Footnotes and Endnotes
Manuscripts, consist of typewritten or hand written matter that is prepared for such purposes as making reports, delivering speeches and lectures, supplying copy for printing, etc, (Althols, 1962). Some forms of manuscripts are term papers, research reports, theses, dissertations, essays, articles, stories, books and various kinds of business and legal papers. Typing manuscripts is not a simple matter of fast and accurate copying, especially where there are citations, references and footnotes.
The typist needs to understand what is to be typed and should plan the copy for the specific purpose it is to serve. When typing formal manuscripts or technical reports, it is important that the typist should refer to manuals of goods style prepared by authorities in this matter (Turabian and Campbell, 1967 and 1954). Reference manuals for stenographers and typist or standard handbook for secretaries will also be of great help. The typist should follow the standard rules and suggestions in these manuals for uniformity of spacing, margins, pagination, footnoting, etc.
Footnoting. Explanatory notations at the bottom of the page used to cite an authority, to make incidental comments, to make cross-reference, or to make acknowledgements are called footnotes, (Turabian, 1967). These footnotes are indicated by typing a superior (raised) figure immediately following the materials for which a reference is given. Turabian explains that these figures should be “elevated slightly above the line (but never a full space above it), and set after punctuations, if any. this can be done by rolling the cylinder toward you a half space and holding it in position as the superior figure is typed or use the selling by the computer system to write the footnote. Footnotes are separated from the last line of manuscript as follows. Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes After typing the last manuscript line, single space and, with the underline key type a 1 ? inch line from the left margin. Double space, indent the left margin to paragraph point, type the appropriate superscript, and then, without spacing type the footnote single spaced.
Double space between footnotes. Footnotes in a manuscript numbered consecutively, either for each chapter or continuously throughout the manuscript and are identical with the reference numbers. (Campbell, 1954). Footnotes and Endnotes are used to give credit to source of any materials borrowed. summarized or paraphrased. They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Works Cited, References, or Bibliography section.
The main difference between Footnotes and Endnotes is that Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made; while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitles Endnotes or Notes. If you are still using a typewriter, a superscript number is typed half a space above the line after the last word of the citation, e. g. , “The Information Superhighway is giving way to a Commercial Superhighway. “1 If you are using a word processor, you can access the superscript function.
To type a Footnote citation, the same superscript number is put at the beginning of the Footnote at the bottom of the same page where the citation occurs. When monitoring a work for the first time, a full and complete Footnote or Endnote entry must be made. NOTE: Only one sentence is used a Footnote or Endnote citation, i. e. , only one period or full stop is used at the end of any Footnotes or Endnote citation. In a Bibliography, each citation consists of a minimum of three statements or sentence, hence each entry requires a Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes inimum of three periods, e. g. , a period after the author statement, a period the title statement, and a period after the publication statement (publication/publisher/publication date). If you indent your paragraphs, the entire essay is typed double-spaced. Title of essay centered, 1” (2. 5 cm) margin on all four sides, page number at upper right hand corner ? ” (1. 25 cm) down from the top. If your instructor prefers that you do not indent your paragraphs, you must still double-space your lines, but you will need to quadruple-space between paragraphs.
Endnotes must be listed numerically and consecutively, both in your essay and in your Endnote citation. Endnote numbers must be superscripted. In your text, add a superscripted number immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space. Endnotes. Endnotes must be added on a separate Endnotes or Notes page at the end of your essay just before the Works Cited or Bibliography page. All first Endnote references must be cited in full. Subsequent references of the same work may be shorted to include only the author’s last name and page number.
If the source cited has no author stated, use whatever minimal information is needed to identify the same work previously cited, e. g. , short title and page number. Formerly, the Latin terms ibid. and op. cit. were used but they are no longer preferred. It is recommended that you use Endnote in place of Footnotes. This will eliminate the need to allow sufficient space to accommodate all the required Footnote entries at the bottom of the same page where your citations occur. If your instructor has no preference, use the much simpler Parenthetical Documentation in place of Footnotes or Endnotes.
Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes Spacing. The standard rule for typing the main body of a manuscript or report is double spacing unless there is an special reason for single spacing it. Triple spacing is used before and after the main heading while side headings (blocked and capitals are preceded by a triple space (2 blank lines) and followed by a double space (1 blank line). Single spacing is used for listings, enumerations, long quotations, footnotes, and other displays. Direct quotation of not more than three typewritten lines in length is run into the text and typed double spaced.
