Food Processing Essay Research Paper Food ProcessingThroughout

7 July 2017

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Food Processing Essay, Research Paper

Food Processing

Throughout the history of world scientific discipline has searched into the kingdom

of the unknown. Along with it conveying new finds, leting for our lives

to go healthier, more efficient, safer, and at the same clip, perchance more

unsafe. Among the forces driving scientists into these many experiments, is

the desire to continue the one fuel that keeps our lives traveling ; FOOD.

Equally early as the beginning of the nineteenth century, major discoveries in

nutrient saving had begun. Soldiers and mariners, contending in Napoleons ground forces

were populating off of salt-preserved meats. These ill cured nutrients provided

minimum nutritionary value, and frequent eruptions of scorbutus were developing. It

was Napoleon who began the hunt for a better mechanism of nutrient saving,

and it was he who offered 12,000-franc pieces to the individual who devised a safe

and reliable food-preservation procedure.

The victor was a Gallic chemist named Nicolas Appert. He observed that

nutrient heated in certain containers was preserved every bit long as the container remained

unopened or the seal did non leak. This became the turning point in nutrient

saving history. Fifty old ages following the find by Nicolas Appert,

another discovery had developed. Another Frenchman, named Louis Pasteur,

noted the relationship between micro-organisms and nutrient spoilage. This

discovery increased the dependableness of the nutrient tining procedure. As the

old ages passed new techniques guaranting nutrient saving would come and travel,

opening new doors to farther research.

Farmers grow fruits and veggies and fatten farm animal. The fruits and

veggies are harvested, and the farm animal is slaughtered for nutrient. What

happens between the clip nutrient leaves the farm and the clip it is eaten at the

tabular array? Like all living things, the workss and animate beings that become nutrient contain

bantam beings called micro-organisms. Living, healthy workss and animate beings

automatically command most of these micro-organisms. But when the workss and

animate beings are killed, the beings yeast, cast, and bacteriums begin to multiply,

doing the nutrient to lose spirit and alteration in colour and texture. Merely as

of import, nutrient loses the foods that are necessary to construct and refill

human organic structures. All these alterations in the nutrient are what people refer to as nutrient

spoilage. To maintain the nutrient from botching, normally in merely a few yearss, it is

preserved. Many sorts of agents are potentially destructive to the healthful

features of fresh nutrients. Microorganisms, such as bacteriums and Fungis,

quickly spoil nutrient. Enzymes which are present in all natural nutrient, promote

debasement and chemical alterations impacting particularly texture and spirit.

Atmospheric O may respond with nutrient components, doing rancidity or colour

alterations. Equally as harmful are infestations by insects and gnawers, which

history for enormous losingss in nutrient stocks. There is no individual method of nutrient

saving that provides protection against all jeopardies for an limitless

period of clip. Canned nutrient stored in Antarctica near the South Pole, for

illustration, remained comestible after 50 old ages of storage, but such long-run

saving can non be duplicated in the hot clime of the Tropics.

Raw fruits and veggies and uncooked meat are preserved by cold

storage or infrigidation. The cold temperature inside the cold-storage

compartment or icebox slows down the micro-organism and holds

impairment. But cold storage and infrigidation will continue natural nutrients for a

few hebdomads at most. If nutrients are to be preserved for longer periods, they must

undergo particular interventions such as freeze or warming. The scientific discipline of

continuing nutrients for more than a few yearss is called nutrient processing.

Human existences have ever taken some steps to continue nutrient. Ancient

people learned to go forth meat and fruits and veggies in the Sun and air current to

take wet. Since micro-organisms need H2O to turn, drying the nutrient slows

the rate at which it spoils. Today nutrient processors provide a diet richer and

more varied than of all time before by utilizing six major methods. They are tining,

drying or desiccation, stop deading, freeze-drying, agitation or pickling, and



The procedure of canning is sometimes called sterilisation because the

heat intervention of the nutrient eliminates all micro-organisms that can botch the nutrient

and those that are harmful to worlds, including straight infective bacteriums and

those that produce deadly toxins. Most commercial canning operations are based

on the rule that bacteria devastation additions tenfold for each 10? C

addition in temperature. Food exposed to high temperatures for merely proceedingss or

seconds retains more of its natural spirit. In the Flash 18 procedure, a

uninterrupted system, the nutrient is flash-sterilized in a pressurized chamber to

prevent the superheated nutrient from boiling while it is placed in containers.

Further sterilising is non required.


Although prehistoric worlds stored meat in ice caves, the food-freezing

industry is more recent in beginning than the canning industry. The freeze

procedure was used commercially for the first clip in 1842, but large-scale nutrient

saving by stop deading began in the late nineteenth century with the coming of

mechanical infrigidation.

Freezing conserves nutrient by forestalling micro-organisms from multiplying.

Because the procedure does non kill all types of bacterium, nevertheless, those that

survive reanimate in dissolving nutrient and frequently turn more quickly than earlier

stop deading. Enzymes in the frozen province remain active, although at a decreased rate.

