Gender stratification

7 July 2016

Gender role is one of the crucial top issues of today in politics, workplaces, institutions, and even in the world of religion. They determine how males and females should think, speak, dress, and interact within the context of society. Basically, the problem is deep-set values and opinions buried under the surface of our society. Mead (1963) proved it to be true. He carried out groundbreaking research on gender. He studied the three societies in New Guinea namely Arapesh, Mundugumor, Tchambuli.

In this research, he found out that these three societies had different perspective in gender and it is based firmly on their culture. According to Kampen (1996, p. 17), “People don’t discover gender lying under a cabbage leaf; they build it over generations”. What Kampen means by this is that gender is not set in stone. Every year, month, day, our perception of gender changes. In other words, whether you notice it or not, gender is being developed by people’s daily interaction. It is made not born. As a matter of fact, this issue of gender is firmly rooted in the culture of a certain society.

Gender stratification Essay Example

Sometimes it is hard to understand exactly what is meant by the term “gender”, and how it differs from the closely related term “sex”. In the sociological perspective, gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. In other words, it is a social and behavioral norm that are generally considered appropriate for either a man or a woman in a social or interpersonal relationship while “sex” refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women.

These gender roles in many developing societies, although not in all, women have traditionally been under-represented or experienced disadvantages compared to men. Some have remained unchanged over many years; in general, society expects different things from women and men. Traditionally, men go out and are the breadwinners for a household, while women stay at home and do housework and childcare. Women must choose between a job and a career, or risk being considered a bad parent. Men have no such dilemma; in fact, if they do not work, they are told to be neglecting their families, not the other way around.

These differences affect women in the workplace as well. Some employers pay women less than men or do not promote them because they make an assumption that at some point, the woman will become pregnant and need to leave work. Assumptions such as these are one of the multiple things wrong with our society. As matter of fact history records some of these sufferings because of the rule of patriarchy. I would say that these areas of under-representation or disadvantage can affect individual’s personal relationships, working lives, long-term economic security and overall health and wellbeing.

Basically, it deprives them to explore and to bring out their hidden potentials necessary for the development of our society. Kaplan (2012) said based in the context of United States commented that if you ask people whether women and men have equal opportunities, most of them will say “yes. ” She declared courageously that they are wrong. She added by stating that yes, under the law, women and men have equal rights, but if you look at the real world, you’ll see a different story. According to her, the average women earned 78 cents to every dollar earned by a man in the same position.

That can add up to anywhere from $700,000 to $2 million dollars less over the course of a woman’s career. That isn’t all. A recent study showed that when looking at two identical resumes, one with a female name and one with a male name, both male and female employers gave the female one a lower score. I think the message is clear: men are still considered superior to women. But we have different story here in the Philippines. Diola (2013) wrote that the World Bank identified Philippines as a leader in gender equality, particularly in the fields of legislation, management and government.

In its World Development Indicators, the international organization cited latest data showing that 55% of the Filipino lawmakers, senior officials and managers are female. However, we cannot deny the sad reality that in the micro perspective gender roles and stereotyping still exist in the middle and lower class of our society. Therefore, this study is interested to investigate what is the gender role orientation of most of the non-teaching staff of Caraga State University, Main Campus.

I would say that it should be one of the priorities to any sociological research for us to have a deeper understanding in this particular issue. Statement of the problem This study seeks to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices among the Non-teaching staff of Caraga State University on gender issues. Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions: 1. To determine the profile among the Non-teaching staff of Caraga States University students in terms of: • age • religion • civil status • education • sex 2.

To determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices among the Non-teaching staff of Caraga State University on gender issues in terms of: • Gender Stereotype Behavior • Multiple Burden • VAW-C • Sexism • Sexual Harassment • Gender Discrimination/ Gender Bias • Gender Violence • Magna Carta of Women 3. Is there a correlation between the knowledge, attitudes, and practices on gender issues of the non-teaching staff? • Knowledge and Attitudes • Attitude and Practices • Practices and Profile 4. Is there a significant difference between the knowledge, attitudes and practices on gender issues of male and female respondents?

Hypothesis Ho1 There is no correlation between knowledge on gender issues and attitudes on gender issues among non-teaching staff towards gender issues. Ho2 There is no correlation between knowledge on gender issues and practices among non-teaching staff towards gender issues. Ho3 There is no correlation between practices on gender issues and the profile of the non-teaching towards gender issues. Ho4 There is no significant difference between the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of males and females of the respondent.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the non-teaching staff towards gender issues, located in Caraga State University, Ampayon, Butuan City, Agusan del Norte in the period of school year 2013-first semester. The aspect or the topic of the study was to be able to analyze their knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards gender issues existing in the society that are especially indicated in this particular research, which may also help the researcher.

