Foundation Course in Humanities and Social Sciences Essay Sample

9 September 2017

A. Descriptive Category Questions ( DCQ ) answer any two in 500 words each: 1. Analyze the development of adult male as a tool doing carnal. 20
Solution: As said above reply merely 2 below are the solved reply

2. Does the station – Industrial society differ from the Industrial society? Explain 20 Solution: Yes the Post – Industrial society is differing from the Industrial society because of the undermentioned ground:

* Limited production ( i. e. artisanship vs. mass production )
* Primarily an agricultural economic system
* Limited division of labour. In pre-industrial societies. production was comparatively simple and the figure of specialised trade was limited. * Limited fluctuation of societal categories
* Parochialism—Social theories hold that communications were limited between human communities in pre-industrial societies. Few had the chance to see or hear beyond their ain small town. In contrast. industrial societies grew with the aid of faster agencies of communicating. holding more information at manus about the universe. leting cognition transportation and cultural diffusion between them. * Pre-industrial societies developed mostly in rural communities. Capitalism developed mostly in urban countries. 1. Within the economic system. there is a passage from goods production to the proviso of services. Production of such goods as vesture and steel diminutions and services such as selling beefburgers and offering advice on investings addition. Although services predominate in a broad scope of sectors. wellness. instruction. research. and authorities services are the most decisive for a post-industrial society.

2. The importance of blue-collar. manual work ( e. g. . assembly line workers ) diminutions and professional ( e. g. attorneies. physicians. and applied scientists ) and proficient work ( e. g. computing machine coders ) come to rule. Of particular importance is the rise of scientists ( e. g. . specialised applied scientists. such as familial or electric ) . Many excavation towns and similar colonies face big scale unemployment as a consequence of the increasing importance of both theoretical cognition with a coincident diminution in fabrication and increasing importance of environmentalism. Many industrial towns occupants are on benefits. such as the dole. 3. Alternatively of practical know-how. theoretical cognition is progressively indispensable in a post-industrial society. Such cognition is seen as the basic beginning of invention ( e. g. . the cognition created by those scientists involved in the Human Genome Project is taking to new ways of handling many diseases ) . Progresss in cognition besides lead to the demand for other inventions such as ways of covering with ethical inquiries raised by progresss in cloning engineering.

All of this involved an accent on theoretical instead than empirical cognition and on the codification of cognition. The exponential growing of theoretical and statute cognition. in all its assortments. is cardinal to emergence of the post-industrial society. 4. Post-industrial society seeks to measure the impacts of the new engineerings and. where necessary. to exert control over them. The hope is. for illustration. to better supervise things like atomic power workss and to better them so that accidents like that at Three-Mile Island or Chernobyl can be prevented in the hereafter. The end is a surer and more unafraid technological universe.

The philosophy of the precautional rule is sometimes used in forestalling the worst facets of new engineerings. such as cloning and familial technology. when there is no grounds of their negative impact. 5. To manage such assessment and control. and more by and large the sheer complexness of post-industrial society. new rational engineerings are developed and implemented. They include cybernetics. Game theory and Information theory. 6. A new relationship is forged in the post-industrial society between scientists and the new engineerings they create. every bit good as systematic technological growing. lies at the base of post-industrial society. This leads to the demand for more universities and university-based pupil. In fact. the university is important to post-industrial society. The university produced the experts who can make. usher. and command the new and dramatically altering engineerings

3. Analyze the function of Gandhi in the National Movement. Solution: The nationalist motion grew into a broad spread mass anti-imperialist motion at the terminal of the First World War. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi came into prominence at this clip and became the unchallenged leader of the nationalist motion. Powerful mass motions were launched under his leading. These involved rebelliousness of Torahs. peaceable presentations. boycott of educational establishments. boycott of tribunals. boycott of educational establishments. picketing of stores selling spirits and foreign goods. default of revenue enhancements and the shutting of critical concern. These non-violent but radical methods influenced 1000000s of people belonging to all subdivisions of society and infused in them bravery and assurance. Millions now braved the repression resorted by the govt boldly courted imprisonment and faced lathicharges and fires. Gandhiji lived the simple life of an ascetic and talked to the people in a linguistic communication they could understand. He came to be known to the people as Mahatma Gandhi.

Gandhiji made societal study a portion of the programme of the nationalist motion. His greatest accomplishment in the field of societal reform was the run against cold establishment of untouchability which had degraded 1000000s of Indians. His other accomplishment was in the field of bungalow industries. He saw in the charkha. the whirling wheel. the redemption of the small town people and its publicity became portion of the Congress programme. In add-on to inculcating people with the spirit of patriotism it provided employment to 1000000s and created a big group of people who were ready to throw themselves into the battle and tribunal imprisonment. The charkha became so of import that it finally became a portion of the flag of the Indian National Congress.

