Food Processing Essay Research Paper Food ProcessingThroughout
Only $13.90 / page
Food Processing Essay, Research Paper
Throughout the history of world scientific discipline has searched into the kingdom
of the unknown. Along with it conveying new finds, leting for our lives
to go healthier, more efficient, safer, and at the same clip, perchance more
unsafe. Among the forces driving scientists into these many experiments, is
the desire to continue the one fuel that keeps our lives traveling ; FOOD.
Equally early as the beginning of the nineteenth century, major discoveries in
nutrient saving had begun. Soldiers and mariners, contending in Napoleons ground forces
were populating off of salt-preserved meats. These ill cured nutrients provided
minimum nutritionary value, and frequent eruptions of scorbutus were developing. It
was Napoleon who began the hunt for a better mechanism of nutrient saving,
and it was he who offered 12,000-franc pieces to the individual who devised a safe
and reliable food-preservation procedure.
The victor was a Gallic chemist named Nicolas Appert. He observed that
nutrient heated in certain containers was preserved every bit long as the container remained
unopened or the seal did non leak. This became the turning point in nutrient
saving history. Fifty old ages following the find by Nicolas Appert,
another discovery had developed. Another Frenchman, named Louis Pasteur,
noted the relationship between micro-organisms and nutrient spoilage. This
discovery increased the dependableness of the nutrient tining procedure. As the
old ages passed new techniques guaranting nutrient saving would come and travel,
opening new doors to farther research.
Farmers grow fruits and veggies and fatten farm animal. The fruits and
veggies are harvested, and the farm animal is slaughtered for nutrient. What
happens between the clip nutrient leaves the farm and the clip it is eaten at the
tabular array? Like all living things, the workss and animate beings that become nutrient contain
bantam beings called micro-organisms. Living, healthy workss and animate beings
automatically command most of these micro-organisms. But when the workss and
animate beings are killed, the beings yeast, cast, and bacteriums begin to multiply,
doing the nutrient to lose spirit and alteration in colour and texture. Merely as
of import, nutrient loses the foods that are necessary to construct and refill
human organic structures. All these alterations in the nutrient are what people refer to as nutrient
spoilage. To maintain the nutrient from botching, normally in merely a few yearss, it is
preserved. Many sorts of agents are potentially destructive to the healthful
features of fresh nutrients. Microorganisms, such as bacteriums and Fungis,
quickly spoil nutrient. Enzymes which are present in all natural nutrient, promote
debasement and chemical alterations impacting particularly texture and spirit.
Atmospheric O may respond with nutrient components, doing rancidity or colour
alterations. Equally as harmful are infestations by insects and gnawers, which
history for enormous losingss in nutrient stocks. There is no individual method of nutrient
saving that provides protection against all jeopardies for an limitless
period of clip. Canned nutrient stored in Antarctica near the South Pole, for
illustration, remained comestible after 50 old ages of storage, but such long-run
saving can non be duplicated in the hot clime of the Tropics.
Raw fruits and veggies and uncooked meat are preserved by cold
storage or infrigidation. The cold temperature inside the cold-storage
compartment or icebox slows down the micro-organism and holds
impairment. But cold storage and infrigidation will continue natural nutrients for a
few hebdomads at most. If nutrients are to be preserved for longer periods, they must
undergo particular interventions such as freeze or warming. The scientific discipline of
continuing nutrients for more than a few yearss is called nutrient processing.
Human existences have ever taken some steps to continue nutrient. Ancient
people learned to go forth meat and fruits and veggies in the Sun and air current to
take wet. Since micro-organisms need H2O to turn, drying the nutrient slows
the rate at which it spoils. Today nutrient processors provide a diet richer and
more varied than of all time before by utilizing six major methods. They are tining,
drying or desiccation, stop deading, freeze-drying, agitation or pickling, and
The procedure of canning is sometimes called sterilisation because the
heat intervention of the nutrient eliminates all micro-organisms that can botch the nutrient
and those that are harmful to worlds, including straight infective bacteriums and
those that produce deadly toxins. Most commercial canning operations are based
on the rule that bacteria devastation additions tenfold for each 10? C
addition in temperature. Food exposed to high temperatures for merely proceedingss or
seconds retains more of its natural spirit. In the Flash 18 procedure, a
uninterrupted system, the nutrient is flash-sterilized in a pressurized chamber to
prevent the superheated nutrient from boiling while it is placed in containers.
Further sterilising is non required.
Although prehistoric worlds stored meat in ice caves, the food-freezing
industry is more recent in beginning than the canning industry. The freeze
procedure was used commercially for the first clip in 1842, but large-scale nutrient
saving by stop deading began in the late nineteenth century with the coming of
Freezing conserves nutrient by forestalling micro-organisms from multiplying.
Because the procedure does non kill all types of bacterium, nevertheless, those that
survive reanimate in dissolving nutrient and frequently turn more quickly than earlier
stop deading. Enzymes in the frozen province remain active, although at a decreased rate.