General purpose: to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the non-teaching staff towards gender issues. Subject matter: the non-teaching staff of Caraga State University Topics studied: to be able to analyze their knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards gender issues including the specified indicators. Population or universe: non-teaching of Caraga State University- Clollege Of arts and sciences students Locale of the study: Caraga State University, Ampayon, Butuan City Period of the study: school year 2013, 1st semester

Significance of the study Analyzing gender through the knowledge, attitude and practices of CarSu non-teaching staff towards gender issues is important for it will examine the differences between the roles that women and men play, the different levels of power they hold, their differing needs, constraints and opportunities, and the impact of these differences on their lives. This study is also very timely and relevant because today, more gender issues are shown in the society. People are getting more aware of the rising inequality between men and women.

The unstated differences of KAP among non-teaching staff towards gender issues should be explained as a problem and an unsatisfactory condition. So if the inquiry is made, the possible causes of these differences of KAP towards gender issues may be discovered so that remedial measures may be instituted to solve the problem of the unsatisfactory situation. In the inquiry conducted about the KAP of the respondents, for instance, some weaknesses of the society may be discovered. This will benefit the student researchers for it is one of the requirements in the said program.

The institute of Caraga State University will also benefit from this study because it may help the administrators to be more aware of the KAP on gender issues under the administration. The policy makers of Butuan City will be profited by this study for it may include in their plans in some measures to correct the weaknesses so as to strengthen the laws of the city. In turn, it will also provide assistance to the future researchers because it may contain information that they needed in their researches. In the long run, the whole society will enjoy the good results of the study.

If in the study it is found out that the gender analysis method is effective in enabling to differentiate the role of men and women, it should be pointed out that this can be a contribution of the study to the fund of knowledge. It should be discussed here that the implications include the possible causes of the problems discovered, the possible effects of the of the problems, and the remedial measures to solve the problems. Implications also include the good points of a system which ought to be continued or to be improved if possible. Theoretical framework

Conflict theory This study will be anchored on the theory of Karl Marx’s conflict theory that states the critical and conventional ideas about gender, claiming that society would be better off if we minimized or even did away with this dimension of social structures. That is, this approach regards convention families, which traditionalists consider personally and socially positive, as a social evil. A problem with social-conflict analysis is that it minimizes the extent to which women and men live together cooperatively and often happily in families.

( Rosendahl, 1997;Haney, 2002 ) In addition to this theory, according to Talcott parsons, society encourages gender conformity by instilling in men and women a fear that straying too far from accepted standards of masculinity or feminity will cause rejection by the other sex. In simple terms, women learn to reject non-masculine men as sexually unattractive, and men learn to reject unfeminine women. In sum, gender integrates society both structurally (in terms of what we do ) and morally ( in terms of what we believe ). In general, gender affects more than people in how they think and act.

It is also social hierarchy. The reality of gender stratification can be seen, first, working men and women. ( Macionis, 2007 ) Conceptual Framework Figure 1: Shows the schematic diagram of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the non-teaching staff faculty towards gender issues and its variables and indicators. Operational Definition of Terms This will help the readers to understand the research with the use of the following terminologies: VAW-C. This terms is stated under this law the protection of women and children from any kind of violence in our society. Gender Stereotyp.

This term refers to discrimination based on one‘s sex. It will involve unfair treatment or infringement upon the rights of a certain sex requiring them to act in a certain manner. It is greatly influenced by culture and upbringing. Gender Violence. This reflects the idea that violence often serves to maintain structural gender inequalities, and includes all types of violence against women, children and adolescents, and lesbian and gay people. To adequately the address this violence, we have to address cultural issues that encourages violence as a part of masculinity.

Magna Carta of Women (Republic Act No. 9710). This term is comprehensive of women’s human rights law that seeks to eliminate discrimination against women by recognizing, protecting, fulfilling and promoting the rights of Filipino women, especially those in marginalized sector. Gender. It refers to socially constructed roles and responsibilities of women and men, and includes expectations held about characteristics, and likely behaviors of both men and women, the roles that we learn from childhood onward. Gender Analysis.

It is a tool for examining the differences Between the roles that women and men play the different levels of power they hold, their differing needs, constraints and opportunities, and the impact of these differences on their lives. Sexism. This term refers to the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other. Multiple Burden. This term refers to the assumption and performance of several tasks on responsibilities. Sexual Harassment. It refers to bullying or coercion of sexual nature or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors.