Gandhiji devoted himself to the cause of Hindu-Muslim integrity. He regarded communalism as anti-national and cold. Under his leading the integrity of the nationalist motion was secured and the people worked difficult for independency

4. How do you measure the public presentation of Indian Economy during the initial old ages of Globalization ( since 1991 ) ?
Solution: As said above reply merely

B. Middle Category Questions ( MCQ ) answer any four in 250 words each: 5. Discourse the accomplishments of Renaissance in the field of art and architecture. 12 Solution: Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different parts of Europe. showing a witting resurgence and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material civilization. Stylistically. Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Developed foremost in Florence. with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its pioneers. the Renaissance manner rapidly spread to other Italian metropoliss. The manner was carried to France. Germany. England. Russia and other parts of Europe at different day of the months and with changing grades of impact.

Renaissance manner topographic points accent on symmetricalness. proportion. geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in peculiar antediluvian Roman architecture. of which many illustrations remained. Orderly agreements of columns. pilasters and headers. every bit good as the usage of semicircular arches. hemispherical domes. niches and aedicules replaced the more complex relative systems and irregular profiles of medieval edifice

6. Have the Indian Economy made any advancement in the field of Distributive justness? 12 Solution: As said above reply merely 4

7. Discourse the directing Principles of State policies. Discourse the cardinal Rights guaranteed by the Indian Constitution. How are the different? 12 Solution: As said above reply merely

8. What function do non-state histrions play in the democratic procedure? Discuss. 12 Solution: Non-State Actors ( NSA’s ) continue to play a important function in the democratic procedure of any state. For Pacific NSA’s. their function as a spouse in Pacific development is highlighted in the Cotonou Agreement. Development goaded actions under the 10th Development Fund ( 2008-2013 ) . are sourced from the European Development Fund ( EDF ) and the budget of the European Commission. Pacific Regional Programme: Under the Pacific Regional Programme the EU has overall allocated a sum of 472. 9 million euro ( in sum ) to be implemented through the Pacific Island Forum Secretariat ( PIFS ) for the period 2008-2013. For regional NSA’s: the allotment is 3 to 4 million euro. Postpone A below ( I have requested SOCS for this tabular array ; allocate infinite for this ) has a dislocation of the allotment for NSA’s for state specific programmes under the non focal sectors for the period 2008-2013.

EU maintains duologue with Non State Actors: In acknowledgment of civil society’s function under the Cotonou Agreement. the EU through its Deputations in Fiji. Samoa. and New Caledonia. continues to keep regular duologue with civil service spouses straight. or through its ain deputations within the part circulating cardinal and relevant information informing NSA’s on EU policies and schemes for the Pacific and name for proposals. to heighten their work on the land as outlined in the Cotonou Agreement.

Non-state histrions ( NSAs ) have a interest in the healthy operation of the many-sided trading system. NSAs are expected to show their concerns to the WTO through their several authoritiess. In recent old ages the WTO has made attempts to break make out to NSAs while continuing its cardinal nature as an intergovernmental organisation. For illustration. the WTO Public Forum is unfastened to all participants. most WTO paperss are publically available. and regular WTO briefings are held for non-governmental organisations ( NGOs ) and Parliamentarians. Hearings in some difference colony proceedings have besides been opened to the public upon understanding among the parties. Despite these developments. the effectivity of NSA engagement remains problematic.

9. What function does coordination play in the direction of organisations? Discuss. 12 10. Discourse the construct of administration. Is furthering openness in the system a portion of good administration.

11. How do you look at the construct of ‘Human Security’ ? Discuss. 12 Solution: Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding planetary exposures whose advocates challenge the traditional impression of national security by reasoning that the proper referent for security should be the person instead than the province. Human security holds that a people-centered position of security is necessary for national. regional and planetary stableness.

The construct emerged from a post-Cold War. multi-disciplinary apprehension of security affecting a figure of research Fieldss. including development surveies. international dealingss. strategic surveies. and human rights. The United Nations Development Programme’s 1994 Human Development Report is considered a milepost publication in the field of human security. with its statement that sing “freedom from want” and “freedom from fear” for all individuals is the best way to undertake the job of planetary insecurity.

