Gangs Essay Research Paper GangsIntroductionI A

9 September 2017

Gangs Essay, Research Paper



I. -A Los Angeles household takes a incorrect bend into gang district and is fired

upon. A 3-year-old is killed and her 2-year-old brother wounded.

-A Chinese immigrant in Brooklyn is kidnapped by a Chinatown pack which

demands ransom payments from her household. She is murdered when the household fails to pay.

-Two FBI agents and a constabulary sergeant are murdered inside the Washington,

D.C. constabularies central offices by a pack member.

-A Pittsburgh constabularies sergeant walking place with his girl is killed with

his ain gun after he stops and confronts a pack spraying graffito on a street.

II. Resolved: that the Federal Government should go through Torahs to forestall the

development pack related youth force.


1. Development: every bit defined in Websters Dictionary is? to do more

elaborate ; to enlarge?

2. Gang: as defined in Websters is? A group of individuals who are organized

and work together or socialise on a regular basis ; a group of stripling goons or

felons ; gang up on ; to assail as a group.

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3. Violence: as defined in Websters is? Physical force or activity used

to do injury, harm or maltreatment?

4. Young person: as defined in Websters is? The visual aspect or province of

looking immature ; the clip of life when 1 is non considered a grownup ; a immature individual?

III. Our current juvenile justness system is no longer adequate for

today & # 8217 ; s hardened immature pack members. Demographics indicated this job is non

traveling off. In fact, merely will acquire worse. This is a serious job that can

non be left unbridled. If this is non addressed it will merely take to the decay

of our society. We must take action to battle packs in a new manner. Vice

President Albert Gore late told the White House imperativeness corps, & # 8220 ; Gangs have

been a major cause of the growing in violent offense in the past decade. & # 8221 ; He cited

a Treasury Department study that found the presence of rival packs, the Bloods

and the Crips, in 35 provinces and 58 metropoliss across the state. At the same imperativeness

conference, Attorney General Janet Reno cited the impact of disenabling one pack

in New Haven, Connecticut. Eighteen members of the & # 8220 ; Jungleboy & # 8221 ; street packs were

put in gaol, and, harmonizing to Reno, New Haven & # 8217 ; s slaying rate fell by tierce

in 1993.

I. Outline of Need Arguments

A. Problem: Many extremely rated experts warn of the impending young person offense crisis.

Youth violent offense has been lifting dramatically for more than a decennary. An

upward rush in vernal culprits of force is complemented by an

unprecedented growing in young person life with small or no grownup supervising.

Professor Dean Rojek, a sociologist at the University of Georgia, says, & # 8220 ; For

decennaries violent offense was driven largely by grownups, with childs involved largely in

belongings offense & # 8230 ; . What & # 8217 ; s been altering is that you have juveniles going much

more involved in violent discourtesies, with the usage of arms. If we add to this

more babes, you could hold a multiplier consequence & # 8230 ; a mini detonation [ in violent

offense by young person ] . & # 8221 ; Gang & # 8217 ; s merely rise this job.

California governments describe the young person pack as a & # 8220 ; violent and

insidious new signifier of organized offense. Heavily armed with sophisticated arms,

( packs ) are involved in drug trafficking, witness bullying, extortion, and

bloody territorial wars. In some instances they are going out of province to distribute

their force and crime. & # 8221 ;

Harmonizing to the FBI, & # 8220 ; The fastest turning slaying circumstance is

juvenile pack killings. & # 8221 ; Almost tierce of Los Angeles & # 8217 ; homicides are gang

related. Nationwide, the rate of violent discourtesies by pack members is three times

every bit high as for non-gang delinquents.

& # 8220 ; Unless we act now, & # 8221 ; says Attorney General Janet Reno, & # 8220 ; to halt immature

people from taking a life of force and offense, the beginning of the 21st

century could convey degrees of violent offense to our communities that far transcend

what we have experienced. & # 8221 ; Reggie Walton, a Washington, D.C. Superior Court

justice who handles juvenile instances, blames it on the disappearing of male parents.

