Global Water Shortage Problem

9 September 2016

Water shortage is a global problem by William 8H Water shortage is a problem worldwide – A combination of climate change and poor resource management is leading to water shortages in even the most developed countries. In London, leaks from water mains are wasting 300 Olympic swimming pools worth of water every day whilst southern parts of Europe is becoming drier as a result of climate change and glaciers in the North pole which are a significant source of water, are depleting. Many other countries are using more water than can be replenished.

Such consequences of these actions can lead to water scarcity, which means there might not be enough water to provide the population leading to severe problems such as limited development and poor health. Due to massive water use per day, people may encounter water stress where water is temporary unavailable or in short supply in particular locations. To counter water stress, people may have to make difficult choices for the use of water between personal consumption, agriculture and industry.

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A rich country (MEDC) may encounter water stress and a poor country (LEDC) may encounter water scarcity. In both cases, it causes many problems such as an increase in water consumption by 70% in MEDC countries whilst diseases spread much faster due to poor water conditions. As LEDC cities grow, so does the demand for water. The problem doesn’t end when water supplies have been improved and pipes put in place. The water has got to come from somewhere, and the source of supply may be scarce. It is LEDCS whoever the lowest access to safe water as shown on the map:

There are many reasons for a shortage in water, for example: rivers are running dry. Many major rivers, including the Colorado, Ganges are so over-tapped they now run dry for part of the year. In 1972, the Yellow River in China failed to reach the sea for the first time in history. That year it failed on 15 days; every year since, it has run dry for a longer period of time, until in 1997, it failed to reach the sea for 226 days. In addition, the glaciers in the Himalayan Mountains replenish these riversβ€”but these glaciers are all disappearing.Β 70% of all fresh water is used for irrigation, it is a well-known fact that agriculture uses the largest amount of fresh water and so 40% of the world grain harvest is produced on irrigated land, therefore a water shortage will become a food shortage. However there can always be room for improvement. Cutting down non-essential use and recycling water can make effective savings. By extending metering, households can pay for what they use which would cut use by 10%. Another major plan to conserver water was a national water transfer.

In 1992, National Rivers Authority proposed to transfer water from areas in the North and areas in Wales by rivers and canals to areas in the South and Southeast. This would create a grid that could balance supply and demand for water. Africa has a growing population and water companies do not have the resources to supply reliable and safe water to everyone. This means that a large proportion of the population is drinking contaminated water and are vulnerable to disease. In addition, salt water is also contaminating groundwater, which is making the problem worse.

This is a particular problem in shantytowns such as Lesotho,. Like most shantytowns, Lesotho lacks basic services such as water supply, sanitation and electricity. People there have a poor standard of living and a low quality of life. Conditions are crowded and disease spreads easily, contributing to low life expectancy and high infant mortality rates. In the past, people have relied on water from tankers or street sellers who charged high prices. In Lesotho, using appropriate technology is usually the best way to manage supply; here are some ways of managing supplies:

Wells, dug by hand, are a common way of accessing water – but the supply can be unreliable and sometimes the well itself can be a source of disease. * An action is used where there is a spring on a hillside. The water can be piped from the spring down to the villages. * Boreholes can require more equipment to dig, but can be dug quickly and usually safely. They require a hand or a pump to bring the water to the surface. Water shortage is a global problem, in richer countries , water can be temporarily unavailable whilst in poorer countries, there might not be enough water.

As an individual, there is many things you could to reduce the need for water so less water is needed, these can be: * Collecting rainwater landing on buildings * Recycling waste water to use on crops * Improving irrigation techniques * Growing crops less dependant on a high water supply * Minimising evaporation of water This is done through the use of sustainable development. This addresses environmental issues whilst also providing opportunities for economic growth and social responsibility. By incorporating sustainable development, allows for environmental, economic, and social benefits beyond what are usually achieved.

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