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUTE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the related review of literature and studies, which relates to this present study. Related Literature In sociological perspective gender analysis seeks to examine the differences in women’s and men’s lives, including those which lead to social and economic inequity for women, and applies this understanding to policy development. It is concerned with the underlying causes of these inequities and aims to achieve positive change for both men and women to pave a way for our quest of equity in the society.

Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (2011) defines gender analysis as to the variety of methods used to understand the relationships between men and women, their access to resources, their activities, and the constraints they face relative to each other. Gender analysis provides information that recognizes that gender, and its relationship with race, ethnicity, culture, class, age, disability, and/or other status; it is important in understanding the different patterns of involvement, behavior and activities that women and men have in economic, social and legal structures.

Meaning, this gender analysis is an essential element of socio-economic analysis. A comprehensive socio-economic analysis would take into account gender relations, as gender is a factor in all social and economic relations. An analysis of gender relations provides information on the different conditions that woman and man face, and the different effects that policies and programs may have on them because of their situations. Such information can inform and improve policies and programs, and is essential in ensuring that the different needs of both women and men are met.

It added that the local level, gender analysis makes visible the varied roles women, men, girls and boys play in the family, in the community, and in economic, legal and political structures. In other words, a gender perspective focuses on the reasons for the current division of responsibilities and benefits and their effect on the distribution of rewards and incentives. Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (2011) said that studies show that women are also expected to work in different areas than men. Most women are concentrated in social work, childcare, and health aide type jobs.

These jobs generally pay less than “masculine” jobs such as work in math and science. Kaplan (2012) supported this statement by saying that the average women earned 78 cents to every dollar earned by a man in the same position. That can add up to anywhere from $700,000 to $2 million dollars less over the course of a woman’s career. He added that a recent study showed that when looking at two identical resumes, one with a female name and one with a male name, both male and female employers gave the female one a lower score based on his study in the context of United States.

Some might argue that this is a matter of choice, but part of it is also society’s influence. This is a mere result of stereotyping- that women are weaker and more emotional than men. This stereotype is the main reason that few women hold leadership positions. It conveys the image of a hysterical, unreasonable woman, the opposite of what anybody would want in a leader. Meanwhile, men appear to be the ideal candidates, with their reputation of being objective, strong, and logical.

Many people believe that having a female leader would weaken the country, rather than strengthen it by providing a new perspective. I believe that neither gender is superior, only different – and that diversity is exactly what countries need in their governments. Marshall (2013), according to her the World Health Organization, in conjunction with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, released a report called ‘Global and regional estimates of violence against women: Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence.

This report highlighted the levels of intimate partner’s violence around the world and the associated and direct health effects of the violence. It is devastating, yet too familiar. In summary the stats show the following, violence by an intimate partner is the most common type of violence affecting 30% of women worldwide. 38% of all women who were murdered were murdered by their intimate partner. 42% of women who had experienced physical or sexual abuse by their partners had injuries as a result, while 23.

2% of women in high income countries experience intimate partner violence, in SE Asia it’s 37. 7%, Africa 36. 6%, 29. 8% in the Americas, 25. 4% in Europe & 24. 6%* in the Western Pacific. However, women also abused men, they are not much different than their male counterparts who abuse women. Men can be hit, kicked, punched, pushed, or bitten by women abusers. Women can also use weapons, such as knives, guns, or any object that can be used to strike. As a matter of fact She also added that More than 40% of domestic violence victims are male worldwide.

RELATED STUDIES Asian Development Bank (1994) entitled Education of Women in Asia, supports this by mentioning that, in some Asian countries, women have gained access to increasing levels of education and coincidentally, to an increased level of work force participation. Women are now exploring their lives more than just doing household chores and rearing children. In the Philippines, for instance, Medina (2001) noted that married women today have relatively more options as to what role to play.

The wives in the Philippines may pursue a career and attain a high status for themselves and the family by their success. Their interests seem to be broader than the earlier years. They may be fully committed to be active in political, civic, and community service. The Filipino women today are not only doing household chores and children rearing, but are also becoming active income contributors. As stated in the statistic, the proportion of Filipino women who earn incomes from formal employment has substantially grown from 0. 33% in the 1960s to 47. 5% in 1990,

whereas thousands more are known to engage in informal economic activities (National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, 1995). The interests of the wives now have gradually shifted from doing the household chores and rearing children, to actualizing themselves more in a various career paths. This shift may also affect the way the women perceive their role in the family and the role of the husband in the family. The relationship between men and women in Filipino society and in the family is often described as egalitarian (Gonzales & Hollnsteiner, 1976; Mendez, Jocano, Rolda, & Matela, 1984).