Vegetables are blanched or heated in readying for stop deading to guarantee enzyme
inaction and therefore to avoid debasement of spirit. Blanching has besides been
proposed for fish, in order to kill cold-adapted bacteriums on their outer surface.
In the freeze of meats assorted methods are used depending on the type of meat
and the cut. Pork is frozen shortly after slaughtering, but beef is hung in a ice chest
for several yearss to tenderise the meat before freeze.
Frozen nutrients have the advantage of resembling the fresh merchandise more
closely than the same nutrient preserved by other techniques. Frozen nutrients besides
undergo some alterations, nevertheless. Freezing causes the H2O in nutrient to spread out and
tends to interrupt the cell construction by organizing ice crystals. In quick-freezing
the ice crystals are smaller, bring forthing less cell harm than in the slowly
frozen merchandise. The quality of the merchandise, nevertheless, may depend more on the
celerity with which the nutrient is prepared and stored in the deep-freeze than on the
rate at which it is frozen. Some solid nutrients that are frozen easy, such as
fish, may, upon dissolving, show a loss of liquid called trickle ; some liquid nutrients
that are frozen easy, such as egg yolk, may go curdled. Because of the
high cost of infrigidation, frozen nutrient is relatively expensive to bring forth
and distribute. High quality is a needed characteristic of frozen nutrient to warrant the
added cost in the market.This method of saving is the 1 most widely used
for a great assortment of nutrients.
Drying and Dehydration
Although both these footings are applied to the remotion of H2O from nutrient,
to the nutrient engineer drying refers to drying by natural agencies, such as
distributing fruit on racks in the Sun, and desiccation designates drying by
unreal agencies, such as a blast of hot air. In freeze-drying a high vacuity is
maintained in a particular cabinet incorporating frozen nutrient until most of the
wet has sublimed. Removal of H2O offers first-class protection against the
most common causes of nutrient spoilage. Microorganisms can non turn in a water-free
environment, enzyme activity is absent, and most chemical reactions are greatly
retarded. This last characteristic makes desiccation preferred to tining if
the merchandise is to be stored at a high temperature. In order to accomplish such
protection, practically all the H2O must be removed. The nutrient so must be
packaged in a moisture-proof container to forestall it from absorbing H2O from
Vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, and some other nutrients, the wet
content of which norms every bit high as 80 per centum, may be dried to one-fifth of
the original weight and about one-half of the original volume. The disadvantages
of this method of saving include the clip and labour involved in
rehydrating the nutrient before feeding. Furth
Er because it absorbs merely about two-
tierces of its original H2O content, the dried merchandise tends to hold a texture
that is tough and chewy.
Drying was used by prehistoric worlds to continue many nutrients. Large
measures of fruits such as figs have been dried from ancient times to the
present twenty-four hours. In the instance of meat and fish, other saving methods, such as
smoke or salting, which yielded a toothsome merchandise, were by and large preferred.
Commercial desiccation of veggies was initiated in the United States during
the American Civil War but, as a consequence of the hapless quality of the merchandise, the
industry declined aggressively after the war. This rhythm was repeated with subsequent
wars, but after World War II the desiccation industry thrived. This industry is
confined mostly to the production of a few dried nutrients, nevertheless, such as milk,
soup, eggs, barm, and powdered java, which are peculiarly suited to the
desiccation method. Contemporary desiccation techniques include the application
of a watercourse of warm air to veggies. Protein nutrients such as meat are of good
quality merely if lyophilized. Liquid nutrient is dehydrated normally by spraying it
as all right droplets into a chamber of hot air, or on occasion by pouring it over a
membranophone internally heated by steam.
A processing method that uses a combination of freeze and desiccation
is called lyophilization. Foods that already have been frozen are placed in a
vacuum-tight enclosure and dehydrated under vacuity conditions with careful
application of heat. Normally ice thaws and becomes H2O when heat is applied.
If more heat is applied, it turns to steam. But in freeze-drying, the ice bends
straight to vapor, and there is small opportunity that micro-organisms will turn.
Lyophilized nutrients, like those that are dehydrated, are light and require small
infinite for storage and transit. They do non necessitate to be refrigerated, but
they must be reconstituted with H2O before they are ready to devour.
Equally early as 1895, a major discovery in the universe of scientific discipline had
arisen ; the find of the X ray by German physicist Wilhelm von Roetengen.
This technological promotion, along with the shortly to be discovered construct of
radiation by Gallic physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel, became the focal point of
attending for many scientifically based surveies. Of most importance, to the
field of nutrient saving, these two finds began the now controversial
procedure of nutrient irradiation.
