Hearing Loss Essay Research Paper Causes of

8 August 2017

Hearing Loss Essay, Research Paper

Hearing Loss Essay Research Paper Causes of Essay Example

Causes of Hearing Loss

Bing deaf is a disability that afflicts 1000000s of people around the universe every twelvemonth. Hearing loss can ensue from any figure of afflictions that can impact the outer, in-between, or interior ear. The scope of hearing loss can besides change from mild to severe.

The ear is made up of the outer, in-between and interior ear. The outer ear consists of the auricula atrii, the external auditory canal and the lobe. The outer ear helps to funnel sound and noise into the in-between ear. The in-between ear consists of the tympanum and the three in-between ear castanetss, the Mallues, Incus, and the Stapes. The in-between ears primary map is to carry on sound. The interior ear is where sound is interpreted through electrical urges relayed to encephalon into apprehensible sounds that we recognize. ( Lucente3-8 )

The maze of the interior ear contains the nervus terminations of the vestibular nervus & # 8211 ; the nervus of equilibrium-and the auditory nervus, which are subdivisions of the vestibulocochlear, or 8th cranial, nervus. The vestibular nervus ends supply the semicircular canals and the otolithic membranes in the anteroom. The audile nervus supplies the cochlea. Diseases of the maze of the interior ear may impact both the vestibular nervus and the auditory nervus, or they may impact merely the auditory nervus, with loss of hearing. ( Lucente 6 )

The most common causes of inner-ear diseases are inborn nervus hearing loss, viral infections, and ototoxic drugs. Congenital nervus hearing loss is a defect of the auditory nervus in the cochlea and may be present at birth or acquired during or shortly after birth. Normally both interior ears are affected to a similar grade, and there is a terrible damage of hearing, although in some instances of inborn nervus loss the damage can be moderate. Many instances of inborn nervus hearing loss have been caused by the German measles ( German rubeolas ) virus in the female parent during the first three months of her gestation. This can go on during a German measles epidemic, even when the female parent has no symptoms of the infection. In most instances the vestibular nervus is non affected or is affected to a lesser grade, and in most ( but non all ) instances the outer and in-between ear constructions are non affected. A vaccinum against the German measles virus made available in 1969 has reduced the figure of instances of inborn nervus hearing loss in developed states. ( Lucente 84-87 )

Congenital nervus hearing loss acquired at or shortly after birth may ensue from deficient O ( anoxia ) during a hard and drawn-out bringing or from mutual exclusiveness between the babe? s blood and that of its female parent. In a few instances congenital nervus hearing loss is an familial failure of the cochlea to develop decently. When the hearing loss is terrible, address can non be acquired without particular preparation. Children afflicted with hearing loss must go to particular categories or schools for the severely deaf, where they can be taught lip-reading, address, and gestural linguistic communication. Electrical hearing AIDSs can be helpful, particularly during categories, to utilize the residuary hearing.

Another option, although controversial within the deaf community, is a cochlear implant, which is sometimes utile in instances of profound hearing loss. In this operation, an electrode is surgically implanted in the ear to straight excite the auditory nervus between the encephalon and the ear. ( www.deaf.com )

Viral infections can do terrible grades of sensorineural hearing loss in one ear, and sometimes in both, at any age. The Mumps virus is one of the most common causes of terrible sensorineural hearing loss in one ear. The rubeolas and grippe viruses are less common. There is no effectual medical or surgical intervention to reconstruct hearing impaired by a virus. ( Lucente 95 )

Ototoxic ( harmful to the ear ) drugs can do impermanent and sometimes lasting damage of audile nervus maps. Certain drugs like acetylsalicylic acid in big adequate doses may do pealing in the ears and so a impermanent lessening in hearing that ceases when the individual stops taking the drug. Quinine can hold a similar consequence but may do lasting damage of audile nervus maps in some instances. Certain antibiotics, such as streptomycin and fradicin may do lasting harm to audile nervus maps. Susceptibility to auditory nerve harm from ototoxic drugs varies greatly among persons. In most instances, the vestibular nervus is non affected. Streptomycin affects the vestibular nervus more than it affects the auditory nervus. ( Lucente 89 )

Skull breaks and concussions from a terrible blow on or to the caput can impair the operation of the auditory and vestibular nervousnesss in changing grades. The greatest hearing loss arises when a break of the skull passes through the maze of the interior ear, wholly destructing its map.

