Gangs Essay Research Paper GangsIntroductionI A
Gangs Essay, Research Paper
I. -A Los Angeles household takes a incorrect bend into gang district and is fired
upon. A 3-year-old is killed and her 2-year-old brother wounded.
-A Chinese immigrant in Brooklyn is kidnapped by a Chinatown pack which
demands ransom payments from her household. She is murdered when the household fails to pay.
-Two FBI agents and a constabulary sergeant are murdered inside the Washington,
D.C. constabularies central offices by a pack member.
-A Pittsburgh constabularies sergeant walking place with his girl is killed with
his ain gun after he stops and confronts a pack spraying graffito on a street.
II. Resolved: that the Federal Government should go through Torahs to forestall the
development pack related youth force.
1. Development: every bit defined in Websters Dictionary is? to do more
elaborate ; to enlarge?
2. Gang: as defined in Websters is? A group of individuals who are organized
and work together or socialise on a regular basis ; a group of stripling goons or
felons ; gang up on ; to assail as a group. ?
3. Violence: as defined in Websters is? Physical force or activity used
to do injury, harm or maltreatment?
4. Young person: as defined in Websters is? The visual aspect or province of
looking immature ; the clip of life when 1 is non considered a grownup ; a immature individual?
III. Our current juvenile justness system is no longer adequate for
today & # 8217 ; s hardened immature pack members. Demographics indicated this job is non
traveling off. In fact, merely will acquire worse. This is a serious job that can
non be left unbridled. If this is non addressed it will merely take to the decay
of our society. We must take action to battle packs in a new manner. Vice
President Albert Gore late told the White House imperativeness corps, & # 8220 ; Gangs have
been a major cause of the growing in violent offense in the past decade. & # 8221 ; He cited
a Treasury Department study that found the presence of rival packs, the Bloods
and the Crips, in 35 provinces and 58 metropoliss across the state. At the same imperativeness
conference, Attorney General Janet Reno cited the impact of disenabling one pack
in New Haven, Connecticut. Eighteen members of the & # 8220 ; Jungleboy & # 8221 ; street packs were
put in gaol, and, harmonizing to Reno, New Haven & # 8217 ; s slaying rate fell by tierce
I. Outline of Need Arguments
A. Problem: Many extremely rated experts warn of the impending young person offense crisis.
Youth violent offense has been lifting dramatically for more than a decennary. An
upward rush in vernal culprits of force is complemented by an
unprecedented growing in young person life with small or no grownup supervising.
Professor Dean Rojek, a sociologist at the University of Georgia, says, & # 8220 ; For
decennaries violent offense was driven largely by grownups, with childs involved largely in
belongings offense & # 8230 ; . What & # 8217 ; s been altering is that you have juveniles going much
more involved in violent discourtesies, with the usage of arms. If we add to this
more babes, you could hold a multiplier consequence & # 8230 ; a mini detonation [ in violent
offense by young person ] . & # 8221 ; Gang & # 8217 ; s merely rise this job.
California governments describe the young person pack as a & # 8220 ; violent and
insidious new signifier of organized offense. Heavily armed with sophisticated arms,
( packs ) are involved in drug trafficking, witness bullying, extortion, and
bloody territorial wars. In some instances they are going out of province to distribute
their force and crime. & # 8221 ;
Harmonizing to the FBI, & # 8220 ; The fastest turning slaying circumstance is
juvenile pack killings. & # 8221 ; Almost tierce of Los Angeles & # 8217 ; homicides are gang
related. Nationwide, the rate of violent discourtesies by pack members is three times
every bit high as for non-gang delinquents.
& # 8220 ; Unless we act now, & # 8221 ; says Attorney General Janet Reno, & # 8220 ; to halt immature
people from taking a life of force and offense, the beginning of the 21st
century could convey degrees of violent offense to our communities that far transcend
what we have experienced. & # 8221 ; Reggie Walton, a Washington, D.C. Superior Court
justice who handles juvenile instances, blames it on the disappearing of male parents.
Walton says male parents leave kids to be raised by immature female parents who themselves
are frequently fighting with mental or emotional jobs, limited instruction,
poorness and dependence. Walton labels these kids & # 8220 ; walking clip bombs. & # 8221 ;
This clip bomb has been in the devising for some clip. Today, and
historically, immature males commit far more offenses than other age groups.
Adolescents commit the largest part of all offense in America. More than one-
tierce of all slayings are committed by wrongdoers under the age of 20 one.
More slayings and robberies are committed by eight-teen twelvemonth old males than any
other group. ( Paul McNulty, ? Natural Born Killers? Preventing the Coming of
Explosion of Teenage Crime? , 1995 )
No affair the type of pack, most gang members are male. A Chicago survey
of four constabulary territories found that merely 2 to 5 per centum of pack arrested were
female. These females are typically subsidiary pack members.