Food irradiation employs an energy signifier termed ionizing radiation. In
abruptly, this procedure exposes nutrient atoms to alpha, beta and/or gamma beams. The
beams cause whatever stuff they strike to bring forth electrically charged
atoms called ions. Ionizing radiation provides many properties to handling
nutrients. It has the ability to perforate profoundly into a nutrient interacting with its
atoms and molecules, and doing some chemical and biological effects that could
perchance diminish its rate of decay. It besides has the ability to sanitise nutrients
by destructing contaminations such as bacteriums, barms, casts, parasites and
insects.Irradiation holds maturing of fruits and veggies ; inhibits shooting
in bulbs and tubers ; disinfests grain, cereal merchandises, fresh and dried fruits,
and veggies of insects ; and destroys bacteriums in fresh meats. The irradiation
of fresh fruits and veggies, herbs and spices, and porc was approved in 1986.
In 1990 the FDA approved irradiation of domestic fowl to command salmonella and other
disease-causing micro-organisms. Irradiated nutrients were used by U.S. spacemans
and by Soviet astronauts. Public concern over the safety of irradiation, nevertheless,
has limited its all-out usage. It is still off to a slow start, with merely one
nutrient irradiation works unfastened in Mulberry, Florida, but it is apparently catching
the eyes of the manufacturers and the consumers throughout the universe.
Other methods or a combination of methods may be used to continue nutrients.
Salting of fish and porc has long been practiced, utilizing either dry salt or seawater.
Salt enters the tissue and, in consequence binds the H2O, therefore suppressing the
bacteriums that cause spoilage. Another widely used method is smoking, which
often is applied to continue fish, jambon, and sausage. The fume is obtained
by firing hickory or a similar wood under low bill of exchange. In this instance some
preservative action is provided by such chemicals in the fume as methanal
and creosote, and by the desiccation that occurs in the meat house. Smoking
normally is intended to season the merchandise every bit good as to continue it.
Sugar, a major ingredient of jams and gelatins, is another preservative
agent. For effectual saving the entire sugar content should do up at
least 65 per centum of the weight of the concluding merchandise. Sugar, which acts in much
the same manner as salt, inhibits bacterial growing after the merchandise has been
heated. Because of its high sourness, acetum ( acetic acid ) acts as a
preservative. Agitation caused by certain bacteriums, which produce lactic acid,
is the footing of saving in sauerkraut and fermented sausage. Sodium
benzoate, restricted to concentrations of non more than 0.1 per centum, is used in
fruit merchandises to protect against barms and casts. Sulfur dioxide, another
chemical preservative permitted in most provinces, helps to retain the colour of
dehydrated nutrients. Calcium propionate may be added to baked goods to suppress cast.
The packaging of processed nutrients is merely every bit of import as the procedure
itself. If nutrients are non packaged in containers that protect them from air and
wet, they are capable to spoilage. Boxing stuffs must hence be
strong plenty to defy the heat and cold of processing and the wear and rupture
of handling and transit.
From the clip the canning procedure was developed in the early 19th
century until the beginning of the twentieth century, tins and glass containers were
the lone bundles used. The first tins were rough containers holding a hole in
the top through which the nutrient was inserted. The holes were so sealed with hot
metal. All tins were made by manus from sheets of metal cut to specific sizes. In
about 1900 the healthful can was invented. In this procedure, machines form tins
with air-tight seams. A processor buys tins with one terminal unfastened and seals them
after make fulling. Some tins are made of steel coated with Sn and are frequently glazed
on the interior to forestall stain. Some are made of aluminium.
Frozen nutrients are packaged in containers made of beds of fibreboard and
plastic or of strong plastic called polythene. Lyophilized and dehydrated
nutrients are packed in glass, fibreboard, or tins.
The research activities of processed nutrient scientists are legion and
varied. New packaging stuffs, the nutritionary content of processed nutrients, new
treating techniques, more efficient usage of energy and H2O, the wonts and
desires of today & # 8217 ; s consumer, more efficient equipment, and transit and
warehousing inventions are some of the topics being studied. The challenge of
the nutrient research worker is to detect better and more efficient ways to procedure,
conveyance, and store nutrient. Processed nutrients have changed the universe. In developed
states they are portion of about everyone & # 8217 ; s diet. The United States, Canada,
France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom all produce
big measures of processed nutrients, which they sell domestically and abroad. In
the United States in the early 1980s, one-year production of fruit was 1.8 billion
kgs canned, 1.4 billion kgs frozen, and 1.1 billion kgs in
fruit juice ; production of veggies was 1.4 billion kgs canned and 3.2
billion kgs frozen.
From the modest canning industries in 1813 to the sophisticated nutrient
treating workss of today, nutrient processors have provided the universe with more
healthful diets, nutrient combinations ne’er before possible, and a convenience
undreamed 200 old ages ago. We as consumers can merely conceive of what farther
accomplishments will be made in the field of nutrient saving. But one thing is
for certain ; it is all for the general good of world & # 8230 ; to cut down famishment
degrees globally and see the handiness of alimentary nutrients to all. It is
through this manner that adult male survives & # 8230 ; and tantrums in Darwin & # 8217 ; s hypothesis of the
endurance of the fittest. For it is merely the tantrum who will predominate in the terminal.