The consequence of noise exposure on one & # 8217 ; s hearing depends on the strength and continuance of the noise. The effects may be impermanent or lasting. A individual exposure to an highly intense sound, such as an detonation, may bring forth a terrible and lasting loss of hearing. Repeated exposures to sounds in surplus of 80 to 90 dBs may do gradual impairment of hearing by destructing the hair cells of the interior ear, with possible subsequent devolution of nervus fibres. The degree of noise produced by stone music bands normally exceeds 110 dBs. The noise generated by farm tractors, power mowers, and snowmobiles may make 100 dBs. In the United States, statute law requires that workers exposed to sound degrees greater than 90 dBs for an eight-hour twenty-four hours be provided some signifier of protection, such as earplugs or earmuffs.

Persons differ in their susceptibleness to hearing loss from noise exposure ; because hearing loss typically begins at the higher frequences of 4,000 to 6,000 Hz, the effects of noise exposure may travel unnoticed until the hearing loss spreads to the lower frequences of 1,000 to 2,000 Hz. Inhalation of carbogen, a mixture of 5 per centum C dioxide and 95 per centum O for 20 proceedingss will speed up recovery of hearing if administered within a few hours after inordinate noise exposure. ( Lucente 90 )

Labyrinthitis is the redness of the maze of the interior ear. This is caused by infections such as meningitis, pox, acute otitis media and mastoiditis, or chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma ( A complication of chronic otitis media ) . ( Infomedical ) Cholesteatoma can make negative force per unit area in the in-between ear such that a mass consisting of ceratin and cuticle is drawn into the in-between ear through a pierced tympanum. Cholesteatoma typically erodes the mastoid bone and causes damage the bonelets ( three little castanetss of the in-between ear ) . ( Infomercial ) Loss of both equilibrium and hearing occurs in the affected ear. Prompt antibiotic intervention sometimes arrests the harm and allows for the possibility of partial recovery of the map of the interior ear. ( Infomedical )

An acoustic neurom

a is a benign tumour that grows on the auditory nervus near the point where it enters the maze of the interior ear. The tumour causes gradual and progressive loss of auditory and vestibular nervus maps on one side. Finally the tumour grows out into the encephalon pit, doing concerns and palsy. If it is non removed, sightlessness and decease may ensue. Fortunately, acoustic neuroma normally can be diagnosed early by magnetic resonance imagination ( MRI ) and removed before it has serious effects. ( Lucente 151 )

M? Ni? rhenium & # 8217 ; s disease, besides called endolymphatic edemas, is a reasonably common upset of the maze of the interior ear that affects both the vestibular nervus, with attendant onslaughts of dizziness, and the auditory nervus, with damage of hearing. It was first described in 1861 by a Gallic doctor, Prosper M? Ni? rhenium. It is now known that the symptoms are caused by an surplus of endolymphatic fluid in the interior ear. The diagnosing is made from the repeating onslaughts of dizziness, frequently with sickness and emesis, damage of hearing with a deformation of sound in the affected ear that fluctuates in grade, and a sense of comprehensiveness or force per unit area in the ear. The cause of the surplus of endolymphatic fluid is non ever known, although in many instances it consequences from faulty operation of the endolymphatic canal and pouch, the constructions that usually reabsorb endolymphatic fluid from the interior ear. Allergic reactions to certain nutrients may besides do the disease. The intervention of M? Ni? rhenium & # 8217 ; s disease is directed toward happening the cause of the surplus of endolymphatic fluid in order to command it. If medical intervention does non alleviate the perennial onslaughts of dizziness, surgery may be necessary. ( Lucente 150-151 )

