red tide.

75. The heart-shaped gametophyte structure in ferns is called a valentallus.

76. Brown algae are in the Phylum Phaeophyta.

77. Birds are dinosaurs.

78. The first great antibiotic was penicillin.

79. Cooksonia plants are known only from fossils.

80. A capsid is the proteins that surround a typical virus.

81. Generally speaking, the longer the wavelength of light, the smaller the available energy

82. Oxidation occurs when there is a removal of electrons and/or hydrogen atoms from a

83. Hydrocarbons are chains consisting of carbon atoms bonded only to hydrogen atoms.

84. ATP is a nucleotide made up of a base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups.

85. Chemiosmosis generates ATP.

86. Carotene is a yellow or orange pigment that serves as an accessory to chlorophyll during


87. Cycads are close relatives of the mosses.

88. Taxonomy is the branch of biology concerned with identifying and naming organisms.

89. A normal human female has two X chromosomes.

90. Mammals are members of a class of reptiles characterized by pressure of hair and

mammary glands.

91. A fossil was once a living organism but its tissues have now been replaced by minerals

and it no longer exhibits most properties of life, except for organization.

92. The sequence of classification categories is species, genus, domain, family, order, class,

phylum and kingdom.

93. Glycogen is a polysaccharide used to store glucose in plants.

94. Three major domains of life are archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes.

95. The genus name for human beings is Homo.

96. The proliferation of Darwin’s finches is an example of adaptive radiation.

97. Regarding the scientific method, theories formed in everyday life carry the same validity

as a scientific theory.

98. Only organic molecules can contain carbon.

99. The two scientists who developed the theory of evolution by natural selection were

Darwin and Wallace.

Humans are incapable of performing photosynthesis.

100. 2+2 = (There, are you happy now?)

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