Graphical Representation of Data

9 September 2016

Besides the tabular form, the data may also be presented in some graphic or diagrammatic form. “The transformation of data through visual methods like graphs, diagrams, maps and charts is called representation of data. ” The need of representing data graphically: Graphics, such as maps, graphs and diagrams, are used to represent large volume of data.

They are necessary: • If the information is presented in tabular form or in a descriptive record, it becomes difficult to draw results. • Graphical form makes it possible to easily draw visual impressions of data. • The graphic method of the representation of data enhances our understanding. • It makes the comparisons easy. • Besides, such methods create an imprint on mind for a longer time. • It is a time consuming task to draw inferences about whatever is being presented in non–graphical form. • It presents characteristics in a simplified way.

Graphical Representation of Data Essay Example

These makes it easy to understand the patterns of population growth, distribution and the density, sex ratio, age–sex composition, occupational structure, etc. General Rules for Drawing Graphs, Diagrams and Maps 1. Selection of a Suitable Graphical Method Each characteristic of the data can only be suitably represented by an appropriate graphical method. For example, • To show the data related to the temperature or growth of population between different periods in time line graph are used. • Similarly, bar diagrams are used for showing rainfall or the production of commodities.

The population distribution, both human and livestock, or the distribution of the crop producing areas are shown by dot maps. • The population density can be shown by choropleth maps. Thus, it is necessary and important to select suitable graphical method to represent data. 2. Selection of Suitable Scale Each diagram or map is drawn to a scale which is used to measure the data. The scale must cover the entire data that is to be represented. The scale should neither be too large nor too small. Suryaveer Singh Page 2 Graphical Representation of Data 3.

Design The diagram or map should have following design: • Title: The title of the diagram/map must be clear and include o The name of the area, o Reference year of the data used and o The caption of the diagram. Chapter 3 These are written with different font sizes and thickness. The title, subtitle and the corresponding year is shown in the centre at the top of the map/diagram. • Legend or Index: The index must clearly explain the colours, shades, symbols and signs used in the map and diagram. A legend is shown either at the lower left or lower right side of the map sheet.

Direction The maps should show the direction North and properly placed on the top. • Types of Diagrams The diagrams and the maps is of following types: (i) One-dimensional diagrams such as line graph, poly graph, bar diagram, histogram, age, sex, pyramid, etc. ; (ii) Two-dimensional diagram such as pie diagram and rectangular diagram; (iii) Three-dimensional diagrams such as cube and spherical diagrams. The most commonly drawn diagrams and maps are: • Line graphs • Bar diagrams • Pie diagram • Wind rose and star diagram • Flow Charts 1.

Line Graph The line graphs are usually drawn to represent the time series data related to the temperature, rainfall, population growth, birth rates and the death rates. Construction of a Line Graph 1st step: Round the data to be shown upto the 1 digit of even numbers. 2nd step: Draw X and Y-axis. Mark the time series variables (years/months) on the X axis and the data quantity/value to be plotted on Y axis. 3rd step: Choose an appropriate scale to show data and label it on Y-axis. If the data involves a negative figure then the selected scale should also show it. th step: Plot the data to depict year/month-wise values according to the selected scale on Yaxis, mark the location of the plotted values by a dot and join these dots by a free hand drawn line. ? Example 1: Construct a line graph to represent the data Suryaveer Singh Page 2 Graphical Representation of Data Chapter 3 2. Polygraph Polygraph is a line graph in which two or more than two variables are shown on a same diagram by different lines. It helps in comparing the data. Examples which can be shown as polygraph are: •

The growth rate of different crops like rice, wheat, pulses in one diagram. The birth rates, death rates and life expectancy in one diagram. • Sex ratio in different states or countries in one diagram. Construction of a Polygraph All steps of construction of polygraph are similar to that of line graph. But different lines are drawn to indicate different variables. ? Example 2: Construct a polygraph to compare the variables. 3. Bar Diagram It is also called a columnar diagram. The bar diagrams are drawn through columns of equal width. Following rules were observed while constructing a bar diagram: (a)

The width of all the bars or columns is similar. b) All the bars should are placed on equal intervals/distance. (c) Bars are shaded with colours or patterns to make them distinct and attractive. Three types of bar diagrams are used to represent different data sets: • The simple bar diagram • Compound bar diagram Suryaveer Singh Page 2 Graphical Representation of Data • Polybar diagram. Chapter 3 Simple Bar Diagram A simple bar diagram is constructed for an immediate comparison. It is advisable to arrange the given data set in an ascending or descending order and plot the data variables accordingly.

However, time series data are represented according to the sequencing of the time period. ? Example 3: Construct a simple bar diagram. Construction Steps: Draw X and Y-axes on a graph paper. Take an interval and mark it on Y-axis to plot data. Divide X-axis into equal parts to draw bars. The actual values will be plotted according to the selected scale. 4. Line and Bar Graph The line and bar graphs as drawn separately may also be combined to depict the data related to some of the closely associated characteristics such as the climatic data of mean monthly temperatures and rainfall. Example 4: Construct a Line and bar Graph. Construction: (a) Draw X and Y-axes of a suitable length and divide X-axis into parts to show months in a year. (b) Select a suitable scale with equal intervals on the Y-axis and label it at its right side. (c) Similarly, select a suitable scale with equal intervals on the Y-axis and label at its left side. (d) Plot data using line graph and columnar diagram. Suryaveer Singh Page 2 Graphical Representation of Data 5. Multiple Bar Diagram Chapter 3 Multiple bar diagrams are constructed to represent two or more than two variables for the purpose of comparison.