Presbycusis is the gradual diminution of hearing map that consequences from aging. It is similar to other aging procedures because it occurs at different ages and at different rates among the population. As a individual ages, there is a gradual loss of cochlear hair cells, ensuing in bit by bit reduced and finally lost hearing. Hearing is reduced at the highest hearable frequences ( around 20,000 Hz ) and so increasingly for sounds of lower frequences. Normally the slow diminishing of hearing does non get down until after age 60. The affected single notices increasing trouble in hearing sounds of high pitch and in understanding conversation. Correction of a nutritionary lack of Zn, coenzyme Q10, or perchance vitamin A may stabilise the progressive hearing loss. The physician must do certain that the person does non hold a correctable damage, such as accrued cerumen, secretory otitis media, or stirrup arrested development by otosclerosis, as portion of the trouble. An electrical hearing assistance is of limited aid to some, while others find that a hearing assistance makes voices louder but less clear and hence is of small aid. ( Lucente 464-465 )

The kid born deaf or with a terrible hearing damage can non get address by the normal procedure but must go to particular categories or a school for the deaf to be taught address and lip-reading. Most of these kids have leftovers of the sense of hearing that can be utilized in their schooling by the usage of AIDSs to magnify sound. The kid with a moderate or mild hearing damage is able to get address independently but a little more easy than the kid with normal hearing, while speech-correction direction is normally required to better enunciation. Cochlear implants can be considered for kids and grownups with a entire absence of hearing or hearing loss so profound that hearing AIDSs are non helpful. Implants make it possible for a deaf kid to develop address and let a deaf grownup to pass on more efficaciously. ( Www.deaf.com )

Progresss in hearing-aid engineering have served to increase the proportion of hard-of-hearing persons who can profit well from elaboration. Choice of an appropriate hearing assistance for persons with sensorineural ( or nerve-type ) hearing loss may be hard and time-consuming. Research has demonstrated repeatedly, nevertheless, that the ability of hearers with sensorineural hearing loss to understand address at colloquial degrees frequently can be enhanced significantly by usage of an appropriate hearing assistance. For those persons whose hearing loss causes terrible deformation of address, usage of a hearing assistance in combination with lip-reading may increase the sum of address the person can understand through lip-reading entirely. On the other manus, choice of a hearing assistance is frequently a simpler affair for hearers with hearing loss of the conductive type. Careful choice is necessary to guarantee that maximal apprehension of address is gettable in noisy environments. The hard-of-hearing person should confer with with trained professionals such as audiologists, who are trained in measuring the benefit derived from the usage of a hearing assistance.

Lip-reading, which really entails attentive observation of the full facial look instead than the motions of the lips entirely, is used even by individuals with normal hearing who, in the presence of background noise, need these ocular hints to supplement hearing. As hearing begins to be impaired, lip-reading, which might better be termed speech reading, becomes progressively valuable and of import.

The hard-of-hearing person who knows a spoken linguistic communication can larn lip-reading by careful observation of a talker of that linguistic communication. Formal direction in lip-reading by a instructor separately or in categories is necessary for those hard-of-hearing individuals who have non acquired cognition of a spoken linguistic communication. The greater the loss of hearing, the more indispensable lip-reading becomes, for which good lighting is indispensable. The hard-of-hearing may besides be taught a mark linguistic communication, such as American Sign Language, as a communications tool.

Speech-correction direction, needed for the immature with serious grades of impaired hearing, besides becomes necessary for the grownup who all of a sudden loses all hearing in both ears. Without the monitoring consequence of hearing one & # 8217 ; s ain voice, address Begins to deteriorate and to get the level, toneless quality of the profoundly deaf.

Deafness was one time thought of a disease that would go forth the person as a hermit because of their missing the ability to pass on with society. Medicine has made great sums of advancement in naming and handling hearing upsets, while other have helped to better the quality of life for the deaf today through deaf civilization.


Lucente, Frank. Necessities of Otolaryngology. New York: Raven Press, 1997.

Turkington, Carol. The Encyclopedia of Deafness and Hearing Disorders. New York: Fact on File, 1992.


National Association for the Deaf





Infomedical Dictionary

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