Golden Age Of Islam From 12th-14th Cent

Historical, cultural & religious background & development of Islamic civilization in this era.

The 12th through 14th centuries C.E., or 7th through 9th centuries A.H., may be regarded as a cultural Golden Age of Islamic civilization, in which it took on its mature form. The people of the Islamic regions of the world had by this time largely converted to Islam, a process that took place largely in the tenth through twelfth centuries C.E. (Lapidus, 1988, pp. 174-75). Thus, while the Abbasid Caliphate had in its great age comprised a Muslim elite ruling over a population which still held largely to previous beliefs and traditions, by the 12th century the Muslim world had been transformed into a truly Islamic civilization.
These centuries were also a period of political fragmentation and relative weakness. They were the period of the Western intrusion known collectively as the Crusades, though from..
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