Fredrick Taylor and His Scientific Management Theory

8 August 2016

Principles to scientific management and other theories Scientific management, as a classical management theory is a practice that deals with the careful selection of workers, the training of workers and supervising of workers for support. During the early 20th century a man called Fredrick. W. Taylor (also known as the father of scientific management) by then had a mechanical engineering background very interested in efficiency, this lead him to start the scientific management movement.

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Taylor had studied the “time study” concept in order to analyse the motions and tasks required in any job field so he could find out the best and efficient ways to perform that specific job. He had developed 4 principle of management from his intense studies, these were “division of responsibility and work” which was based on having scientific selection of workers for certain tasks, giving total support to workers in order for them to have a smooth way as the go about their job, they would over look their workers performance by giving some supervision and also using science to study and find the most efficient ways of operating certain tasks.

Scientific management principles were used in many workplaces that required labour, such as industries that comprised of machinery. In order to address the argument of organisations based on scientific management this thesis will firstly address the origins of scientific management then analyse some of the organisations that use scientific management (mostly in Australia) and if the use of that management theory works or not furthermore other theories will be briefly analysed, expanded, as well as using some examples from organisations.

The theory discussed will be Henry Fayol’s administrative of management theories lastly a conclusion that will evaluate the points to which one is better (scientific management and administrative) will be laid down Practising of management theories in Australia was adapted from foreign countries such as England, Japan and United States of America (USA) during the 20th century. The introduction of these theories in Australia made a huge impact to the managers by uncovering them to a huge number of new theories, practises and discourses of which were being practised by other managers abroad.

During that time (the earliest 20th century) a large body of managers were needed in private sector organisations and public sector organisations that way growing increasingly. Among all the management theories introduced the first formalised theory application practised in Australia was scientific management in a number of organisations. McDonalds is the world’s largest fast food company. It first open its doors in 1954 by the McDonalds brothers in the United States of America, but then it found its way to Sydney, Australia in 1971 were they had their first ever store in Australia.

Over time many McDonalds sores have opened up to countless states and towns in Australia. To date there are over 780 McDonalds stores open across Australia. The McDonalds restaurant may be the world’s largest fast food organisation but it also tries to run its organisation under good management strategies, theories/ practises. One approach McDonalds has taken to management practises is the use of the classical management theories, specifically scientific management. The practise of scientific management has been used in the restaurant to maintain efficiency, and get good results out of it.

Some ways in which the family restaurant McDonalds is practising its scientific management are; allowing workers to have breaks in order for them to not suffer from fatigue, workers are not paid the same amount of money its believed the workers would get lazy if they were all getting the same amount, there is division of labour as everyone has certain tasks to do and complete by the end of their shifts, they provide awards to employees that have shown commitment at work which in turn encourages them to work harder in order to receive more awards.

McDonald’s use of scientific management has worked for their organisation and has helped them succeed, grow, and improve in many ways Other organisations had or still take the same approach as McDonalds by using the scientific Management theory, but the question asked bout it would be did/ have they also succeed in practising the theory?. Going back to the 20th century, 1917 to be more specific the New South Wales railways and tramways department had introduced this theory (scientific management) to the railway department.

Before the introduction of this system collectivist practises and beliefs were characterised in the workshops industrial culture (taska, 98). The transport system had been seen as the key to Australia’s modernisation, economic development and progress nevertheless bureaucratic and welfare strategies were used when working with or dealing with their employees. A small group of Australian scholars had taken up the scientific management theory and grasped its importance. So to make use of the theory they introduced it to certain places and firms, for instance New South Wales railway and tram department.

The introduction of this management practise had gotten workers to obtained extra supervision, had restricted them to work on certain machines and the timing of there every movement was watched around the clock and a card system was at use. Unfortunately the management system that was introduced was not popular among the workers mainly because they were used to the old systems and they did not like there restriction. Two weeks after it was introduced the workers protested. Organisations above have both used scientific management to say the least.

The main difference between both organisations is that one succeeded and the other one failed specifically McDonalds had succeeded and the railway failed. The reason to McDonald’s success is that they had embraced the use of scientific management in how they ran things in their workplaces by applying its principles, in turn most of their workers/employees had learned and embraced it. The provision of giving awards also helped to some extent coz that meant employees would work harder.

The New South Wales railway and tramway department failed manly because the workers were used to other ways of getting managed and they did not want to change a thing Henry fayol a man who worked in mining industry had come up with the administrative theory which involved 14 principles. The 14 principles included division of work, which was having work divided among individuals at the same organisation or company, unity of command which involved workers receiving command from only one manager.

The principle of authority which to fayol was to have the right to give orders and exact obedience and one person that assumed it would assume having responsibility. Other principles included scalar chain, order equity stability of tenure of personnel initiative, espirit De Corps, Scalar discipline. Unity of direction, subordination of individual interests to the general interests, remuneration, centralisation and to name all In conclusion I would say Fredrick Taylor’s scientific management is the better approach to how most firms should be manages because of it simplicity and also because of how upfront it is to its management practises

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