The idea that the role of the woman is only limited to the household and to childcare seems to be out of date for some people in the community (Medina, 1995). The contemporary Filipinas have extended their selves to religious, political, business, and other social activities. They emerge as the important economic partners for their husbands. Among low-income wives, Castillo (1993) found that 95% of the household finances were supported by the wife’s income, and 33% depended solely on the wife’s earning.

Even parents tend to rely more on their daughters than on their sons to study conscientiously, keep stable jobs, and provide support for them in their old age (King & Domingo, as cited in Medina, 2001). All of these conditions reflect that the traditional gender role is no longer strictly followed by Filipino society. Even so, Filipino men still continue being heads of their families, in accordance with the traditional gender role (Torres, 1995). Lange (1993) observed that the traditional division of labor among Philippine couples applies more to middle class and upper class couples.

She cited that studies have shown that there is more sharing in the provider and housekeeper roles among lower class couples, as a consequence of the inability to meet the basic needs of family by only one spouse. However, it is interesting to note that, according to Tan, Batangan, and Espanola (2001), lower income males seem to be more conscious about the changing roles of women and how this might affect their own roles. This happens because the traditional view in the Philippines holds belief that the man should earn more so as to avoid “spousal finger-pointing” later on.

If the woman earns more the chances of spousal fights and finger-pointing is increased. It was also found that economic considerations are powerful in affecting the dynamics between young adulthood male and female regarding their roles (Tan et al. , 2001). Moreover, Dionisio (1993) noted that traditional beliefs in the Philippines hold that the home is the center of women’s lives. In the urban areas, everything outside the home is not given much importance and is considered a concern of the men. Choices of activities of women outside the home are still related to family (Aguilar, 1991).

In the book entitled Filipino Housewife Speak, the author noted that a woman’s potential has been severely curtailed by their domestic obligations as housewives and mothers; it is precisely the men’s freedom from such duties that accounts for their representational function in society at large. De la Cruz (1986) found in her study that in the Philippines, a married woman is expected to work only if the economic situation in the home demands it, especially because in the Philippine society, unemployed women and men look less positively at women who worked.

This finding implies that the traditional gender role is still quite strong in the Philippines. An international comparison also revealed that Philippine women ranked first in their approval of traditional gender-role ideology (Inoue, as cited in Katsurada & Sugihara, 2002). A study done by Murillo (2004) seems to compromise between the two contrasting idea about the Filipino gender role attitude. Her study revealed that the pattern of Filipino couples’ gender role attitudes seem to be in a state of transition from traditional to egalitarian gender role.

It was found that Filipino couples in her study possess gender role attitude that are neither clearly traditional nor egalitarian. Furthermore, she asserted that some of the traditional notions seem to be abandoned such as the women is solely creatures of home, the women should not be competitive with men, and girls should be counseled to enter primarily feminine vocations. But, on the other hand, some of the endorsement of husbands’ traditional gender role seems still to be held such as the husbands should remain the primary breadwinner, boys should not play with dolls, and women should adopt their husbands’ last name after marriage.

She suggested that this condition implies that there may be greater acceptance of women departing from their traditional role, whereas men are still expected to stick to their traditional role (Murillo, 2004). Recent studies show that still violence against women is still rampant even up to this present time. Philippine Commission on Women (2013), posted in their website that based on the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) conducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO) introduced the “Women Safety Module” which aims to capture the extent and types of VAW experienced by women (15-49 years old).

It reveals that one in five Filipino women aged 15-49 has experienced physical violence since age 15; 14. 4 percent of married women have experienced physical abuse from their husbands; and more than one-third (37%) of separated or widowed women have experienced physical violence, implying that domestic violence could be the reason for separation or annulment. One in twenty five women age 15-49 that have ever had sex ever experienced forced first sexual intercourse.

In addition, one in ten women age 15-49 ever experienced sexual violence. Overall, 4 percent of women who have ever been pregnant have ever experienced physical violence during pregnancy. The incident increases slightly with number of living children; decreases slightly with age; decreases with education level; and declines steadily with wealth quintile. Philippine National Police – Women and Children Protection Center (WCPC) (2013) reported that in 2012 the number of VAW cases increases by 23. 3 percent from the 2011 report.