Gang members range in age from 8 to 22 old ages old, but there are
exclusions where term of office is frequently good beyond 22 to possibly more than 40 old ages
old. A counsellor in a juvenile detainment installation in California said: & # 8220 ; ( If ) you
happen a gang member who comes from a complete atomic household, a child who has ne’er
been exposed to any sort of maltreatment, I & # 8217 ; vitamin Ds like to run into him & # 8230 ; . a existent & # 8216 ; gangbanger & # 8217 ;
who comes from a happy, balanced place, who & # 8217 ; s got a good sentiment of himself. I
Don & # 8217 ; t think that child exists. & # 8221 ;
Sydney Harris, a nationally syndicated editorialist, said, & # 8220 ; Gang members
be given to be chronic also-rans, who can carry through nil separately, or who live
in so down an environment that merely by banding together can they exert
any influence over their lives. In both instances, they are every bit much to be pitied as
condemned. & # 8221 ;
B. Significance: Young males belonging to a pack have been proved to be much
more violent than non-gang members:
Orange County, California probation statistics indicate that gang-
related young person had significantly higher law-violation rates ( 55.1
per centum ) than non-gang attached young person ( 26.4 per centum ) . A survey of
20 old ages of informations collected by Philadelphia & # 8217 ; s constabularies gang unit shows that & # 8220 ; packs
engage in more violent behaviour than make delinquent non-gang groups. & # 8221 ;
A survey in Wisconsin found that most violent offenses by young persons were
committed by groups of three or more. This & # 8220 ; battalion & # 8221 ; behaviour, non
surprisingly, seems to be at the nucleus of much of the rise in young person offense.
A survey of New York City teenage gunfire victims found that 40 per centum
were shot during school hours. Another survey found that of
kids and adolescents wounded in drive-by shots in Los Angeles, 71
per centum were & # 8220 ; documented members of street gangs. & # 8221 ;
Not merely do gang members tend to be more violent than non-gang members,
but pack rank appears to protract one & # 8217 ; s condemnable calling. One survey found
that a & # 8220 ; big part of persistent and unsafe juvenile pack wrongdoers become
even more serious grownup offenders. & # 8221 ; Another survey in California found that
previously-incarcerated pack members continued their lives of offense after being
Gangs are distributing across the state and are non merely limited to major
metropoliss. Bernard Friedlander, a University of Hartford psychological science professor and a
force expert, says, & # 8220 ; This is an American job, non an inner-city
job & # 8230 ; . It & # 8217 ; s distributing easy & # 8230 ; . On one degree it & # 8217 ; s simple craze imitation & # 8230 ;
but on another degree the isolation of young person is merely every bit profound in some of the
more stable countries as in the inner city. & # 8221 ;
The spread of packs can be attributed to at least three factors. First,
parents, wanting to protect their gang-culture-saturated kids from the
hometown pack & # 8217 ; s influence, direct them to relatives across the state. Sometimes
this scheme works. But many times this back fires and helps transfer the
gang civilization into a new community.
The drug trade has created entrepreneurial packs which fan out across
the state to spread out their markets. Franchises of the Bloods and the Crips are
now in most metropolitan centres. With their enlargement, they have introduced
collateral, gang-like force, reminiscent of the Mob earlier in the century.
To an extent the amusement industry contributes to the spread of
packs. The gang civilization, value system and outlook are sprinkled across the
state through films and & # 8220 ; gangsta & # 8221 ; blame music. These cultural amplifiers
educate immature audiences to gang values and attitudes. They denigrate adult females,
promote exaggerated manhood or & # 8220 ; machismo, & # 8221 ; and laud force. They besides pass
on pack linguistic communication, symbols, activities, and traditions.
Harmonizing to Justice Department estimates, the United States has some
1,436 packs and 120,636 pack members. They exist in all size communities and in
rural countries. The Justice Department figures are disputed by the National School
Safety Center, which in 1993 estimated that the Los Angeles country entirely has at
least 959 packs with about 125,000 gang members.
There are many types of packs. Some are black, white, Asiatic, Latino or
other ethnic-centered packs. Others are structured around district, commercial
activities, corporate concerns, political docket, faith, music and particular
types of offense.
Race/ethnic-based packs: Larry Rawles, deputy manager of Philadelphia & # 8217 ; s
Crisis Intervention Network, says, & # 8220 ; When any cultural group was at the
underside, they formed packs & # 8212 ; the Jews, the Irish, the Italians. & # 8221 ;
Gangs offered position, a sense of dignity, and protection. Today, most
packs are racially segregated ( 54.6 per centum are African American and
32.6 per centum are Hispanic ) . Blacks and Hispanics constitute the largest
Numberss of young persons arrested for pack discourtesies today.