For example, a multiple bar diagram may be constructed to show proportion of males and females in the total, rural and urban population or the share of canal, tube well and well irrigation in the total irrigated area in different states. Construction (a) Mark time series data on X-axis and variable data on Y-axis as per the selected scale. (b) Plot the data in closed columns. ? Example 5: Construct a Multiple bar Diagram. 6. Compound Bar Diagram When different components are grouped in one set of variable or different variables of one component are put together, their representation is made by a compound bar diagram.

In this method, different variables are shown in a single bar with different rectangles. Construction (a) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order. (b) A single bar will depict the set of variables by dividing the total length of the bar as per percentage. ? Example 6: Construct a Compound Bar Diagram. Suryaveer Singh Page 2 Graphical Representation of Data 7. Pie Diagram Chapter 3 Pie diagram is another graphical method of the representation of data. It is drawn to depict the total value of the given attribute using a circle.

Dividing the circle into corresponding degrees of angle then represent the sub– sets of the data. Hence, it is also called as Divided Circle Diagram. The angle of each variable is calculated using the following formulae. If data is given in percentage form, the angles are calculated using the given formulae. Calculation of Angles (a) Arrange the data on percentages in an ascending order. (b) Calculate the degrees of angles for showing the given values (b) It could be done by multiplying percentage with a constant of 3. 6 as derived by dividing the total number of degrees in a circle by 100, i. . 360/100. (c)

Plot the data by dividing the circle into the required number of divisions to show the share different regions/countries Construction (a) Select a suitable radius for the circle to be drawn. A radius of 3, 4 or 5 cm may be chosen for the given data set. (b) Draw a line from the centre of the circle to the arc as a radius. (c) Measure the angles from the arc of the circle for each category of vehicles in an ascending order clock-wise, starting with smaller angle. (d) Complete the diagram by adding the title, sub – title, and the legend.

The legend mark be chosen for each variable/category and highlighted by distinct shades/colours. Precautions (a) The circle should neither be too big to fit in the space nor too small to be illegible. (b) Starting with bigger angle will lead to accumulation of error leading to the plot of the smaller angle difficult. ? Example 7: Construct a Pie Diagram. Suryaveer Singh Page 2 Graphical Representation of Data 8. Flow Maps/Chart Chapter 3 Flow chart is a combination of graph and map. It is drawn to show the flow of commodities or people between the places of origin and destination.

It is also called as Dynamic Map. Transport map, which shows number of passengers, vehicles, etc. , is the best example of a flow chart. These charts are drawn using lines of proportional width. Many government agencies prepare flow maps to show density of the means of transportation on different routes. The flow maps/ charts are generally drawn to represent two the types of data as given below: 1. The number and frequency of the vehicles as per the direction of their movement 2. The number of the passengers and/or the quantity of goods transported.

Requirements for the Preparation of a Flow Map: (a) A route map depicting the desired transport routes along with the connecting stations. (b) The data pertaining No. of trains of selected routes of to the flow of goods, Delhi and adjoining areas services, number of vehicles, etc. , along with the point of origin and destination of the movements. (c) The selection of a scale through which the data related to the quantity of passengers and goods or the number of vehicles is to be represented. Construction (a)

Take an outline map of Delhi and adjoining areas in which railway line and the nodal stations are depicted. b) Select a scale to represent the number of trains. Here, the maximum number is 50 and the minimum is 6. If we select a scale of 1cm = 50 trains, the maximum and minimum numbers will be represented by a strip of 10 mm and 1. 2 mm thick lines respectively on the map. (c) Plot the thickness of each strip of route between the given rail route. (d) Draw a terraced scale as legend and choose distinct sign or symbol to show the nodal points (stations) within the strip. ? Example 8: Construct a Flow Map of Train movements in and around Delhi. Suryaveer Singh Page 2

Graphical Representation of Data Thematic Maps Chapter 3 Varieties of maps are drawn to understand the patterns of the regional distributions or the characteristics of variations over space these maps are known as the distribution maps or thematic maps. Requirements for Making a Thematic Map (a) State/District level data about the selected theme. (b) Outline map of the study area along with administrative boundaries. (c) Physical map of the region. For example, physiographic map for population distribution and relief and drainage map for constructing transportation map.

Rules for Making Thematic Maps (i) The drawing of the thematic maps must be carefully planned. The final map should properly reflect the following components: a. Name of the area b. Title of the subject-matter c. Source of the data and year d. Indication of symbols, signs, colours, shades, etc. e. Scale (ii) The selection of a suitable method to be used for thematic mapping. Classification of Thematic Maps based on Method of Construction The thematic maps are generally, classified into quantitative and non-quantitative maps. The quantitative maps are drawn to show the variations within the data.

For example, maps depicting areas receiving more than 200 cm, 100 to 200 cm, 50 to 100 cm and less than 50 cm of rainfall are referred as quantitative maps. These maps are also called as statistical maps. The non-quantitative maps, on the other hand, depict the non–measurable characteristics in the distribution of given information such as a map showing high and low rainfall-receiving areas. These maps are also called as qualitative maps. The construction of quantitative maps: There are three types of quantitative maps (a) Dot maps (b) Choropleth maps (c) Isopleth maps 9.

Dot Maps The dot maps are drawn to show the distribution of phenomena such as population, cattle, types of crops, etc. The dots of same size as per the chosen scale are marked over the given administrative units to highlight the patterns of distributions. Requirement (a) An administrative map of the given area showing state/district/block boundaries. (b) Statistical data on selected theme for the chosen administrative units, i. e. , total population, cattle etc. (c) Selection of a scale to determine the value of a dot. (d) Physiographic map of the region especially relief and drainage maps.

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