Gay Gene Essay Research Paper HomosexualityIs it

9 September 2017

Gay Gene Essay, Research Paper


Is it Truly a Choice?

Since the 1800 & # 8217 ; s, head-shrinkers and psychologists have

concluded that homosexualism is a mental upset. They have

believed it is brought about by ill-conceived upbringing and their

societal environments. For case, it was believed that if the kid

was missing a male & # 8211 ; figure in the place, he would most probably be

homosexual. Or that child maltreatment can take to lesbianism when the particular

demands of a small miss are denied, ignored, or exploited and the

future muliebrity of the kid is in hazard. However,

incompatibilities in the research subjects & # 8217 ; maltreatment records ruled these

theories out. And if this were the instance, so why is homosexualism

present in different civilizations?

Some believed homosexualism was caused by a difference in

encephalon construction. In 1991, Simon LeVay published research saying

that sexual orientation may be the consequence of differing encephalon

constructions. The hypothalamus, a part in the encephalon that governs

sexual behaviour, was the construction that LeVay was nailing as

the construction at mistake. In his surveies of the hypothalamus, he found

that in homosexual work forces, the hypothalamus was smaller than that

of heterosexual work forces. Alternatively it was the size of the female

hypothalamus, therefore explicating their sexual inclinations. & # 8221 ; It would

Begin to propose why male homosexualism is present in most

human populations, despite cultural restraints, & # 8221 ; says Dennis

Landis, a brain doctor who studied encephalon construction at Case Western

Reserve University. ( Williams, 1993 )

A adult female by the name of Barbara Grizzuti Harrison

criticized LeVay & # 8217 ; s theories and found several defects in his

experimental surveies. First off, she looked at LeVay & # 8217 ; s sample

population. It turned out that LeVay had autopsied 19

homosexual work forces, 16 work forces presumed to be heterosexual, and 6

adult females presumed to be heterosexual. So already we have one

defect, excessively little a sample size. Flaw figure two was that LeVay

merely presumed that the 16 males and 6 females were

heterosexual. Possibly they hadn & # 8217 ; t come out of the cupboard yet. Or

possibly they were bisexual! Flaw figure three being that all of

the 19 homosexual work forces died of AIDS, which infiltrates the cardinal

nervous system. How could he be certain that there wasn & # 8217 ; t some

relationship between the disease and the size of the

hypothalamus? So you see, differences in encephalon construction couldn & # 8217 ; T

be proven harmonizing to LeVay & # 8217 ; s surveies.

More late, nevertheless, scientists have begun to see sexual

penchants as familial. It is no longer a inquiry of nature V.

raising. Most homosexual work forces and adult females have ever had the

same sexual orientation. Among cheery work forces, 96 % had their & # 8221 ; first

crush & # 8221 ; on another male. Whereas 100 % of heterosexual males

were foremost attracted to females. One thing that didn & # 8217 ; t differ

between straight persons and homophiles was the age at which

they had their first attractive forces. Most males had their first

attractive forces around the age of 10. Besides, 86 % of cheery work forces had their

foremost sexual activity with another male. With heterosexual males,

on the other manus, merely 73 % had their first sexual activity with a

female! The age average age for pubescence among males, irrespective

of sexual orientation, is about 12 old ages of age. Although

homosexuals work forces who reached pubescence subsequently tended to hold fewer sexual

spouses than work forces who reached pubescence at an early age. Most

cheery work forces self & # 8211 ; acknowledge that they are gay anyplace between

the ages of 4 through 30, with the average being at age 16.

Coming & # 8221 ; out of the cupboard & # 8221 ; and uncovering their individuality to the

public by and large took longer. Most cheery work forces revealed their secret

at the average age of 21.

Some persons go through a cheery stage as a consequence of

emotional or mental rejection. This helps explicate why some

persons carry the homosexual cistron, but don & # 8217 ; t show it. And

adversely, why other persons don & # 8217 ; t possess the cheery cistron, but

make show gay inclinations.