The increase caused the trend to go upward again after it decreases in 2011 and the reported cases under RA 9262 continue to increase as well from 218 in 2004 to 11,531 cases in 2012. Continuous information campaign on the law and its strict implementation may have caused the increasing trend. Take a look on the table. Table 1. Annual Comparative Statistics on Violence Against Women, 2004 – 2012 Reported Cases 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rape 997 927 659 837 811 770 1,042 832 1,030 Attempted Rape 194 148 185 147 204 167 268 201 256 Acts of Lasciviousness 580 536 382 358

445 485 745 625 721 Physical Injuries 3,553 2,335 1,892 1,505 1,307 1,498 2,018 1,588 1,744 Sexual Harassment 53 37 38 46 18 54 83 63 41 RA 9262 218 924 1,269 2,387 3,599 5,285 9,974 9,021 11,531 Source: Philippine National Police – Women and Children Protection Center (WCPC) Soliman ( 2012), Social Welfare and Development Secretary commented on this issue that violence against women is one of the challenges the world is facing today. It has turned into a pervasive human rights violation. It violates the fundamental freedom of women and impedes the development of their full potential.

In an effort to address the growing phenomenon of violence against women (VAW) especially in the Asian region, member-countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will gather for the Training Workshop on Strengthening Capacities of Communities, Practitioners and Policy Makers to Address Violence Against Women (VAW) on November, 2012 in Manila. The said training was a part of DSWD’s commitment to advance the goals of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women. The three-day training workshop is organized by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD).

It will be participated in by social workers, law enforcement officers and non-government organizations (NGOs) involved in managing cases of victims-survivors of violence against women, from the ten ASEAN member-states, namely; Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and the Philippines. We have also to be supportive on this move of our government. Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter presents and discusses the research design, and the selection of respondents, data gathering techniques and procedure; and data analysis. A.

Research Design This study is a quantitative and qualitative mix. A research that aims to describe and compare the knowledge, attitude and practices of female and male respondents towards gender issues. This endeavor however did not intend to change the perception of the female and male respondents towards gender issues but rather to analyze the differences between female and male respondents based on their knowledge, attitude and practices. B. Research Environment This will be conducted in Caraga State University in the calendar year 2013 using simple random sampling.

The non-teaching staff were selected as study sites where the representative number of respondent were randomly chosen. C. Respondents and Sampling Procedure Survey As a quantitative study, simple random sampling was employed in the determination of the respondents of the study. Selection of respondents followed the following steps: 1. Obtained a list of the non-teaching staff. 2. Input in the Microsoft excel. 3. Representative were randomly selected by random numbers and sorted from lowest to highest.

For 176 CarSU non-teaching faculty instructors 10% were taken plus 15 replacement if ever the randomized respondents were not available. The total sample population (n) therefore is 18. 4. The non-teaching respondents were randomly chosen on the following criteria: i. Availability during the conduct of the study ii. Willingness to participate in the study iii. CarSU non-teaching staff D. Data Gathering Instruments/ Procedure A self-made questionnaire consisting 4 parts was constructed for this study. Survey, using a face to face interview with the aid of an interview guide, will be employed in gathering the data.

The instrument consists of 4 parts as follows: Part 1. Profile of the Respondents Part 2. Knowledge on Gender Issues (Level of Awareness) Part3. Attitude towards Gender Issues Part 4. Practices on Gender Issues SCORING AND QUANTIFICATION OF DATA The respondent’s responses were quantified using the Likert Scale as follows: Part I A. Age The age profile of the drivers was classified in the three Categories as follows: 41 and above3 31-402 20-301 B. Civil Status Married2 Single1 C. Monthly Income 15001 and above1 10001-150002 6000-100003 D. Work Status Contractual 2

Permanent1 Part II and IV ScaleDescriptive RatingMean Ranges 5Strongly Agree4. 5-5. 0 4Agree3. 5-4. 49 3Neutral2. 5-3. 49 2Disagree1. 5-2. 49 1Strongly Disagree1-1. 49 Part III ScaleDescriptive RatingMean Ranges 5Strongly Favorable4. 5-5. 0 4Favorable3. 5-4. 49 3Neutral2. 5-3. 49 2Not Favorable1. 5-2. 49 1Strongly Not Favorable1-1. 49 CHAPTER 4 STATISTICAL TREAMENT The data gathered were be compiled, sorted out, organized, tabulated and presented through graphs with the used of SPSS software. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Problem 1.

What is the profile of the respondents in terms of age, civil status ,work status and monthly income. Figure1. as to esx of the respondents Figure 1 shows that majority of the respondents are women are women. Figure 2. as to age of the respondents Figure 2 shows that 69% of the respondents fall on the age bracket between 20-30 years old. Figure 3 as to monthly income This figure shows that majority of the respondents are having a monthly income ranging from 6000-10000. Figure 4 as to religion of the respondents This graph shows that 72% of the respondents are Roman Catholic

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