Critics of the construct argue that its vagueness undermines its effectivity. that it has become little more than a vehicle for militants wishing to advance certain causes. and that it does non assist the research community understand what security means or assist determination shapers to explicate good policies. In order for human security to dispute planetary inequalities. at that place has to be cooperation between a country’s foreign policy and its attack to planetary wellness. However. the involvement of the province has continued to dominate the involvement of the people. For case. Canada’s foreign policy. “three Ds” . has been criticized for stressing defence more than development

12. Discourse the construct of “Digital Divide” . How do you believe it can be bridged? 12

Solution: Concept of Digital Divide
Broadly talking. the difference is non needfully determined by the entree to the Internet. but by entree to ICT ( Information and Communications Technologies ) and to Media that the different sections of society can utilize. With respects to the Internet. the entree is merely one facet. other factors such as the quality of connexion and related services should be considered. Today the most discussed issue is the handiness of the entree at an low-cost cost and quality.

The job is frequently discussed in an international context. bespeaking certain states are far more equipt than other developing states to work the benefits from the quickly spread outing Internet. Here is the latest State of the Internet Report from Akamai for Q1 2012. demoing mean and maximal connexion velocities. Internet Penetration and Broadband adaptation. Mobile use. every bit good as tendencies in this information over clip.

The digital divide is non so a clear individual spread which divides a society into two groups. Research workers report that disadvantage can take such signifiers as lower-performance computing machines. lower-quality or high monetary value connexions ( i. e. narrowband or dialup connexion ) . trouble of obtaining proficient aid. and lower entree to subscription-based contents.

Digital Divide Bridging the Gap
The thought that some information and communicating engineerings are critical to quality civic life is non new. Some suggest that the Internet and other ICTs are someway transforming society. bettering our common apprehension. extinguishing power derived functions. recognizing a genuinely free and democratic universe society. and other benefits.

In many states. entree to the telephone system is considered such a critical component that authoritiess implement assorted policies to offer low-cost telephone service. Unfortunately some states lack sufficient telephone lines.

Literacy is arguably another such component. although it is non related to any new engineerings or latest technological devices. It is a really widely shared position in many societies that being literate is indispensable to one’s calling. to self-guided acquisition. to political engagement. and to Internet use.

C. Short Category Questions ( SCQ ) 6+6
a ) Secularism
Solution: Secularism is the rule of separation of authorities establishments. and the individuals mandated to stand for the State. from spiritual establishments and spiritual very important persons. In one sense. secularism may asseverate the right to be free from spiritual regulation and instructions. and the right to freedom from governmental infliction of faith upon the people within a province that is impersonal on affairs of belief. ( See besides separation of church and province and Laicite. ) In another sense. it refers to the position that human activities and determinations. particularly political 1s. should be unbiased by spiritual influence. Some bookmans are now reasoning that the really thought of secularism will alter.

Secularism draws its rational roots from Greek and Roman philosophers such as Marcus Aurelius and Epicurus ; mediaeval Muslim polymaths such as Ibn Rushd ; Enlightenment minds such as Denis Diderot. Voltaire. Baruch Spinoza. John Locke. James Madison. Thomas Jefferson. and Thomas Paine ; and more recent deists. doubters. and atheists such as Robert Ingersoll and Bertrand Russell. The intents and statements in support of secularism vary widely. In European laicism. it has been argued that secularism is a motion toward modernisation. and off from traditional spiritual values ( besides known as secularisation ) . This type of secularism. on a societal or philosophical degree. has frequently occurred while keeping an official province church or other province support of faith. In the United States. some argue that province secularism has served to a greater extent to protect faith and the spiritual from governmental intervention. while secularism on a societal degree is less prevailing. Within states every bit good. differing political motions back up secularism for changing grounds.

B ) Bharatnatyam
Solution: Bharatanatyam is a classical Indian dance signifier arising in the South Indian province of Tamil Nadu. This dance signifier denotes assorted 19th and twentieth century Reconstructions of Sadir. the art of temple terpsichoreans. Sadir in bend. is derived from ancient dance signifiers that include some athletic karanas. Bharatnatyam is normally accompanied by Karnataka Sangeetha. It has its inspirations from the sculptures of the ancient temple of Chidambaram. Bharatanatyam. as the name depicts is the combination of: ‘Bha’ – Bhavam ( means look ) . ‘Ra’ – Ragam ( means music ) . ‘Ta – Talam ( means round or beat ) and Natyam ( means dance ) in Tamil. Bharatanatyam is a reworked dance-form from the traditional “sadir” known for its grace. pureness. tenderness. and modeled airss. Today. it is one of the most popular and widely performed dance manners and is practiced by male and female terpsichoreans all over the universe.

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