Health and Social Care
Explain how a working relationship is different from a personal relationship 1. A working relationship is different because of boundaries, professional codes of conduct, employer policies and procedures. In your working relationship you would be friendly have a different approach treat with equality you would know your role and responsibility you would not share personal information as you friends. 2. You work with different people doctors family colleagues give examples of how these are different 3.
As this sets out boundaries in your job role , enables you to know your role and responsibilities, knowing your own level of competence and skills, to know your job description Describe two types of working relationship in health and social care settings Relationships are probably the most involved and emotionally charged area of our lives. From the moment we are born we form relationships, each one requiring something different from us and giving us something different in return.
In the health and social care setting there are many different working relationships.
These relationships will include: colleagues, manager, other professionals such as doctors/district nurse, service users and their family and friends Describe why it is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role It is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role as this sets out boundaries in your job role, enables you to know your role and responsibilities. Knowing your own level of competence and skills, knowing your job description. How do you access full and up to date details of agreed ways of working in your line of work? Agreed ways of working is working within the rules set out by your employer.
Following policies and procedures of the company. Important to have up to date agreed ways of working as there may be changes in policies within the law. Your company may have to implement them to help protect the vulnerable Explain two way it is important agreed ways of working at your work place When people are deeply upset about something, they need to get their story out. This is a basic principle of mediation and one that’s important to remember. Often in a conflict, the parties are so focused on minutiae that they lose sight of the big picture and its implications.
As the mediator, you need to bring people back to reality by wrenching their attention away from the grain of sand and having them focus on the whole beach. Doing so may help resolution arrive at a startling speed. Explain two way it is important to work in partnership with others Partnership can be formed between a number of individuals, agencies or organisations with a shared interest. Partnerships are often formed to address specific issues and have a common reason for working together and could often formed to target a short or long term issues.
In order to achieve a good partnership partners need to communicate, co-ordinate, co- operate. There are two types of partnership working: multi agency working and integrated working. Multi agency working and an integrated working Identify skills and approaches needed for resolving conflicts Increased understanding: The discussion needed to resolve conflict expands people’s awareness of the situation, giving them an insight into how they can achieve their own goals without undermining those of other people.
Increased group cohesion: When conflict is resolved effectively, team members can develop stronger mutual respect, and a renewed faith in their ability to work together. Improved self-knowledge: Conflict pushes individuals to examine their goals in close detail, helping them understand the things that are most important to them, sharpening their focus, and enhancing their effectiveness. Define person centred values Person centred values means the people whom we support are able to be involved and included in every aspect of their care and support. For example: * their needs,* Assessments, * Care delivery, and, * Support planning. EXPLAIN WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO WORK IN A WAY THAT EMBEDS PERSON CENTRED VALUES. It is important to do this as person centred approaches, policies and procedures, as well as care practices should always put the people whom we support at the centre of the day-to-day activities, as well as including the residents and their families in the planning and maintaining of this. Explain why risk taking can be part of a person centred approach Taking risks means that you are able to choose and be in control of what you do.
You need to ensure that concerns about taking risks is not stopping you living the way you want to. A risk assessment can always be carried out to see if it is possible for someone to do something that they thought would not be possible. Explain how using an individual’s care plan contributes to working in a person centred way Using an individual’s care plan will ensure that the person’s own needs and wishes are being met, rather than offering them a ‘choice’ of what is available.
Using their care plan, you can build on what they want and see where there are gaps that need to be addressed. How do you find out the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual? 1. You need to know their history because it may affect their care plan – for example a client (service user) who has been abused will need extra support. This also includes all past health issues and possible behaviour. 2. Part of working for equality and a high standard of care it is essential that client’s wishes are expressed. This is like anyone else on the planet.
A major part of the ‘wishes’ possess involves their deaths i. e. , would they like to buried, would they like someone to have some of their possessions. 3. To be able to formulate a care plan you must first find out what level of care a client needs going on their individual needs. Some clients may need extra support with washing/dressing. Other may need extra therapies such as hydro or music. How do you apply person centred values in day today work taking into account the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual?
Government policy should be founded on a clear, ambitious and measurable goal to improve the experience of patients and service users and to be delivered by a defined date. Setting an ambitious goal to improve patient experience should be reinforced by enhanced guarantees to patients with complex needs. These guarantees would include an entitlement to an agreed care plan, a named case manager responsible for co-ordinating care, and access to tableware and a personal health budget where appropriate.
Explain the importance of establishing consent when providing care or support It is important to establish consent because it is a basic human right for everyone to have the choice. Much of the treatment or support the individual receives is either invasive or personal, so consent is essential as it protects providers against legal challenge. Asking for consent is also part of the codes of practice for social care. Explain what steps to take if consent cannot be readily established A capacity assessment by a qualified professional should be carried out to see if the individual has the capacity to make decisions.
