Health and safety

8 August 2016

Health and safety at work act 1974 is the legislation or law which all company’s have to abide by, it can be put into two statements which are Employers responsibilities – it is the employers responsibility to ensure the safety and well- being of all the members of staff while at work and Employees responsibilities – it is the employees responsibilities to take care of themselves in the work place and to keep safe any person in their care. Here is a list of the key legislation relating to health and safety in your work place – Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH)

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Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER) Health and safety (first aid) regulation 1981 Management of health and safety at work regulations 1999 Manual Handling operations regulations 1992 as amended 2002 Provision and Use of Equipment Regulations (PUWER) Reporting of Injuries, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) The electricity at work regulations 1989 Care standards act 2000 Food safety act 1999 Food hygiene regulations 2005 Environment protection act 1990 All the above legislation plays a major part of health and safety.

It details clear guidelines of responsibilities and how to maintain a good standard of health and safety to help protect people using care settings. Policies and procedures keep any individual’s and staff safe from harm as they eliminate risks from the workplace and help maintain a safe working environment such as COSHH – All workplaces must own a COSHH file it should detail where any hazardous substances are kept, how they are labeled, what it does, their effects and how to deal with an emergency if there is an accident involving one. LOLER – Employers must make sure all lifting equipment meets the requirements of LOLER, all equipment must be tested before use and re tested in specific periods of time, any one using the equipment must be trained to do so the equipment must be strong and reliable and must be available to prevent risk of injury.

Food safety and food hygiene regulations explain the responsibilities of dealing with food safely. It explains how and where to sort food e. g. fridge, cupboard how to prepare and cook food safely e. g. using different coloured boards when cutting up different ingredients such as red board for meat blue board for fish etc.washing hands before and after every task to prevent contamination which could result in food poisoning. One of the main regulations for staff would be moving and handling as many injuries happen in the workplace such as bad backs, Manual Handling should be avoided as much as possible by re thinking the task and deciding on a safer option e. g. using equipment such as a slide sheet to move people on beds, before any task involved in moving someone or doing anything in the workplace an assessment should be carried out reducing the risk of injury from tasks that cannot be avoided e.g. giving someone a bath.

These assessments are called risk assessments, risk assessments identify risks that could potentially be hazardous to the individual’s safety and figure out the safest way to preform the task such as non slip mats in the bathroom and hand rails near the bath to help with bathing helping to prevent falls. If when risks are identified while at work then it is important that your manager/supervisor is informed immediately and a risk assessment carried out before continuing with the task keeping yourself and he individual safe.

Many people work in care settings all of which have to do their up most to ensure the health and safety of all individuals, here is a comparison of the different aspects of care settings – Social care worker Takes care of their own safety while keeping anyone in her care safe providing a safe environment for all concerned Follows policies and procedures ensuring to provide the best care possible Uses protective equipment when necessary e. g. gloves and apron Must be up-to-date with their training and be ready to attend courses when necessary e. g. fire safety, first aid etc.

Report any major injuries to manager/supervisor Must check equipment before use to ensure safe to use e. g. check slings for tears, holes etc. Employer/Manager They must provide a safe and risk free environment to work in They must provide any equipment needed and test equipment on a 6 monthly basis to ensure equipment is still safe to use Provide training courses, information and supervision when necessary Ensure policies and procedures such as COSHH, LOLER etc. are been followed in the work place by doing reviews and monitoring staff. Deal with any problem efficiently and without putting anyone in danger.