Walton says male parents leave kids to be raised by immature female parents who themselves

are frequently fighting with mental or emotional jobs, limited instruction,

poorness and dependence. Walton labels these kids & # 8220 ; walking clip bombs. & # 8221 ;

This clip bomb has been in the devising for some clip. Today, and

historically, immature males commit far more offenses than other age groups.

Adolescents commit the largest part of all offense in America. More than one-

tierce of all slayings are committed by wrongdoers under the age of 20 one.

More slayings and robberies are committed by eight-teen twelvemonth old males than any

other group. ( Paul McNulty, ? Natural Born Killers? Preventing the Coming of

Explosion of Teenage Crime? , 1995 )

No affair the type of pack, most gang members are male. A Chicago survey

of four constabulary territories found that merely 2 to 5 per centum of pack arrested were

female. These females are typically subsidiary pack members.

Gang members range in age from 8 to 22 old ages old, but there are

exclusions where term of office is frequently good beyond 22 to possibly more than 40 old ages

old. A counsellor in a juvenile detainment installation in California said: & # 8220 ; ( If ) you

happen a gang member who comes from a complete atomic household, a child who has ne’er

been exposed to any sort of maltreatment, I & # 8217 ; vitamin Ds like to run into him & # 8230 ; . a existent & # 8216 ; gangbanger & # 8217 ;

who comes from a happy, balanced place, who & # 8217 ; s got a good sentiment of himself. I

Don & # 8217 ; t think that child exists. & # 8221 ;

Sydney Harris, a nationally syndicated editorialist, said, & # 8220 ; Gang members

be given to be chronic also-rans, who can carry through nil separately, or who live

in so down an environment that merely by banding together can they exert

any influence over their lives. In both instances, they are every bit much to be pitied as

condemned. & # 8221 ;

B. Significance: Young males belonging to a pack have been proved to be much

more violent than non-gang members:

Orange County, California probation statistics indicate that gang-

related young person had significantly higher law-violation rates ( 55.1

per centum ) than non-gang attached young person ( 26.4 per centum ) . A survey of

20 old ages of informations collected by Philadelphia & # 8217 ; s constabularies gang unit shows that & # 8220 ; packs

engage in more violent behaviour than make delinquent non-gang groups. & # 8221 ;

A survey in Wisconsin found that most violent offenses by young persons were

committed by groups of three or more. This & # 8220 ; battalion & # 8221 ; behaviour, non

surprisingly, seems to be at the nucleus of much of the rise in young person offense.

A survey of New York City teenage gunfire victims found that 40 per centum

were shot during school hours. Another survey found that of

kids and adolescents wounded in drive-by shots in Los Angeles, 71

per centum were & # 8220 ; documented members of street gangs. & # 8221 ;

Not merely do gang members tend to be more violent than non-gang members,

but pack rank appears to protract one & # 8217 ; s condemnable calling. One survey found

that a & # 8220 ; big part of persistent and unsafe juvenile pack wrongdoers become

even more serious grownup offenders. & # 8221 ; Another survey in California found that

previously-incarcerated pack members continued their lives of offense after being


Gangs are distributing across the state and are non merely limited to major

metropoliss. Bernard Friedlander, a University of Hartford psychological science professor and a

force expert, says, & # 8220 ; This is an American job, non an inner-city

job & # 8230 ; . It & # 8217 ; s distributing easy & # 8230 ; . On one degree it & # 8217 ; s simple craze imitation & # 8230 ;

but on another degree the isolation of young person is merely every bit profound in some of the

more stable countries as in the inner city. & # 8221 ;

The spread of packs can be attributed to at least three factors. First,

parents, wanting to protect their gang-culture-saturated kids from the

hometown pack & # 8217 ; s influence, direct them to relatives across the state. Sometimes

this scheme works. But many times this back fires and helps transfer the

gang civilization into a new community.

