Fire In High Rise Buildings

11 November 2018

Analysis Based OnReal Problem Situation

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ABSTRACT

This work describes an important aspect within the field of safety in residential area namely fire safety. This paper presents 3 case studies on fire based accidents in high rise buildings. Under these case studies important aspects such as cause, immediate response, emergency preparedness planning, loss in terms of life and property as well as prevention and control measures have been discussed. This paper also focuses on the actual causes of majority of fire related accidents in residential areas mainly student hostels. Special emphasis has been put on at risk behavior/ unsafe behavior leading to these catastrophic accidents. Majority of accidents are result of unsafe acts rather than unsafe conditions thus BBS plays an important role in preventing accidents and bringing risk to an acceptable level by means of spreading awareness. Apart from it, this paper also highlights the different types of residential fires, their prevention and control measures focusing on use of different chemical extinguishers for different types of fire, different types of smoke detectors, fire alarms, role of sprinkler system and emergency exit plan. This paper also presents a full fledged emergency planning and response plan for a local student hostel primarily focusing on duration of mock drills, training of hostel staff, provision of proper fire fighting equipment in the hostel premises and their compliance with the appropriate standards.

INTRODUCTION

Fire disasters are one of the most common and catastrophic disasters in the world today. This study aims at analyzing residential fires in high rise buildings. High rise buildings pose high risk of fire because of it’s configuration into widely varying specifications leading to a diverse building environment with many variables which make the hazards difficult to identify and control. Requirement for fire prevention and control in high rise building is inevitable because of higher occupancy and longer distance to exit discharge which may lead to more casualties and property loss.

Urban economy is developing rapidly, as a result, land resources are becoming scarse every year and high rise buildings are gaining a great deal of importance. The design of these high rise buildings is very complex thus calling for an urgent need of developing ways to handle fire safety situation and it has become a major issue for the society.
Some of the major fires in high rise buildings in the recent years are as follows

1) 26 Jan 2018, A hospital in fire in Miryang, South Korea killed atleast 37 people and injured more than 131 others.
2) 28 Dec 2017, Kamala Mills fire in Mumbai killed 14 people.
3) 28 Dec 2017, Apartment buildings caught fire on Prospect Avenue in the Bronx in Newyorkcity killed 12
4) 26 April 2016, A fire broke out on the top floor of National Museumof Natural History in NewDelhi, no casualties were reported.
5) 2015, Afire in a residential building in Baku, Azerbaijan kills 14 people.

Fire risk analysis of high rise building is important because these buildings still lack an efficient fire extinguish method for safe evacuation and if safe evacuation system is in place then many a times occupants of the buildings are not properly trained on how to respond in case of emergencies. Many a times the location of the building also plays a huge role as proper connecting roads might not be available making it difficult for firefighting vehicles to reach on time. Building codes and regulations prescribe basic requirements for assuring fire and life safety in buildings. For implementing these codes and regulations it is required that a fire protection engineer is consulted since the design and construction stage of the building so as to develop a proactive approach towards firefighting, but in reality a reactive approach is followed for fire fighting in high rise buildings, thus there is no proper compliance with legal requirements.

CASE STUDIES

1. 28 Dec 2017, Kamala Mills fire in Mumbai
A noteworthy fire softened out up a bar in the Kamala Mills compound in Mumbai on Dec 28, 2017, early morning.The burst was accounted for around 12.30 a.m. from a bistro The Mojo, a housetop eatery bar in The Kamla Trade House and rapidly spread to another encompassing bar and an eatery, said an authority of BMC Disaster Control.More than 12 fire tenders were raced to battle the burst which was brought under control around 6.30 a.m.While most of the casualties are accounted for to have died on the recognize, the fire fighters could protect 10 others securely from the jumping flares. The harmed have been admitted to the KEM Hospital and different clinics for treatment.At slightest 14 individuals kicked the bucket and numerous others were injured.Doctors at KEM Hospital said every one of the casualties, 11 of whom were ladies, passed on because of smoke inward breath after they were caught inside the eateries. Suffocation was surveyed to be the prime reason of suffocation.The whole bar and the encompassing complex was loaded with supporters including numerous ladies and vacationers thronging the elegant region to unwind.Mumbai Police have booked the proprietor of the bar for carelessness and different charges for the fire, suspected to be activated by an electric short-circuit.The test by Mumbai Police into the Kamala Mills fire disaster has uncovered that the fire may have caused because of a short out and the inflammable covering sheets utilized as sheds was in charge of spreading the blaze.The Police’s test has likewise uncovered that the staff and the directors of 1Above fled the spot instantly after the fire broke out and neglected to protect the benefactors. Additionally, every one of the individuals who were executed in the lethal burst were the individuals who had come to feast at 1Above. Then, the Mumbai Police has shaped various groups to find the slipping off charged. An officer said that when they entered the diner, they discovered 12 bodies in the washroom while two were lying in the premises. Drapes filled in as a trigger for fire.Senior police examiner Ahmed Pathan from the NM Joshi Marg police headquarters said that the FIR has been enlisted under areas 304 (guilty crime not adding up to kill), 337 (jeopardizing individual security of others), 338(causing shocking hurt by imperiling individual wellbeing of others) and 34 (normal expectation) of the Indian Penal Code.Sources included that 1 Above had obstructed the fire leave utilizing iron poles. “The first space is 20×20 sqft in which just 4-5 five tables can be put. Be that as it may, the bar utilized the open space to include more tables.