A long direct quotation is typed single spaced. (Row, 1963) explain it this way: A quotation of three or fewer lines of typing is displayed simply for being typed within quotation marks, but a longer quotation is given special display. It is single spaced and indented five spaces from regular margins on both sides. Margins. Unbounded manuscripts whose pages are not going to be fastened (like reports or articles for publication) are usually typed with at least one-inch on all sides. On the first page, however, an extra inch at the top is provided so that the top margin falls two inches deep.
With top-bound pages, the top margin on all pages, except the first, is increased by one-half inch. With a side binding, the left margin is increased by one-half inch on all pages. Thus, on a side-bounded page the center of typed line moves to the right of actual center one-half the number of spaces left for the binding. Pagination. Every page in a manuscript is assigned a number although not indicated on every page. For example, the first page, (where the title appears or the beginning of a chapter) no page figure is typed but a number is allowed for that page. The page number is usually typed one-half
Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes or one inch form the top edge, aligned with the right margin and opposite the running head, if there is no running head, the page number is usually placed at the center of the page. Top-bound manuscript is usually placed at the center of the page. Top-bound manuscript is usually numbered at the center, one or one-half inch at the bottom of the page. Typing Aids. In typing manuscripts with footnotes, special care should be exercised so that all the footnotes corresponding to the references that appear on the page are accommodated on the same page.
This can be facilitated with the use of typing aids. Some typists make a light pencil mark about an inch from the bottom of the page before they begin to type (Beamer, Marshall Hanne and Popham, 1962). This warning line indicates to the typist that he should stop typing on that page to allow for an adequate bottom margin. If a footnote must be placed on the page, the pencil mark can easily be raised three or four lines to indicate the point where the footnotes begins. The typist must remember to erase these marks after he removes the sheet of paper or carbon pack from the typewriter.
Another typing aid is the use of a special guide sheet (Turabian). This may be made of an onion skin or a very thin type of paper and placed between the original copy and first sheet of carbon paper. It is cut the same length as the typing paper but extending one-half inch to the right where the numbers to indicate the line of writing are typed. It may be typed in either black or red latters. (Lessenberry, 1965) , the “page-end indicator” – an enumerated backing sheet that is placed back of and extending slightly to the right of a full sheet (or carbon pack) to indicate at any time the page line being typed (Ibid).
Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endontes A simple and practical backing-sheet guide may be made as follows: 1. At the top right edge of a whole sheet, count numbers 1 to 13, downward. Mark every half inch. These marks will serve as a guide for determining the starting point for the page margins of the manuscripts being typed. 2. One inch from the bottom of the page, type “STOP”— a warning to insure a bottom margin of at least one inch. From this point, type lines 1 to 15 upward. This will indicate the number of writing lines available for typing the footnotes corresponding to reference on that page.
Abbreviations used in Footnotes. Some footnotes are abbreviated to avoid typing several times a reference already used. For example, if a reference is the same as the ones immediately preceding, the abbreviation, (in the same place) is used, with the volume and page reference if they are different (Stuart, 1948) Further explanation of this term by Lessenberry and Wanous is quoted as follows: When two footnotes contain reference to the same work and one follows the other without any intervening footnote, use Ibid. the abbreviation for Ibidem (in the same place) (Lessenberry and Wanous) and the exact page number for the second footnote.
When a footnote refers to the same work previously cited but of a different page and the intervention of one or two footnotes, use the author’s name and the notation op, cit… (the abbreviation from the Latin opere citato meaning in the work cited) plus the page number. The name of the publication and other identifying date need not be repeated (Loc. Cit) When a footnote refers exactly to the same matter covered by a reference previously cited and the footnotes are in consecutive order on the same page, or the footnotes are consecutive but Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes n different pages, use loc, cit. (the abbreviation for loco citato, meaning “in the place cited,”) if the two references are exactly the same place in the work first cited, and an intervening footnote appears between the two references, the author’s name is written, followed by loc. cit (Campbell) When the use of typing aids, and the suggestions for spacing, margins, pagination, together with the illustration of actual citations, references, and footnotes, typing manuscripts will no longer be a difficult task.