The drug trade has created entrepreneurial packs which fan out across

the state to spread out their markets. Franchises of the Bloods and the Crips are

now in most metropolitan centres. With their enlargement, they have introduced

collateral, gang-like force, reminiscent of the Mob earlier in the century.

To an extent the amusement industry contributes to the spread of

packs. The gang civilization, value system and outlook are sprinkled across the

state through films and & # 8220 ; gangsta & # 8221 ; blame music. These cultural amplifiers

educate immature audiences to gang values and attitudes. They denigrate adult females,

promote exaggerated manhood or & # 8220 ; machismo, & # 8221 ; and laud force. They besides pass

on pack linguistic communication, symbols, activities, and traditions.

Harmonizing to Justice Department estimates, the United States has some

1,436 packs and 120,636 pack members. They exist in all size communities and in

rural countries. The Justice Department figures are disputed by the National School

Safety Center, which in 1993 estimated that the Los Angeles country entirely has at

least 959 packs with about 125,000 gang members.

There are many types of packs. Some are black, white, Asiatic, Latino or

other ethnic-centered packs. Others are structured around district, commercial

activities, corporate concerns, political docket, faith, music and particular

types of offense.

Race/ethnic-based packs: Larry Rawles, deputy manager of Philadelphia & # 8217 ; s

Crisis Intervention Network, says, & # 8220 ; When any cultural group was at the

underside, they formed packs & # 8212 ; the Jews, the Irish, the Italians. & # 8221 ;

Gangs offered position, a sense of dignity, and protection. Today, most

packs are racially segregated ( 54.6 per centum are African American and

32.6 per centum are Hispanic ) . Blacks and Hispanics constitute the largest

Numberss of young persons arrested for pack discourtesies today.

The all-black rival packs, the Crips and the Bloods, have an

estimated 70,000 members in Los Angeles County entirely. They have

franchises in most provinces and metropolitan communities where they tend

to rule the cleft cocaine trade.

Darlyne Pettinicchio, a probation officer in Orange County,

California, says, & # 8220 ; ( White packs are ) hood bikerss and heavy

metalers (

who ) come from all socio-economic categories. They’re of

mean intelligence and they & # 8217 ; re capable childs. They have really small

parental authorization. They & # 8217 ; re normally angry. Their dance is violent.

Their music is violent. Their behaviour is violent. They & # 8217 ; re into

anarchy. & # 8221 ;

Economic-based packs: Some packs are organized around a commercial

activity. Members may be all from a individual race or the same

vicinity or they may be really diverse. The gum that holds them

together is doing money. They frequently see themselves as Robin Hoods or

Bonnie-and-Clyde types who pattern their ain version of free endeavor. A

close cousin is the corporate pack, which selects a type of industry or

concern and dominates the field through bullying and force.

Territorial packs: can be from any race or cultural background. They lay

claim to a peculiar district. They typically & # 8220 ; tag & # 8221 ; their district

with pack graffito and are willing to support their sod to the decease.

Professor Cornel West, a Princeton University societal bookman, says in

his book Race Matters & # 8220 ; The terrorization consequence is a numbing withdrawal from

others and a suicidal temperament toward the universe. Life without significance,

hope, and love strains a cold-hearted, mean-spirited mentality that destroys both

the person and others. & # 8221 ;

The young person pack satisfies a nothingness. It provides the kid a sense of

individuality, belonging, power, and protection. The pack satisfies the kid & # 8217 ; s

desire to experience secure. Populating in a bad environment without paternal

protection, the immature mobster satisfies his insecurities by alining himself

with a pack, his foster household. The pack provides a protective barrier

against the outside forces. One pack member says, & # 8220 ; Being in a pack means if I

didn & # 8217 ; Ts have no household, I think that & # 8217 ; s where I & # 8217 ; ll be. If I didn & # 8217 ; Ts have no occupation

that & # 8217 ; s where I & # 8217 ; vitamin D be. To me it & # 8217 ; s community aid without all the community.