These steps should be taken by professionals as stated in five principles set on in the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Describe how active participation benefits an individual Active participation is an approach that enables individuals to be included in their care and have a greater say in how they live their life in ways that matter to them. The benefits of active participation can be divided into primary benefits and secondary benefits. Identify three possible barriers to active participation Physical benefits including greater activity levels.
Increased independence and autonomy in what people do. An opportunity for individuals in health and social care settings to have a say in matters of direct concern to their lives. Support an individual to make informed choices Learning to communicate in an effective way and using this to inform the client of all possible choices. Everyone on this planet can communicate in one form or another – you need to take the time to learn how every individual client communicates. Explain how you can use agreed risk assessments Process to support the right to make choices
People who work in health and social care constitute a large and diverse workforce looking after a predominantly vulnerable population. Employees have the right to work in a healthy and safe workplace, and the people using services are entitled to care and support that is safe and takes their needs, freedom and dignity into account. Explain why a worker’s personal view should not influence an individual’s choices The consequences are that the individual making the choice may make a decision that they might later regret or worse, that has a devastating impact on their life.
A person should never make a decision based purely on the personal views of others but should instead gather all the available information and decide for themselves what course of action is right for them – it’s a case of what is good for the goose isn’t always good for the gander. Describe how support an individual to question or challenge decisions conceding them that are made by others They have the right to make their own choices and decisions under the Human Rights Act, as long as the decisions they make do not put them at risk of harm or injury and they have the mental capacity to make them.
You could support them to question or challenge by speaking on their behalf but you would need to know exactly what their wishes are, and record it for them to sign. Explain how individual identity and self-esteem are linked with well being Because if you don’t feel good about yourself or don’t have a sense of purpose or identity you tend to feel more depressed therefore your wellbeing will be effected Describe attitudes and approaches that are likely to promote an individual’s well being Using what service in adult care? Do you mean the service OF adult care?
Those who give care should show respect for the elderly; be courteous, but also be friendly. Call the person by his/her last name unless invited to use the first. Don’t assume that ALL elderly people have forgotten everything they ever knew and are only good at bingo anymore. Support an individual in a way that promotes a sense of identity and self-esteem The first thing is that the person is an individual in their own right – you need to understand what they are about and not judge, pick the bright nuggets of information and use this as a a springboard to encourage self-esteem and their self-image.
As they talk about themselves you will be able to get a sense of self and where they are in their image. You need to feedback to them what was said as positive rather than the negative – if they say Ii am always failing” reply with ” really, you at least have the guts to try something out of your comfort zone – not everyone can do it” the negatives must be turned to positives but it takes time and consistency – and as their self-worth and esteem improves – you will find they will need less and less re-enforcing Demonstrate ways to contribute to an environment that promotes wellbeing Donation centres have drop-off points for returning
old things for sale to help charitable areas. The scouts, Goodwill stores do these things. Roadside, creek, gulley, beach and parks welcome “clean-up crews”: volunteers who help together to pick up careless refuse, windblown trash.
Identify legislation relating to general health and safety in a health or social care work setting Legislations/codes of practice relating to general health and safety in a health or social care work setting are: The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974; Riddor 1995, COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health); Manual Handling operations regulations 1992; Health And Safety (First aid regulations 1981); Fire protection (Workplace) Regulations 1997; Food Safety Act 1990; Personal Protective Equipment and Management of Health and safety at work regulations 1999.
Describe two main points of the health and safety policies and procedures agreed with the employer The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 is the main piece of legislation that covers work related health and safety in the workplace.
The main points of the health and safety policies and procedures agreed with the employer are Minimum handling and lifting; Ensure handling and lifting is carried out correctly and safely; Making sure all materials/equipment that is needed to be used is handled, stored and used safely; To be aware of any potential hazards and risks and how to reduce to liability of any accidents occurring; To be responsible for your own welfare and the welfare of others you are looking after; To wear the correct PPE at all times; Outline the main health and safety responsibilities of: Self
The employer or manager Other in the work setting The main responsibilities for yourself whilst at work in a health and social care setting are to not put yourself or others at risk, to report any hazards or unsafe conditions, to co-operate with your employers, to not tamper with or misuse equipment provided, to attend training, be aware of and follow policies and procedures. Identify tasks relating to health and safety that should not be carried out without special training It generally takes special training to repair teeth. Prescribing medicine takes special training also.
Explain how to access additional support and important relating to health and safety 1. Protect service users from harm and abuse 2. Be personally fit at work 3. Maintain health and safety at work 4. Assess risk associated with work 5. Report incidents at work Exampling why it is important to access health and safety hazards posed but the working set or by particular activities Than the individual will know how to behave when it comes to that specific situation Explain how and when to report potential health and safety risks that have been identified You should report it immediately to your supervisor.