The all-black rival packs, the Crips and the Bloods, have an
estimated 70,000 members in Los Angeles County entirely. They have
franchises in most provinces and metropolitan communities where they tend
to rule the cleft cocaine trade.
Darlyne Pettinicchio, a probation officer in Orange County,
California, says, & # 8220 ; ( White packs are ) hood bikerss and heavy
who ) come from all socio-economic categories. They’re of
mean intelligence and they & # 8217 ; re capable childs. They have really small
parental authorization. They & # 8217 ; re normally angry. Their dance is violent.
Their music is violent. Their behaviour is violent. They & # 8217 ; re into
anarchy. & # 8221 ;
Economic-based packs: Some packs are organized around a commercial
activity. Members may be all from a individual race or the same
vicinity or they may be really diverse. The gum that holds them
together is doing money. They frequently see themselves as Robin Hoods or
Bonnie-and-Clyde types who pattern their ain version of free endeavor. A
close cousin is the corporate pack, which selects a type of industry or
concern and dominates the field through bullying and force.
Territorial packs: can be from any race or cultural background. They lay
claim to a peculiar district. They typically & # 8220 ; tag & # 8221 ; their district
with pack graffito and are willing to support their sod to the decease.
Professor Cornel West, a Princeton University societal bookman, says in
his book Race Matters & # 8220 ; The terrorization consequence is a numbing withdrawal from
others and a suicidal temperament toward the universe. Life without significance,
hope, and love strains a cold-hearted, mean-spirited mentality that destroys both
the person and others. & # 8221 ;
The young person pack satisfies a nothingness. It provides the kid a sense of
individuality, belonging, power, and protection. The pack satisfies the kid & # 8217 ; s
desire to experience secure. Populating in a bad environment without paternal
protection, the immature mobster satisfies his insecurities by alining himself
with a pack, his foster household. The pack provides a protective barrier
against the outside forces. One pack member says, & # 8220 ; Being in a pack means if I
didn & # 8217 ; Ts have no household, I think that & # 8217 ; s where I & # 8217 ; ll be. If I didn & # 8217 ; Ts have no occupation
that & # 8217 ; s where I & # 8217 ; vitamin D be. To me it & # 8217 ; s community aid without all the community.
They & # 8217 ; ll understand better than my female parent and father. & # 8221 ;
This new & # 8220 ; household & # 8221 ; has a distinguishable set of values that affect every facet
of his life. Harmonizing to the Los Angeles District Attorney, & # 8220 ; It confronts and
confounds adult authorization on every degree & # 8212 ; sex, work, power, love, instruction,
linguistic communication, frock, music, drugs, intoxicant, force. As icons of popular civilization,
packs non merely stand for a powerful group individuality absolutely unaccessible to
grownups, they are surrounded with an appealing aura of criminal danger. & # 8221 ;
& # 8220 ; Tagging & # 8221 ; their district with pack graffito is common. It proclaims the
presence of the pack and offers a challenge to challengers. It may claim recognition for a
offense. The denser the graffito, the closer 1 is to the pack & # 8217 ; s nucleus district.
The Crips frequently mark & # 8220 ; B/K & # 8221 ; for & # 8220 ; Bloods killers. & # 8221 ;
The pack job is evidently a tremendous 1 for Americas young person and must be
dealt with fleetly and efficaciously. My spouse Tom will detail our program subsequently on
in this argument.
II. Outline of Plan
This plan will detail ways of forestalling some pack force. No program
or plan could of all time acquire rid of the pack job as a whole. Our program is
chiefly focused on bar but besides includes some stricter Torahs as a
hindrance to others. Our purpose is to significantly diminish the pack job in
1.Higher compulsory school registration age:
Higher the age a kid can lawfully retreat from school to the age of 18.
This would do certain all kids had a better instruction. It would besides maintain
many involved in school and off the streets, with out as much clip to perpetrate to
condemnable behaviour. Preventing? bead out & # 8217 ; s? from doing problem frequently related
to packs. A exclusion to this jurisprudence would be made for any High School or GED
Cost: None ; support for these pupils is already in topographic point
Enforcement: $ 50 mulct for any illegal absence
2.More? Real World? preparation in High Schools:
Make vocational and other occupation specific classes more available. Not all
teens can or desire to, travel to Higher Education. If they had a calling way right
out of High School many would non fall in packs for economic grounds. Computer and
other high tech preparation will be available and good as the traditional
Automotive, Construction, ECT.
Cost: Federal Government will non construct one Stealth B-1 bomber
plane ( $ 1.1 billion ) . Fundss will be diverted to local school territories with
the most need for equipment.