Vegetables are blanched or heated in readying for stop deading to guarantee enzyme

inaction and therefore to avoid debasement of spirit. Blanching has besides been

proposed for fish, in order to kill cold-adapted bacteriums on their outer surface.

In the freeze of meats assorted methods are used depending on the type of meat

and the cut. Pork is frozen shortly after slaughtering, but beef is hung in a ice chest

for several yearss to tenderise the meat before freeze.

Frozen nutrients have the advantage of resembling the fresh merchandise more

closely than the same nutrient preserved by other techniques. Frozen nutrients besides

undergo some alterations, nevertheless. Freezing causes the H2O in nutrient to spread out and

tends to interrupt the cell construction by organizing ice crystals. In quick-freezing

the ice crystals are smaller, bring forthing less cell harm than in the slowly

frozen merchandise. The quality of the merchandise, nevertheless, may depend more on the

celerity with which the nutrient is prepared and stored in the deep-freeze than on the

rate at which it is frozen. Some solid nutrients that are frozen easy, such as

fish, may, upon dissolving, show a loss of liquid called trickle ; some liquid nutrients

that are frozen easy, such as egg yolk, may go curdled. Because of the

high cost of infrigidation, frozen nutrient is relatively expensive to bring forth

and distribute. High quality is a needed characteristic of frozen nutrient to warrant the

added cost in the market.This method of saving is the 1 most widely used

for a great assortment of nutrients.

Drying and Dehydration

Although both these footings are applied to the remotion of H2O from nutrient,

to the nutrient engineer drying refers to drying by natural agencies, such as

distributing fruit on racks in the Sun, and desiccation designates drying by

unreal agencies, such as a blast of hot air. In freeze-drying a high vacuity is

maintained in a particular cabinet incorporating frozen nutrient until most of the

wet has sublimed. Removal of H2O offers first-class protection against the

most common causes of nutrient spoilage. Microorganisms can non turn in a water-free

environment, enzyme activity is absent, and most chemical reactions are greatly

retarded. This last characteristic makes desiccation preferred to tining if

the merchandise is to be stored at a high temperature. In order to accomplish such

protection, practically all the H2O must be removed. The nutrient so must be

packaged in a moisture-proof container to forestall it from absorbing H2O from

the air.

Vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, and some other nutrients, the wet

content of which norms every bit high as 80 per centum, may be dried to one-fifth of

the original weight and about one-half of the original volume. The disadvantages

of this method of saving include the clip and labour involved in

rehydrating the nutrient before feeding. Furth

Er because it absorbs merely about two-

tierces of its original H2O content, the dried merchandise tends to hold a texture

that is tough and chewy.

Drying was used by prehistoric worlds to continue many nutrients. Large

measures of fruits such as figs have been dried from ancient times to the

present twenty-four hours. In the instance of meat and fish, other saving methods, such as

smoke or salting, which yielded a toothsome merchandise, were by and large preferred.

Commercial desiccation of veggies was initiated in the United States during

the American Civil War but, as a consequence of the hapless quality of the merchandise, the

industry declined aggressively after the war. This rhythm was repeated with subsequent

wars, but after World War II the desiccation industry thrived. This industry is

confined mostly to the production of a few dried nutrients, nevertheless, such as milk,

soup, eggs, barm, and powdered java, which are peculiarly suited to the

desiccation method. Contemporary desiccation techniques include the application

of a watercourse of warm air to veggies. Protein nutrients such as meat are of good

quality merely if lyophilized. Liquid nutrient is dehydrated normally by spraying it

as all right droplets into a chamber of hot air, or on occasion by pouring it over a

membranophone internally heated by steam.


A processing method that uses a combination of freeze and desiccation

is called lyophilization. Foods that already have been frozen are placed in a

vacuum-tight enclosure and dehydrated under vacuity conditions with careful

application of heat. Normally ice thaws and becomes H2O when heat is applied.

If more heat is applied, it turns to steam. But in freeze-drying, the ice bends

straight to vapor, and there is small opportunity that micro-organisms will turn.

Lyophilized nutrients, like those that are dehydrated, are light and require small

infinite for storage and transit. They do non necessitate to be refrigerated, but

they must be reconstituted with H2O before they are ready to devour.


Equally early as 1895, a major discovery in the universe of scientific discipline had

arisen ; the find of the X ray by German physicist Wilhelm von Roetengen.

This technological promotion, along with the shortly to be discovered construct of

radiation by Gallic physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel, became the focal point of

attending for many scientifically based surveies. Of most importance, to the

field of nutrient saving, these two finds began the now controversial

procedure of nutrient irradiation.