Individuals using the services and others in the settings such as visitors, supporters, volunteers or contractors Respect and Obey health and safety legislation and keep out of danger Follow instructions when told to do something such as fire evacuation Assist in keeping each other safe by reporting anything they feel can be a danger to them or others such as spilt substance on the floor. An example of a situation where the responsibility for health and safety lies with the individual receiving care is if the individual who has the capacity to make decisions decides to go out to the shops or to the park etc. it is their responsibility to make sure they are safe to do so e. g. wearing the clothes appropriate for the weather, make sure they have money and its in a safe place, make sure they tell someone of their plans incase of an accident, plan the trip before leaving etc. There are many different tasks to undertake in care settings e. g. use of equipment, handling food etc. and it is important that people have specific training before attempting to do any of them for the safety of the carer and care user. Here are some of the tasks – Use of equipment

Equipment such as hoists, slings, turn tables etc. can be very difficult to use if not shown properly, which could put both the carer and care user in danger. Having training, which shows how to use all equipment correctly, ensures the safety of the individuals using the equipment but also prevents any accidents from happening. The potential consequences of equipment been used by someone who is not trained could be extremely bad e. g. If a sling is not put on the individual correctly the individual could fall out or get caught with the sling cutting into their skin.

If equipment used for transferring such as turntables or banana boards are not used properly individuals could end up falling and seriously hurting themselves. Training is paramount. First aid When applying first aid to someone it is important to know what you are doing first and for most, getting training in first aid gives you the knowledge and understanding of what to do if someone has an accident from burning themselves to having a heart attack, only when you know what you are doing can you be sure you are doing the correct thing.

Giving first aid when you have not had training could end up with the individual ending up worse. E. g. if the individual has fallen and hurt her hip trying to move them this would cause them extreme amount of pain and could make the hip worse, when carrying out CPR you could do further damage if you are not clear on where to pump and how many times etc. Medication When working with people’s medication it is vital the carer has the working knowledge and skills on how to administer medication properly so not to make errors which could potentially be harmful to the individuals health.

It is a legal requirement to have policies and procedures in place when handling medication. If training had not been given the carer would not have the skills to know what medication to give, how to give it and what time the individual needs their medication which could end up in the wrong medication been given at the wrong time etc. putting the individual in danger. Assisting moving and handling When moving somebody it is important you know the correct way to prevent you or the care user from been hurt. If you are not show the correct way to move or handle people e. g. walking with someone down the stairs, turning someone in bed, someone could end up been really hurt. There are polices and procedures in place to protect the carer from putting themselves in danger e. g. If a care user is found on the floor we are not to move them. The consequence of no training in moving and handling could be harmful to the carer e. g. pulled back or the individual could end up been moved wrong or given the wrong instructions when moving ending up with them on the floor. Emergency procedures Knowing how to act in an emergency can save the lives of many people.

Making sure you have knowledge on what actions to take in an emergency situation will ensure you make quick and efficient decisions. The consequences of people not been trained on emergency procedures could be blind panic and chaos. The last thing you would want to happen is for a situation to get out of control this would just put many people in danger. Food handling and preparation Food handling and preparation are very important in the care setting. Having specific training on food gives you the knowledge on how to correctly prepare food, store food, cook food and serve food e. g.

Using different appliances for different jobs one knife for meat one knife for veg, knowing where to put food items to keep them fresh. The consequences of food not prepared, cooked or stored correctly, it could result in the individual becoming ill from food poisoning from food that has been cooked correctly or injuring themselves from using kitchen equipment they are not trained to use. The procedure to follow to prevent or in the event of a fire is – Prevention All staff is to be trained in fire prevention awareness so to have the knowledge and understanding of what to do in the event of a fire.

Ensure all evacuation areas are free from clutter and obstruction If caring for an individual in their home ensure there is no furniture blocking any exits, check fire alarms regularly, keep bins empty, no clutter etc. Starting and spreading If in the event of a fire starting and is a manageable size use the nearest fire extinguisher and kill the fire, only is familiar with how to use it. Pull the nearest fire alarm The person in charge should phone 999 All doors should be shut as exiting Evacuate as many people as safely possible to do so Go to the fire assembly point