They & # 8217 ; ll understand better than my female parent and father. & # 8221 ;

This new & # 8220 ; household & # 8221 ; has a distinguishable set of values that affect every facet

of his life. Harmonizing to the Los Angeles District Attorney, & # 8220 ; It confronts and

confounds adult authorization on every degree & # 8212 ; sex, work, power, love, instruction,

linguistic communication, frock, music, drugs, intoxicant, force. As icons of popular civilization,

packs non merely stand for a powerful group individuality absolutely unaccessible to

grownups, they are surrounded with an appealing aura of criminal danger. & # 8221 ;

& # 8220 ; Tagging & # 8221 ; their district with pack graffito is common. It proclaims the

presence of the pack and offers a challenge to challengers. It may claim recognition for a

offense. The denser the graffito, the closer 1 is to the pack & # 8217 ; s nucleus district.

The Crips frequently mark & # 8220 ; B/K & # 8221 ; for & # 8220 ; Bloods killers. & # 8221 ;

The pack job is evidently a tremendous 1 for Americas young person and must be

dealt with fleetly and efficaciously. My spouse Tom will detail our program subsequently on

in this argument.

II. Outline of Plan

A. Plan:

This plan will detail ways of forestalling some pack force. No program

or plan could of all time acquire rid of the pack job as a whole. Our program is

chiefly focused on bar but besides includes some stricter Torahs as a

hindrance to others. Our purpose is to significantly diminish the pack job in


1.Higher compulsory school registration age:

Higher the age a kid can lawfully retreat from school to the age of 18.

This would do certain all kids had a better instruction. It would besides maintain

many involved in school and off the streets, with out as much clip to perpetrate to

condemnable behaviour. Preventing? bead out & # 8217 ; s? from doing problem frequently related

to packs. A exclusion to this jurisprudence would be made for any High School or GED


Cost: None ; support for these pupils is already in topographic point

Enforcement: $ 50 mulct for any illegal absence

2.More? Real World? preparation in High Schools:

Make vocational and other occupation specific classes more available. Not all

teens can or desire to, travel to Higher Education. If they had a calling way right

out of High School many would non fall in packs for economic grounds. Computer and

other high tech preparation will be available and good as the traditional

Automotive, Construction, ECT.

Cost: Federal Government will non construct one Stealth B-1 bomber

plane ( $ 1.1 billion ) . Fundss will be diverted to local school territories with

the most need for equipment.

Enforcement: All federal support of schools will be revoked from any

not compling local legal powers

3. National Curfue Law:

A 12:00 midnight to 5:00AM national curfew for all individuals under the age

of 18. Exceptions would be made if the kid was with a legal gardein or some

one over the age of 25. This has been really successful in cut downing offense some


Cost: None

Enforcement: Any jurisprudence enforcement officer can publish a ( maximal $ 75

minimal $ 20 ) commendation during regular patrol.

4. Expand the Drug Free School Zone Program:

Not merely would drug punishments be doubled within a 1000 pace radius of

any school but besides any offense that could be linked to gang activity the punishment

would besides be doubled. From a illicitly parked auto to slay, all penalties

doubled for known pack members.

Cost: Funded via. wickedness revenue enhancements on points such as intoxicant and

baccy. Money would pay for excess patrols of school countries and added gaol

clip for those convicted.

Enforcement: Double penalty for any illegal activities that could

be related to gang activities. Quadruple punishments for any pack members

perpetrating a drug related offense in those countries.

5. ? Drive by & # 8217 ; s? act of terrorist act:

By labeling thing such as? thrust by? shots, or any force directed

at the populace in general, an act of terrorist act they would be a federal discourtesy

punishable by decease. Perpetrating a federal discourtesy usually carries a much

higher sentence than that of local legal powers, and is punishable by decease no

affair what province the offense was done in.