Food irradiation employs an energy signifier termed ionizing radiation. In

abruptly, this procedure exposes nutrient atoms to alpha, beta and/or gamma beams. The

beams cause whatever stuff they strike to bring forth electrically charged

atoms called ions. Ionizing radiation provides many properties to handling

nutrients. It has the ability to perforate profoundly into a nutrient interacting with its

atoms and molecules, and doing some chemical and biological effects that could

perchance diminish its rate of decay. It besides has the ability to sanitise nutrients

by destructing contaminations such as bacteriums, barms, casts, parasites and

insects.Irradiation holds maturing of fruits and veggies ; inhibits shooting

in bulbs and tubers ; disinfests grain, cereal merchandises, fresh and dried fruits,

and veggies of insects ; and destroys bacteriums in fresh meats. The irradiation

of fresh fruits and veggies, herbs and spices, and porc was approved in 1986.

In 1990 the FDA approved irradiation of domestic fowl to command salmonella and other

disease-causing micro-organisms. Irradiated nutrients were used by U.S. spacemans

and by Soviet astronauts. Public concern over the safety of irradiation, nevertheless,

has limited its all-out usage. It is still off to a slow start, with merely one

nutrient irradiation works unfastened in Mulberry, Florida, but it is apparently catching

the eyes of the manufacturers and the consumers throughout the universe.

Assorted Methods

Other methods or a combination of methods may be used to continue nutrients.

Salting of fish and porc has long been practiced, utilizing either dry salt or seawater.

Salt enters the tissue and, in consequence binds the H2O, therefore suppressing the

bacteriums that cause spoilage. Another widely used method is smoking, which

often is applied to continue fish, jambon, and sausage. The fume is obtained

by firing hickory or a similar wood under low bill of exchange. In this instance some

preservative action is provided by such chemicals in the fume as methanal

and creosote, and by the desiccation that occurs in the meat house. Smoking

normally is intended to season the merchandise every bit good as to continue it.

Sugar, a major ingredient of jams and gelatins, is another preservative

agent. For effectual saving the entire sugar content should do up at

least 65 per centum of the weight of the concluding merchandise. Sugar, which acts in much

the same manner as salt, inhibits bacterial growing after the merchandise has been

heated. Because of its high sourness, acetum ( acetic acid ) acts as a

preservative. Agitation caused by certain bacteriums, which produce lactic acid,

is the footing of saving in sauerkraut and fermented sausage. Sodium

benzoate, restricted to concentrations of non more than 0.1 per centum, is used in

fruit merchandises to protect against barms and casts. Sulfur dioxide, another

chemical preservative permitted in most provinces, helps to retain the colour of

dehydrated nutrients. Calcium propionate may be added to baked goods to suppress cast.


The packaging of processed nutrients is merely every bit of import as the procedure

itself. If nutrients are non packaged in containers that protect them from air and

wet, they are capable to spoilage. Boxing stuffs must hence be

strong plenty to defy the heat and cold of processing and the wear and rupture

of handling and transit.

From the clip the canning procedure was developed in the early 19th

century until the beginning of the twentieth century, tins and glass containers were

the lone bundles used. The first tins were rough containers holding a hole in

the top through which the nutrient was inserted. The holes were so sealed with hot

metal. All tins were made by manus from sheets of metal cut to specific sizes. In

about 1900 the healthful can was invented. In this procedure, machines form tins

with air-tight seams. A processor buys tins with one terminal unfastened and seals them

after make fulling. Some tins are made of steel coated with Sn and are frequently glazed

on the interior to forestall stain. Some are made of aluminium.

Frozen nutrients are packaged in containers made of beds of fibreboard and

plastic or of strong plastic called polythene. Lyophilized and dehydrated

nutrients are packed in glass, fibreboard, or tins.


The research activities of processed nutrient scientists are legion and

varied. New packaging stuffs, the nutritionary content of processed nutrients, new

treating techniques, more efficient usage of energy and H2O, the wonts and

desires of today & # 8217 ; s consumer, more efficient equipment, and transit and

warehousing inventions are some of the topics being studied. The challenge of

the nutrient research worker is to detect better and more efficient ways to procedure,

conveyance, and store nutrient. Processed nutrients have changed the universe. In developed

states they are portion of about everyone & # 8217 ; s diet. The United States, Canada,

France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom all produce

big measures of processed nutrients, which they sell domestically and abroad. In

the United States in the early 1980s, one-year production of fruit was 1.8 billion

kgs canned, 1.4 billion kgs frozen, and 1.1 billion kgs in

fruit juice ; production of veggies was 1.4 billion kgs canned and 3.2

billion kgs frozen.

From the modest canning industries in 1813 to the sophisticated nutrient

treating workss of today, nutrient processors have provided the universe with more

healthful diets, nutrient combinations ne’er before possible, and a convenience

undreamed 200 old ages ago. We as consumers can merely conceive of what farther

accomplishments will be made in the field of nutrient saving. But one thing is

for certain ; it is all for the general good of world & # 8230 ; to cut down famishment

degrees globally and see the handiness of alimentary nutrients to all. It is

through this manner that adult male survives & # 8230 ; and tantrums in Darwin & # 8217 ; s hypothesis of the

endurance of the fittest. For it is merely the tantrum who will predominate in the terminal.

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