2. 28 Dec 2017, Apartment buildings caught fire on Prospect Avenue in the Bronx in NewYork city
On a bone chilling Thursday night, a fire filled by windy breezes tore as the century progressed old condo working in the Bronx of the New York City. No less than 12 individuals were murdered. . It was the deadliest fire in the city in excess of a quarter-century. Notwithstanding the passings, four individuals were basically harmed and two individuals managed non-hazardous wounds. The most youthful among the dead was 1 year old, the most established more than 50. The main crisis call came at 6:51 p.m. for a fire in a five-story flat working at 2363 Prospect Avenue in the Belmont neighborhood, as indicated by the New York City Fire Department. The division reacted in three minutes, and firefighters could safeguard 12 individuals. The fire started on the principal floor however rapidly spread all through the working, as the breeze sustained oxygen to the blazes. The general population who kicked the bucket were on different floors. The blast developed to five-caution status, and in excess of 160 firefighters reacted. When, around 10 p.m., the flares had been brought under control. It was a sharply icy night, with temperatures in the adolescents, and the breeze chill influenced it to feel beneath zero. Water spilling from flame hoses solidified in streaks on the solid, and dislodged inhabitants strolled around hung in American Red Cross covers. Three young ladies were sped into a neighboring working subsequent to moving down an emergency exit without any shoes or coats. Numerous inquiries stayed in the prompt result of the burst, including how the fire spread so rapidly in a block assembling that was worked after cataclysmic fires at the turn of the twentieth century introduced a period of harder implementation of flame codes. The building was not sufficiently new that it was required to have present day insulating, similar to sprinkler frameworks and inside steel development. It was additionally not known whether every one of the lofts’ smoke alerts were working. The building had no lifts however the Fire escapes were unmistakable on the veneer of the building. After through examinations by the fire division it was at long last discovered that a 3-year-old kid with a “past filled with playing with the burners and turning them on” caused the fire. Prior to his mom knew it, he stated, “This fire had gotten a decent hold of the kitchen.” The mother of the youngster was in her loft at the time, however not taking care of the kid. When she found the flares, it was past the point of no return. She left her loft with her 2-year-old and 3-year-old, and left the entryway open, so this fire rapidly spread up the stairs, however she neglected to shut the entryway behind her prompting quick spreading of the blast.

3. 26 April 2016, A fire broke out on the top floor of National Museumof Natural History in New Delhi
An enormous fire developed in the National Museum of Natural History post midnight on Tuesday 26th April 2016. It took fire benefits more than four hours to splash the blast with 35 fire motors squeezed into benefit. No losses were accounted for. Extensive crest of smoke exuding from the best floor of the FICCI building where the historical center is housed, gotten the security work force’s attention at around 1:45 am. A call was made to the fire administrations and a couple of motors were hurried in from the Connaught Place fire station. Nobody was in the working at the season of flame as the historical center was shut around then. As the fire spread to the lower floors, more fire motors were hurried in. It took the following three and a half hours to bring the fire under control and an additional three hours of chilling off operations.The fire started on the best floor and spread to four stories underneath. 6 autos with water driven stages to drench the fire in the best floors were utilized. Other 30 groups were battling the blazes from inside the building insides. The greater part of the fire bolstered on the wooden allotments and cupboards where examples were housed on the gallery floors.During the activities, for which around 200 fire contenders were surged in from various parts of the capital, six faculty were left caught in the building, who breathed in inordinate smoke.Two groups were sent to the best floors from the back wing of the building. Be that as it may, the task was suspended when the groups gave a SOS call. They were protected and a CATS rescue vehicle was called. Three fire warriors were sent to RML healing center with objections of asphyxia. The other three were regulated emergency treatment and made to come back to rest. Everybody was observed to be steady later.The reason for flame couldn’t be known however the fire spread as a result of exhibition hall examples and the wood work holding them.The wooden parcels to isolate distinctive wings of the historical center on every one of the four stories bolstered the fire. The examples, the squishy toys and the chemicals a few examples were protected in were all profoundly flammable. That is the reason the fire spread so rapidly.Fire Services claimed the fire wellbeing measures were ineffectual and not practical in the FICCI building, a piece of which was leased to the Ministry of Environment and Forests which set up the Museum in 1972.The pumps were not working when water was required. FICCI individuals denied that there was a slip by on their part,they said that all fire wellbeing measures were in place,this building is endorsed and cleared by the Government of India, there are no less than 15 security watches at the premises each night, and around 35 amid the day.Minister of Environment Prakash Javadekar achieved the spot at around 8:30 and reported that a fire wellbeing review will be led for every one of the 34 historical centers under the Ministry in the city.The building, a piece of which was under remodel, was fixed by the NDMC later in the day. Police powers and Fire Services have been positioned at the site since 1:45 am.Established in 1972, the National Museum of Natural History in New Delhi is one of two historical centers concentrating on nature in India. It works under the Ministry of Environment and Forests.