You do not need to wait for an inspection team to come by. In fact, health and safety legislation requires employees to report hazards to their supervisor. Explain how risk assessments can help address dilemmas between rights and health and safety concerns This follows from the previous dilemma question. Carrying out a risk assessment supports the individual to have their choice met in the safest way possible. For example, Freda doesn’t want to use her Zimmer frame any more. A risk assessment might show her that she can’t walk safely without some support, however she can manage with two sticks and she agrees to compromise.
You have supported her rights of choice and kept her as safe as you can under your duty of care. Describe different types of accidents and sudden illness that may occur in own work setting Cuts and burns etc. in the kitchen, falls, back injuries though poor lifting techniques, strokes, heart attacks, diabetic emergencies, asthma attacks, allergic reactions and so on. Outline the procedures to be followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur Procedures to be followed: ensuring and maintaining safety for individuals concerned and others e. g.clearing the area, safely moving equipment if possible; remaining calm; sending for help; assessing the individual for injuries; administering basic first aid if necessary and if trained to do so; staying with the injured/sick individual until help arrives; observing and noting any changes in condition; providing a full verbal report to relevant medical staff or others; completing a full written report and relevant documentation e. g. accident report, incident report; understanding the policies, procedures and agreed ways of working for the work setting Identify legislation that relates to moving and handling
This remains the basis of health and safety legislation, and “Sets out the general duties which employers have towards employees and members of the public, and employees have to themselves and to each other” (HSE, 1996) HSE leaflet “Health and Safety Regulation” (HSC 13) 1996 The Act states that employers must ensure, as far as reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of their employees whilst at work and any other persons affected by their business activities. The Act is a general piece of legislation and not specific to moving and handling so is not considered here in detail.
Explain principles for moving and handling equipment and other objects safely The Manual Handling Operations Regulations define it as ‘any transporting or supporting of a load (including the lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving thereof) by hand or by bodily force’. In effect, any activity that requires an individual to lift, move or support a load, will be classified as a manual handling task. Identify three hazardous substances and materials that may be found in the working setting Asphyxiates
Pesticides Medicines Cosmetics or Substances produced in the chemical processes Storing hazardous substances Using hazardous substances Substituting it with another substance which presents less, or no risk; Using another process which doesn’t create a hazardous form of that substance. Disposing of hazardous substances and materials asbestos lead-acid batteries used engine oils and oil filters oily sludge’s solvents and solvent-based substances chemical wastes pesticides fluorescent light tubes Starting
Good practice in health and safety is good for your business – and it’s the law. HSE is here to help – our online advice and tools can help save you time and effort getting started. Spreading Outline emergency procedures to be followed in the event of a fire in the work setting How you react in the event of fire depends on how well you have prepared for a fire emergency. Therefore, departments should ensure that all employees are familiar with the procedure to follow in the event of an emergency as outlined in the University’s Emergency Plan.
Explain why it is important to have security systems for recording and storing information in a health and social care setting Mainly because of HIPPA (Health Insurance Accounting and Portability Act) laws, which are designed to protect the medical records information of all patients. Because of HIPPA, hospital computer systems are accessed by employees via passwords, and unless an employee is entering or legitimately looking up information on a patient, that employee is not allowed to snoop through that patient’s records on a whim.
Describe how to access guidance information and advice about handling information in your line of work ineffective or insufficiently trained management unfair treatment unclear job roles poor communications poor work environment lack of equal opportunities bullying and harassment unresolved problems from the past an increase in workload Explain what actions to take at working when there are concerns ever over the recording, storing or sharing of information The Data Protection Act requires you to process personal data fairly and lawfully.
This section explains how to comply with this requirement, and gives examples of good practice in handling personal data. Explain employee’s roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection Prevention and control of infection The employee’s role and responsibilities include: To ensure that their own health and hygiene not pose a risk to service users and colleagues To ensure effective hand washing is carried out when working with service users, giving personal care, handling/preparing food. To ensure they use protective clothing provided when needed and appropriate.
Explain employer’s responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection Employers’ roles and responsibilities include: making sure employees are aware of the health and safety aspects of their work (e. g. posting information on notice boards, keeping an information file such as COSHH, training, and providing supervision) the need to keep records in relation to infection control using appropriate documentation to ensure that the relevant standards, policies and guidelines are available within the workplace
Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards when are relevant to the prevention and control of infection relevant to the preventions and control infection The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 Both employers and employees are responsible for their own actions in the Work place. All reasonable steps should be taken when carrying out your work duties and all staff should have adequate health and safety training, and measures should be taken to ensure that policies and procedures are in place and adhered to.