Cost: Negligible

Enforcement: Punishable by Death ( Capital Offense ) ; Compulsory life in

prison for any grownup involved. Juvenile Compulsory 50 old ages.

6. Expand plans such as Head Start:

Expand pre-kindergarden plans such as Head Start to be avalible for

all, merely like public school. Will give 1000000s of kids, 2 and up, a

preschool plan who parents antecedently could non afford. Besides lets parents travel

to work and acquire off public assistance plans.

Cost: The cost of the school would be offset by the sum of

individual parents being able to travel back to work and therefor non trusting of

public assistance and nutrient casts.

Enforcement: None

B. Solvency:

Individual plans such as Head Start, Curfew, Real World Training, and

Drug Free School zones, have all ready proved at that place worthiness. Either by

already partly execution around the state or full execution in

choice metropoliss and proven to work.

New thoughts such as Drive By & # 8217 ; s a terrorist act, and increasing the legal

age to go forth school are both really feasible thoughts but have non to my cognition

been tested in any manner. These two plans need to be tested for say 1 twelvemonth

before being implementing for the full county.

C. Advantages:

While none of these six programs would make much to control violent packs entirely,

all of them at the same clip should do a noticed difference. Besides side

benefits of my program are:

Free preschool for all kids older than 2 old ages of age

Allows individual parents to work

Decreases pack and drug activity outside our schools

Gets tough with the most violent pack members

Encourages childs to remain in school

Better occupation preparation is offered for High Schoolers

III. Decision

& # 8220 ; We & # 8217 ; ve got so many childs out there who & # 8217 ; ve lost hope, who believe in merely

life for today, & # 8221 ; says John Turner, head of constabulary for the metropolis of Mountlake

Patio, Washington. & # 8220 ; They join a pack and acquire involved in condemnable activity

because there aren & # 8217 ; t any people taking them by the manus in simple footings and

indicating them in the right way, giving them self-esteem and positive

feedback. & # 8221 ;

Possibly packs exist because modern society has failed to tackle the

male hunter/predator inherent aptitude and converted those energies to familial

provider/protector attempts. Delinquent immature people missing values, scruples

or a sense of compunction can easy happen themselves drawn to the pack life style.

Noted writer James Q. Wilson writes in The Moral Sense that modern

society with its & # 8220 ; rapid technological alteration, intense division of labour, and

equivocal allotment of societal functions, often leaves some work forces out, with their

aggressive pre temperaments either uncontrolled or adrift. Gangs are one

result. & # 8221 ; Wilson says the net incomes from illegal drug gross revenues provide pack members

economic chances which combine with their uncontrolled aggression to

develop a & # 8220 ; warrior civilization that under invests in household life. & # 8221 ;

Converting male energy to familial provider/protector attempts has ever

been the undertaking of the integral household. But the atomic household is worsening,

particularly in preponderantly black inner metropoliss where packs dominate life and

rain violent offense. Many of these kids join packs to happen purpose, security,

and self-pride. The gang civilization gives them a sense of belonging and remakings

their value system. Partying, contending, and barbarous pack trueness become their

primary values, therefore forcing aside virtuousnesss that favor household life. This is a

barbarous rhythm and it must be broken.

Given that young person packs account for a disproportional portion of young person

force, their possible for lending to a hereafter offense moving ridge is tremendous. Angstrom

recent diminution in violent offense appears to be more a consequence of fewer adolescents

than better jurisprudence enforcement. When the current bumper harvest of elementary-age

kids become striplings, the violent offense rate is likely to detonate.

Gangs are the pulverization magazine, they must be dealt with before the bomb

goes away.

Rebuttal extensions-

Population of 14-18 twelvemonth olds

Now 17,620,472 5 Years18,628,635 + 6 % 10 Old ages

20,284,601+ 15 %

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