CAUSES OF FIRE IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

1.The increased use of high strength concrete (HSC) in buildings causes spalling of concrete at elevated temperatures and results in reduction of fire resistance.
2. Factors such as building structure strength and material, fire load characteristic and distribute, the formation and strength of ignition source, fire alarm system, fire equipment, emergency countermeasures also play an important role in the cause of fire.

FIRE PROTECTION IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code has provisions for existing as well as new high-rise buildings. NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code, 2012 edition, section 11.8 contains requirements potentially applicable to a high-rise building. The chapter for a specific occupancy decides whether all or a few of the section 11.8 requirements are required for occupancy and decides if the requirements are for new or existing constructed dwellings. Amid section 11.8 needs are an approved supervised automatic sprinkler system; a Class I standpipe system; a fire alarm system alongside an accepted emergency voice/alarm communication system; two-way telephone service for fire department use; emergency lighting; standby power; and an emergency command center. Existing high-rise hotels should be protected throughout by an approved directed automatic sprinkler system. Existing high-rise health care occupancies must be Type I (442 or 332) or Type II (222) construction (as must existing health care occupancies 4-6 floors in height). As per NFPA ,construction of buildings can be categorized into various types. This corresponds to the “fire resistive” construction type category previously used in NFIRS as well as a subpart of the “protected noncombustible” category. A provision added to the code in 2009 and modified in the 2012 edition requires existing high-rise hospitals should be guarded with automatic sprinklers within a nine-year period. Since 2006, the code requires all nursing homes, disregarding of height, to be protected with automatic sprinklers. The defined construction types can be briefly summarized by these major characteristics:

  • Fire resistive – Concrete or fire-resistant-covered steel construction rated for 2 hours;
  • Heavy timber – Construction where any exposed wood load-bearing members has no dimension less than 2 inches;
  • Protected non-combustible – Concrete or fire-resistant-covered steel construction rated for 1 hours;
  • Unprotected non-combustible – Exposed steel construction without fire-resistant covering;
  • Protected ordinary – Masonry load-bearing walls with columns, wood floors, and roof decks all protected by fire-resistive coating rated for 1 hour;
  • Unprotected ordinary – Masonry load-bearing walls with exposed columns, wood floors, and roof decks without fire-resistive coating;
  • Protected wood frame – Wood frame construction with wall and ceiling surfaces protected by fire-resistive covering, such as gypsum board;
  • Unprotected wood frame – Wood frame construction without fire-resistive covering.

High-Rise Building Fires, 9/13 18 NFPA Fire Analysis ; Research, Quincy, MA Existing high-rise apartment buildings should have an approved directed automatic sprinkler system, installed throughout, with two exceptions. One is if every living unit has exterior exit access in accordance with section 7.5.3; and the another one is whether the building has an “approved, engineered life safety system” in accordance with section 31.3.5.11.4. The latter exception for an engineered life safety system is also the only barring to the requirement for a complete, approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in existing high-rise office buildings. NFPA 1®, Fire Code, requires sprinkler retrofitting in all high-rise buildings. Since 1999, NFIRS (the national fire incident data base) has included an option to report fires as confined fires, in which case very little detail is required. This change encourages the reporting of very small fires, but introduces a high degree of uncertainty in the analysis of detailed characteristics of those fires

CONTROL MEASURES FOR FIRE IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

1. Emergency rescue in high rise buildings

CONCLUSIONS

The paper put the “security and anticipation first” as the rule and investigations the highlights of elevated structures fire to pick up the course of mishap by seeing tall structures and its fire and accomplish an incomplete occasion tree whose best occasion is the immediate fire peril misfortune, while it joined with the present condition of the economy. In perspective of the elevated structures fire issue, this is a “worldwide” issue, and a few focuses are advanced as followings: (1) Putting forward another thought that is from “man-machine (content, gear, and so on.) – condition”, that is, the two parts of the innovation (equipment) and administration (programming) ought to be contemplate exhaustively to take care of issues in tall structures fire avoidance. (2) Technology can’t take care of the issue that fire control offices can’t stay aware of the expanding of the floor stature adequately in a here and now. As far as the present monetary circumstance in our nation, a tall structures fire anticipation security framework which takes the administration as diagram ought to be advanced while innovation is a strategy and outstand the controlling and coordination that that administration exhibits on innovation. (3) Our tall structures ought to underline the four elevated structures fire wellbeing countermeasures with the acknowledgment of flame aversion security framework in the meantime, and accomplish innovation and the administration synchronous improvement as quickly as time permits. In addition, tall structure fire counteractive action security framework ought to be culminated. With a specific end goal to unravel the tall structure fire counteractive action wellbeing issue, this examination plans to give some viable incentive to the outline of elevated structure, appraisal of flame security and foundation of prudent crisis program.

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