Enforcement: All federal support of schools will be revoked from any
not compling local legal powers
3. National Curfue Law:
A 12:00 midnight to 5:00AM national curfew for all individuals under the age
of 18. Exceptions would be made if the kid was with a legal gardein or some
one over the age of 25. This has been really successful in cut downing offense some
Enforcement: Any jurisprudence enforcement officer can publish a ( maximal $ 75
minimal $ 20 ) commendation during regular patrol.
4. Expand the Drug Free School Zone Program:
Not merely would drug punishments be doubled within a 1000 pace radius of
any school but besides any offense that could be linked to gang activity the punishment
would besides be doubled. From a illicitly parked auto to slay, all penalties
doubled for known pack members.
Cost: Funded via. wickedness revenue enhancements on points such as intoxicant and
baccy. Money would pay for excess patrols of school countries and added gaol
clip for those convicted.
Enforcement: Double penalty for any illegal activities that could
be related to gang activities. Quadruple punishments for any pack members
perpetrating a drug related offense in those countries.
5. ? Drive by & # 8217 ; s? act of terrorist act:
By labeling thing such as? thrust by? shots, or any force directed
at the populace in general, an act of terrorist act they would be a federal discourtesy
punishable by decease. Perpetrating a federal discourtesy usually carries a much
higher sentence than that of local legal powers, and is punishable by decease no
affair what province the offense was done in.
Enforcement: Punishable by Death ( Capital Offense ) ; Compulsory life in
prison for any grownup involved. Juvenile Compulsory 50 old ages.
6. Expand plans such as Head Start:
Expand pre-kindergarden plans such as Head Start to be avalible for
all, merely like public school. Will give 1000000s of kids, 2 and up, a
preschool plan who parents antecedently could non afford. Besides lets parents travel
to work and acquire off public assistance plans.
Cost: The cost of the school would be offset by the sum of
individual parents being able to travel back to work and therefor non trusting of
public assistance and nutrient casts.
Individual plans such as Head Start, Curfew, Real World Training, and
Drug Free School zones, have all ready proved at that place worthiness. Either by
already partly execution around the state or full execution in
choice metropoliss and proven to work.
New thoughts such as Drive By & # 8217 ; s a terrorist act, and increasing the legal
age to go forth school are both really feasible thoughts but have non to my cognition
been tested in any manner. These two plans need to be tested for say 1 twelvemonth
before being implementing for the full county.
While none of these six programs would make much to control violent packs entirely,
all of them at the same clip should do a noticed difference. Besides side
benefits of my program are:
Free preschool for all kids older than 2 old ages of age
Allows individual parents to work
Decreases pack and drug activity outside our schools
Gets tough with the most violent pack members
Encourages childs to remain in school
Better occupation preparation is offered for High Schoolers
& # 8220 ; We & # 8217 ; ve got so many childs out there who & # 8217 ; ve lost hope, who believe in merely
life for today, & # 8221 ; says John Turner, head of constabulary for the metropolis of Mountlake
Patio, Washington. & # 8220 ; They join a pack and acquire involved in condemnable activity
because there aren & # 8217 ; t any people taking them by the manus in simple footings and
indicating them in the right way, giving them self-esteem and positive
feedback. & # 8221 ;
Possibly packs exist because modern society has failed to tackle the
male hunter/predator inherent aptitude and converted those energies to familial
provider/protector attempts. Delinquent immature people missing values, scruples
or a sense of compunction can easy happen themselves drawn to the pack life style.
Noted writer James Q. Wilson writes in The Moral Sense that modern
society with its & # 8220 ; rapid technological alteration, intense division of labour, and
equivocal allotment of societal functions, often leaves some work forces out, with their
aggressive pre temperaments either uncontrolled or adrift. Gangs are one
result. & # 8221 ; Wilson says the net incomes from illegal drug gross revenues provide pack members
economic chances which combine with their uncontrolled aggression to
develop a & # 8220 ; warrior civilization that under invests in household life. & # 8221 ;
Converting male energy to familial provider/protector attempts has ever
been the undertaking of the integral household. But the atomic household is worsening,
particularly in preponderantly black inner metropoliss where packs dominate life and
rain violent offense. Many of these kids join packs to happen purpose, security,
and self-pride. The gang civilization gives them a sense of belonging and remakings
their value system. Partying, contending, and barbarous pack trueness become their
primary values, therefore forcing aside virtuousnesss that favor household life. This is a
barbarous rhythm and it must be broken.
Given that young person packs account for a disproportional portion of young person
force, their possible for lending to a hereafter offense moving ridge is tremendous. Angstrom
recent diminution in violent offense appears to be more a consequence of fewer adolescents
than better jurisprudence enforcement. When the current bumper harvest of elementary-age
kids become striplings, the violent offense rate is likely to detonate.
Gangs are the pulverization magazine, they must be dealt with before the bomb
Population of 14-18 twelvemonth olds
Now 17,620,472 5 Years18,628,635 + 6 % 10 Old ages
20,284,601+ 15 %