Do not go back into the building until safe to do The procedures to follow to prevent or in the event of a gas leak is – Prevention Have gas mains checked on a regular basis Have gas detectors installed e. g. carbon monoxide detectors If you suspect or know there is a gas leak you should Open all windows. Check all gas appliances and turn them off Turn the gas supply off at the mains Phone the gas company DO NOT Operate any electrical switches on or off Smoke or use a naked flame The procedures to follow in the event of a flood is – Prevention Find out if your in a flood-prone area

Be aware of weather conditions Plan a safe evacuation route What to do if a flood hits Stay clear of any disaster area Move to higher ground and stay there till its safe Phone 999 Do not handle electrical wires and be careful not to stand on any Turn the electric off at the mains if possible Be alert for gas leaks, check for damage Clear up as soon as possible to prevent more health hazards e. g. sewage, stagnant water etc. Do not consume food, water or medicines that have come into contact with the flood waters The procedures to follow to prevent or in the event of intruding is – Prevention

Ensure all windows and doors are locked Take keys out of the windows and doors when locked Make sure any money, phones, car keys are out of sight of windows Make sure garages and front doors are well lit Create the impression someone is home all the times If someone was intruding Stay calm Do not attack the intruder Note everything they are wearing, scars tattoos, looks like- any information to give to the police Do not follow the intruder Phone 999 as soon as its safe to do so The procedures to follow to prevent or in the event of a security breach – Prevention

Log out of any computers, laptops that you have used Keep workstations clear of any confidential information if not there Shred sensitive information before disposing of them Do not leave any paperwork, computers and electronic devices visible in empty cars or homes. If a security breach happens Inform manager/supervisor of any security breaches Evaluate the risk associated with the breach Having an emergency plan in place to deal with unforeseen circumstances is very important to keep any situation under control reducing panic and chaos.

An emergency plan can lesson the fear of the unknown as well as personal problems that may occur. Having a plan on what to do and what not to do for all eventualities could help prevent people from getting hurt or been in more danger the necessary. Having things like first aid kits, important phone numbers such as next of kin, doctor, specialist nurse etc. to hand, an evacuation route in the event of a fire or gas leak etc. Giving individuals something to work from if an unforeseen circumstance does happen decreases nervousness and increases success in the event of an emergency.

Leading by example is a great way to start to encourage others to follow procedures, encouraging work colleagues to read and learn from policies and procedures what is expected of us at work and modeling good practice. Making people aware of what environmental safety includes such as keeping floors dry, keeping homes free from clutter, checking equipment such as beds to ensure they are safe to use this can be done through staff meetings or more training if needed. Putting a list of environmental safety musts in the clients care plan will encourage staff to be more aware of there surroundings and to follow procedures. Additional information can be found through may channels such as phoning your manager/supervisor, senior carers or work colleagues, visiting your work place, learning from experienced carers lets you see first hand how to access information relating to health and safety. The Internet is a very good source of information and all things relating to health and safety. Task B Case study and questions

Using a risk assessment to help address dilemmas between James’s right and the health and safety concerns expressed by his mother gives us a clear indication of the issues that need to be addressed and solutions that would make all activities as safe as possible. James has the right to decide what happens in his life but it has to be in a safe way. With a risk assessment we would be able to assess James on the different aspects of living independently like cooking, food safety and hygiene etc.

Assessing James would give us an insight into how doing activities will effect James and the environment around him. Through the risk assessment James mother would be able to see any risk control measures that had been put into place to prevent any incidents from happening e. g. smoke alarms, warden call, visits from carers/social workers to check on James. 11. 1 Describe the main points of food safety in a social care setting It is important that when involved with food preparation you have a good understanding of the principle of food safety.

This comes under two levels these are Food safety and Food hygiene it is vital to understand the basics when preparing and serving food. The main points of food safety are – CLEANING (environmental or personal) – It is important to get rid of any harmful bacteria in the kitchen and stop it spreading, any part of the kitchen could be hiding harmful bacteria so ensuring all parts of the kitchen e. g. bin lids, taps, chopping boards, knifes and other utensils,

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