Describe how local and organizational policies relevant to the prevention and control of the infection Employees rights and responsibilities in the relation to the prevention and control of infection are to follow company’s policies and procedures, keep themselves safe and others, report any hazards which could lead to infection, attend relevant courses, use the PPE provided, keeping the work environment clean and tidy and to maintain good personal hygiene Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection Food handling, waste disposal, cross infection through skin contact or unclean equipment etc., but mainly poor practice. Illness or death, inquiry, loss of registration, criminal charges. Think about PPI, waste disposal, hand washing, cleaning and decontamination, risk assessments etc. Infection protection and control policy, health and safety policy, dealing with accidents and emergencies policy, first aid policy, food hygiene policy, medication (handling meds) policy etc.
Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organizational Individual – Short or long term illness, secondary conditions or further complications, depression, loss of trust in setting, death. Organisation – sanctions, loss of reputation and trust, closure, prosecution. Environment – distress of staff, individuals and families, unsettled atmosphere though loss of trust, disruption e. g. through an investigation and inspection or decontamination. Define the term risk A situation involving exposure to danger.
Outline potential risks of infection within the workplace the first part of your question relates to local policies which are dictated by local people’s views on what is important to them as well as what the professionals think is important – local and organisational policies have to consider local need and available local facilities. Describe the processes of carrying out a risk assessment 1. Identify the hazards 2. Decide who might be harmed and how 3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution 4. Record your findings and implement them 5. Review your assessment and update if necessary
Explain the importance of carrying out a risk assessment Identify hazards. Analyse or evaluate the risk associated with that hazard. Determine appropriate ways to eliminate or control the hazard. In practical terms, a risk assessment is a thorough look at your workplace to identify those things, situations, processes, etc. that may cause harm, particularly to people. After identification is made, you evaluate how likely and severe the risk is, and then decide what measures should be in place to effectively prevent or control the harm from happening.
Describe three different types of PPE and three USE PPE is equipment that will protect the user against health or safety risks at work. It can include items such as safety helmets, gloves, eye protection, high-visibility clothing, safety footwear and safety harnesses. It also includes respiratory protective equipment (RPE). State current relevant regulations and legislation relating PPE * Gloves- protect hands * Gowns/aprons-protect skin and/or clothing * Masks and respirators- protect mouse/
* Respirators- protect respiratory tract from airborne infectious agents. * Goggles- protect eyes * Face shields- protect face, mouth, nose, and eyes. Describe employer’s responsibilities regarding the use of PPE * It is the responsibility of employees to Ensure that they take reasonable care to protect their own health and safety and that of their co-workers and other persons in or near the workplace; * Report to management any hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions or risks that they identify in their work environment.
* Participate in training provided by the employer, regarding the appropriate use, care, and maintenance of PPE. Describe employees in the application and removal of PPE The primary methods for preventing employee exposure to hazardous materials are engineering and administrative controls. Where these control methods are not appropriate or sufficient to control the hazard, personal protective equipment (PPE) is required. A work area assessment is required to determine the potential hazards and select the appropriate PPE for adequate protection.
Employees must receive training which includes the proper PPE for their job, when this PPE must be worn, how to wear, adjust, maintain, and discard this equipment, and the limitations of the PPE. All training must be documented. Describe the current practices in the application and removal of PPE PPE such as gloves, aprons and masks are single use items and should be disposed of after each procedure or activity to prevent cross-transmission of micro-organisms.
When these items are worn primarily to protect the wearer, the importance of their prompt removal between tasks on the same patient/client or between patients can easily be overlooked and give rise to the possibility of contamination. Describe the current procedures for disposal of used PPE Personal protective equipment – known as ‘PPE’ – is used to protect health care workers while performing specific tasks that might involve them coming into contact with infectious materials. Describe key principles of good personal hygiene
Their hands are washed after they’ve used the toilet Their genitals and anal area are washed every day Their face is washed daily They’re fully bathed or showered at least twice a week Describe the correct sequence for hand washing and when and why hand washing should be carried out the beginning of the shift preparing, handling and eating food donning gloves any patient contact clean/aseptic procedures entering/leaving clinical areas entering/leaving isolation cubicles preparing/giving medications using a computer keyboard in a clinical area
Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing The main products currently in use are: – Soap – Aqueous antiseptic hand wash solutions – Alcohol-based hand rubs – Others including emollient soap substitute, tea tree-oil based solutions, water-based solutions and hand wipes. Describe correct procedures that relates to skin care Work-related skin problems are very common. Although skin problems can happen in most workplaces, certain jobs present a higher risk, e. g. the health and social care sector.