There was one adult male in peculiar that took great involvement in

this problematic subject. A alumnus from Harvard University with his

Ph.D. in Genetics, Dr. Dean Hamer now works in a division of the

National Cance

R Institute ( NCI ) as head of Gene Structure and

Regulation Section of the Laboratory of Biochemistry. In 1992 the

NCI became particularly interested in Kaposi & # 8217 ; s sarcoma ( KS ) , a

malignant neoplastic disease of the tegument cells that appears most often in Greeks,

Italians and in cheery work forces with AIDS. Hamer began believing about

the function of cistrons in & # 8221 ; complex traits & # 8221 ; and began to oppugn the

possible function of cistrons in sexual orientation. He began his

research by pulling out household lineages of cheery work forces to turn out its

heredity. In the pureblood shown in Figure A, the cheery signifier of the

sexual orientation cistron is present in the maternal gramps.

The cistron seems to vanish in his progeny, but he has passed

the & # 8221 ; gay cistron & # 8221 ; onto his girls. The girls, nevertheless, don & # 8217 ; T

show the trait because they received a & # 8221 ; straight cistron & # 8221 ; from

their female parent. The trait so reappears in the male grandchildren

in the following coevals. The female parent was a heterozygous bearer

and passed the trait on to her boies. In Part B of Figure A, the homosexual

cistron is passed down from the maternal grandma to the homosexual

capable & # 8217 ; s uncles and male cousins.

Another manner they tested their & # 8221 ; guinea hogs & # 8221 ; was by inquiring

them a set of choice inquiries based on their sexual penchants.

Figure Tocopherol shows an lineation of the subjects covered to find their

sexual orientation.

Another technique used was the Kinsey Scale which was

developed by Alfred Kinsey in the 1940 & # 8217 ; s for sexual research. The

Kinsey scale ranks sexual orientation on a six degree graduated table runing

from sole heterosexual to sole homosexual. 0 being

entirely heterosexual and 6 being entirely homosexual. A

series of inquiries is once more asked based on these four facets:

Self-identification, attractive force, phantasy and behaviour. See Figure D

for the distribution of these four facets in homophiles and

straight persons. For the person to sort as Definitely Gay,

they had to hold a Kinsey mark of 5 or 6, intending that they had

openly acknowledged their attractive force to the same sex to

themselves of to other household members. They were classified as

Decidedly Bisexual if they received a 2 & # 8211 ; 4 on the Kinsey Scale and

as an grownup, they openly acknowledged that they were bisexual.

The person was perchance cheery or bisexual if they had some

ground to surmise something other than heterosexualism, but non

openly acknowledged. A individual was considered heterosexual if

they had a Kinsey Score of 0 or 1 and they indicated an

acknowledged attractive force to the opposite sex.

Once their sexual orientation was determined, 76 homosexual

persons were asked how many of their relations were homosexuals, if

any. And if they were, which 1s, so they could find the

possible familial linkage. After pulling out 76 household lineages

they found that there were far more homosexuals on the female parent & # 8217 ; s side of

the household than on the male parent & # 8217 ; s side. Because of these findings they

concluded that it must be a sex & # 8211 ; lined trait. They found a little

part of the X chromosome, Xq28, appeared to be the same in a

high proportion of homosexual brothers. Out of 56 braces of indistinguishable twins,

where one homosexual twin was interviewed, 52 % of the carbon monoxide & # 8211 ; twins were

besides homosexual. Besides along those lines, a brother of homosexual twins has a 22 %

opportunity of being homosexual. Whereas they found that persons with

twin brothers, one homosexual and one heterosexual, had merely a 4 % opportunity of

being homosexual ( Hamer and Copeland, 1994 ) . If you look at Figure B,

you will observe that there are more homosexuals on the maternal side than

their are on the paternal side. Figure C is a chart of sapphic & # 8217 ; s

male relations. Their values are different of those of the homosexuals

values, but both have comparatively the same consequences. Since they found

that sexual orientation is a recessionary X & # 8211 ; linked trait, that would

explain why it appears more often in males than it does in


The consequences of this survey were published on July 16, 1993

and since so, the subject still remains problematic and

argumentative. Homosexuals and tribades seemed to appreciate and

do visible radiation of the topic, though. Shortly after the study

publications were released, Jerseies were made that read & # 8221 ; Xq28 –

& # 8211 ; thanks for the cistrons, Mom! & # 8220 ;

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