Health and Safety

1 January 2017

The main persons responsible for health, safety and welfare on a construction site are: ? Employer – their role is to conduct their business safely. In order to accomplish this, a supervisor (site manager) generally runs the site. They must ensure the health, safety and welfare at work of all employees; they should provide a safe system of work, with safe plant and equipment. Provide safe handling storage transport along with information, supervision and training. There must be safe access and egress from the place of work along with a safe environment to work in.

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The employer also has a responsibility to produce a policy to this effect, and must consult with and co-operate n developing safety measures. ? CDM coordinator (formally planning supervisor) – They have the overall responsibility to coordinate the health, safety and welfare aspects of the design and planning phase. Prepare the early stages of the health, safety and welfare plan. Advise Clients of the competence and adequate resource of the principle contactor and ensure that a health, safety and welfare file for each structure is delivered to the client on completion.

Ensure that structures are designed and specified to minimise any possible risks to health, safety and welfare during construction, and during maintenance. Adequate information is provided on possible risks. Co-operation with the CDM coordinator. ? Principle Contractors – These are responsible for taking account of health, safety and welfare issues when preparing their tenders or estimates. Exclude unauthorised persons from the site Co-operate with the planning supervisor

Coordinate activities, of all contractors, to ensure that they comply with the health, safety and welfare plan and provide information and training of employees and the self-employed about health, safety and welfare. ? Sub-contractors / Self employed – are to co-operate with the Principal Contractor on health, safety and welfare matters and explain how they will control the health, safety and welfare risks in their work. ? Employees – have a duty to follow the health, safety and welfare procedures that have been put in place and to use their initiative.

They must wear suitable footwear or any other protective clothing which has been provided in accordance to what they are doing. Ensure that their working environment is safe at all times for themselves, work colleges and visitors to the site. They must cooperate with the employer and must not interfere with anything provided for safety. b) Identify three main pieces of health, safety and welfare legislation relevant to the construction and built environment sector and describe the legal duties of employees and employers in terms of such legislation.

The health and safety at Work Act 1974 was introduced due to the constantly expanding laws on health, safety and welfare in the UK and consolidated much of the previous legislation and good practices. It placed duties upon a number of parties including employers, the self employed and employees. Employers have a duty to ensure, as far as is reasonably possible, the health, safety and welfare of their employees. Employees have a responsibility to take reasonable care for their own health and safety and for others who may be affected by their acts of omissions.

The enforcement of the Act is carried out by HSE Inspectors and by the local authority inspectors. The nature of the main activity of the business determines the enforcing authority. When considering on an action, an inspector uses discretion but will consider the following: • The Risk involved • The Gravity of the alleged offence • The history of the business in respect of previous events and their compliance • The Inspector’s confidence in the management of the firm • The likely effectiveness of a particular action

The decision to bring about a prosecution rests with the enforcing authority. In respect of construction projects the main requirements of this Act is that employers also have a duty and responsibility to others working on a construction site, and for the safety of the public and other third parties. Under the health and safety at work Act 1974 umbrella falls much legislation such as: The Work at Height Regulations 2005 (Amended by the Work at Height Regulations 2007) Falls are the largest cause of accidental death in the construction industry.

They account for 50% of all fatalities. There is no distinction between low and high falls). For any working at height, precautions are required to prevent or minimise the risk of injury from a fall. To prevent or minimise risk when planning for work at height, the employer should consider the work to be done and take a sensible risk-based approach to identify suitable precautions. The regulations apply to all work at height where there is a risk of a fall liable to cause personal injury.

They place duties on employers, the self-employed, and any person who controls the work of others (e. . facilities managers or building owners who may contract others to work at height) to the extent they control the work. If you are an employee or working under someone else’s control, you must • Report any safety hazard to them • Use the equipment supplied (including safety devices) properly, following any training and instructions (unless you think that would be unsafe, in which case you should seek further instructions before continuing) As an employer you must do all that is reasonably practicable to prevent anyone falling.

The regulations set out a simple hierarchy for managing and selecting equipment for work at height. [pic] The Regulations require dutyholders to ensure: • All work at height is properly planned and organised • All work at height takes account of weather conditions that could endanger health and safety • Those involved in work at height are trained and competent • The place where work at height is done is safe Equipment for work at height is appropriately inspected • The risks from fragile surfaces are properly controlled.

Reporting accidents and ill health at work is a legal requirement. The information enables the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and local authorities, to identify where and how risks arise, and to investigate serious accidents. Records of reportable injuries or dangerous occurrences must be kept. They must include the date and method of reporting; the date and time and place of the event; personal details of those involved; and a brief description of the nature of the event or disease. The records can be kept by: • Keeping copies of report forms in a file Recording the details on a computer

Using the Accident Book entry • Maintaining a written log A report must be made if there is an accident connected with work and: • An employee, or self-employed person working on the employee’s premises is killed or suffers a major injury (including as a result of physical violence) • A member of public is killed or taken to hospital • An employer must notify the enforcing authority without delay and give brief details about the business, the injured person and the accident. •

The employer must follow up with a completed accident report form (F2508) within ten days. An employee or self-employed person must report to an employer or person whose premises they are working in, any injury for either themselves or a member of public immediately. It is not the employee’s or self-employed persons responsibility to report to HSE or to update the Accident Book unless it is the Self-employed person’s premises. Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH) Thousands of people are exposed to all kinds of hazardous substances at work.

These can include chemicals that people make or work with directly, and also dust, fume and bacteria, which can be present in the workplace. Exposure can happen by breathing them in, contact with the skin, splashing them into the eyes or swallowing them. If exposure is not prevented or properly controlled, it can cause serious illness, including cancer, asthma and dermatitis, and sometimes even death.

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