Founding Brothers Chapter 3

What does Ellis talk about in Chapter 3?
The long-standing silence that the government observed over the slavery question.
Who and what proposed a petition to the House of Representatives?
The Quakers proposed a petition for an end to the African Slave Trade.
What did Benjamin Franklin propose?
A different petition calling for the end of slavery, this one written by the Pennsylvania Abolition Society.
What did Franklin’s proposal claim?
Slave trade was immoral and that the constitution empowered Congress to take whatever action it deemed ‘necessary and proper’ to eliminate the stigma of traffic in human beings.
What did the Constitution say about slave trade?
Forewent any mention of slavery in order to appease the Southern states. Forbid any new laws concerning slavery until at least 1808,
What did Thomas Scott argue?
Slavery was not explicitly protected by the Constitution. That Congress use the Declaration rather than the Constitution as a guide. That all men are created equal.
What did James Jackson argue?
Supported slavery based on Biblical references and that the Deep South was economically depended on it.
What was the result of Scott’s and Jackson’s debate?
Representatives were troubled that slave uprisings could erupt because of it.
What was Ellis’s opinion on the question of slave trade?
That it divided the United States so intensely that it grew more irreconcilable every time the decision was postponed.
What was Thomas Jefferson’s opinion on slave trade and what resulted from his opinion?
Based on the spirit of 76′ that all men should be free. Believed all slaves born after 1800 should be set free and that slavery should not be allowed to expand into the Western territories. The result of his opinion was by the 1782 Virginia legislation which allowed all slave owners to free their slaves at their own discretion
What was Madison’s opinion on slave trade?
Slavery was immoral, but refused to push for a federal law. Instead, he believed that slavery should be dealt with at the state level.
Why was it so difficult for the House report to finally be read publicly?
Both North and South believed their arguments to be self evident.
What did the South do in the debate on whether slavery should be allowed or not?
Forced an eight day delay where the offered every pro-slavery argument they could. They used the 1790 census which revealed many for slaves live in the South to argue slavery would not just simply die out. They argued that the Northern delegates hot no right to dictate the behavior of the south.
What was the overall result?
Madison used his political rhetoric to keep the House unsettled over the question. He made certain that no Constitutional abolition was passed, and that the committee’s final recommendation kept slavery out of federal control. Ultimately, the committee passed three resolutions, most central of which was the insistence that Congress lacked authority to abolish slavery. The resolutions passed by a count of 29 to 25, and the question of slavery remained off the Congressional docket for 20 years.
What does Ellis conclude with?
Neither Madison nor Franklin’s interference deterred the course of history. The slavery debate eventually moved from Congress and into the churches and community halls, where it festered for decades until its national purging occurring Civil War.
How does Ellis present the Congress on the issue of slave trade?
As unable to act in any notable way. Congress was being tested at both the private and public levels, and it utterly failed the populace by refusing to either broker a compromise or acknowledge the extent of that compromise’s impossibility.
What does Ellis say about compromise?
It was absent during the 1790’s debate. t marked the first time in American history that a debate within the House of Representatives resulted in such heated public discussion.
What sits at the center of both this incident?
the fear of dissent that the Founding Fathers feared most. Madison might have engendered a situation that maintained his beloved state control, but he also acted in a way that would limit serious conflict. The other Founding Fathers, Franklin excluded, ignored the issue not because they lacked strong feelings, but because they knew that their authority could tip a balance into conflict.
Why was madison an intriguing character in this chapter?
While his ultimate goal was to limit federal control, he was hardly a pure Southern defender. Not only were his own moral feelings in conflict with those of many Southern delegates, but he was also appalled at their insistence of airing the arguments publicly. His goal was to make the question a non-issue. Madison was pragmatic enough to know that Biblical references would only go so far, and in fact could hurt his cause.
What does Ellis have to say about Benjamin Franklin?
Ellis evokes the idea of the Greek pantheon, which seated the twelve primary deities of Greek mythology. He suggests the existence of an American pantheon, upon which George Washington was first, followed by Franklin.
What did Franklin’s role in the debate do?
His position is reflected in the way that Franklin’s word so severely shook the House of Representatives into an action it otherwise would not have taken. His death, which happened so soon after his declaration that the legacy of slavery would tarnish the new county’s reputation, has an almost poetic meaning, since history would prove him correct.
On the issue of slave trade, why did Ellis state that the country’s divisions were becoming more apparent?
This debate could not be confined to secret meetings; instead, personalities and party loyalties had grown so that animosity became the order of American politics.
As a very basic sense of separation, what two models does Ellis consider as American Identity?
The Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution. The former was based in ideology and independence; the latter was based in pragmatic compromise that presupposed the importance of unity. In simpler terms, the former suggested local and state control, whereas the latter insisted upon federal control.
What is the meaning of the title of chapter 2-silence?
What mattered was what Madison wanted – “silence.” By ensuring that the question of slavery could not be addressed at the federal level, Madison secured both silence and states rights, but he complicated the issue that so it would not be corrected until Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation in 1862.
What was another major problem of slavery?
If it were to be banned in the south, where would all the slaves go?
What was the Northwest Ordinance?
Created a territory north of the Appalachian mountains around the area of Ohio and Michigan.
How was Jefferson a hypocrite?
Jefferson had lots of Antislavery laws he tried to pass but he owned hundreds of slaves.
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