Helping Todays Youth Essay Research Paper In
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Helping Today? s Youth Essay, Research Paper
In today? s society, a troubled adolescent or arch stripling is labeled a
juvenile delinquent. Yet the current definition of a juvenile is based entirely upon, most of
the times, on stereotypes. A delinquent may be a troublesome adolescent with complicated
jobs at place, school, or with friends. He may hold utmost physical and/or
emotional demands, or he may merely be a kid who committed a simple error. ? Was he
luckless to acquire caught making something foolish? Did he run off from place because of
household problems or to show independency? What sort of aid does he necessitate and
precisely how much? ? ( Erickson 126-127 ) . At this point, a probation officer helps in
doing determinations that have an of import and good impact on the lives of those
called? delinquents? ( Erickson 7 ) . Probation can be defined in two different ways: as an
organisation or a procedure. As an organisation, probation is? a service bureau designed to
help the tribunal and execute certain services in the disposal of condemnable justice. ? As
a procedure, probation is? an probe for the tribunal and the supervising of individuals in
the community? ( Carter and Wilkins 77 ) . Sing the diverse definitions on the
topic of probation, the myths and truths about the juvenile justness system can besides be
Although juvenile offense is a serious national job, Marcia Satterthwaite, a
societal worker, criticizes the effectivity of the legal system as a whole. She claims that
the system has been losing its confidentiality between the officer and the client, that it
does non deter offense efficaciously, that penalty should be more rigorous, and that
there is a? deficiency of focal point? on the demand to protect society from the juvenile ( 61-63 ) .
Harmonizing to Satterthwaite, unsafe kids are released to perpetrate even more Acts of the Apostless of
offense. Ron Boostrom, a probation officer working for the metropolis of Los Angeles, agrees
that in the terminal, ? the delinquent is dumped back into the same household, the same
community, and the same jobs that existed before the? rehabilitation? ? ( 246 ) .
Boostrom believes that the juvenile system teaches these childs the trade of offense, to
hatred, and even go dedicated to acquiring even with the society that excluded them in
the first topographic point ( 238 ) .
The truth is that the major cause of low self-pride is due to the juvenile? s
milieus. In most instances, subject, supervising, and fondness tend to be losing in
the place itself ( Satterthwaite 180 ) . If probation officers would non be able to
communicate to others about the juvenile, the officer would hold no beginnings of
information and would be left without an thought as to how to near a end for the kid.
If penalty were to be harsher and juveniles were to be treated and sentenced as
grownups, taxpayers? disbursals would increase. Longer sentences for juveniles cost
taxpayers more but do non needfully give better consequences, while bar plans
work more expeditiously than imprisonment and cost much less. To maintain a adolescent locked
up for a twelvemonth cost more than $ 30,000. Harmonizing to Mike Males, this sum of money is
able to cover 10 striplings? part-time occupations, a probation officer to work with 25
juveniles, coach one hundred kids falling behind in their surveies, or supply
? recreational options? for two hundred kids with nil to make after school ( 1 ) .
Delinquents are kids who? have been pushed beyond the bounds of their abilities,
desires, and outlooks? ( Erickson 127-129 ) . Normally, they seem to desire and necessitate
subject and way and perpetrate the offense either for attending, wonder, exhilaration,
retaliation, or peer force per unit area and credence ( 137 ) . Over clip, these juveniles tend to
mature and turn out of their delinquent stage to be able to acquire off from a life of offense
( 140 ) .
Although probation can be exciting and carry throughing for the probation officer,
Erickson states that it can besides be really frustrating and detering because of the clients
and the system ( seven ) . At the beginning of the occupation, officers are committed and really
dedicated to assisting troubled kids become successful grownups. They visit the
wrongdoer? s household, they interview and communicate with school decision makers, and they
go highly involved in the mundane lives of those juveniles ( Satterthwaite 53 ) .
With one client, officers have a great sum of work to take attention of, but when the
probation sections assign an mean caseload of about 40 juveniles per officer, it
becomes more hard to give a sufficient sum of attending to each person
kid. ? While most probation officers have maestro? s grades and can supply both household
and group therapy & # 8230 ; probation sections are grossly short-handed and underfunded?
( Satterthwaite 57 ) . After reaching a client, talking to persons who know the
wrongdoer, doing an lineation as to how to travel approximately in order to assist the juvenile, fixing
studies on informations of tribunal, school, constabulary apprehension sheets, and old probation studies,
doing determinations as to whether the kid should travel to tribunal or whether an understanding can
be reached between the student nurse and probationee, sing places, doing tribunal
visual aspects and a great sum of telephone calls, a probation officer is frequently worn out
and disillusioned ( Whitehead 37-39 ) . In some instances, some probation officers become
convinced that societal work is an business that has no wages or significance, some return
to more traditional casework scenes, and some remain in this field. Those who decide
that they will stay in the juvenile justness system, are most normally criticized for
being uneffective. Three major phases describe the procedure of a probation officer? s occupation:
one, ? toughening-up? , two, ? mellowing? , and three, ? burning-out? . Burn-out is one of
the most common jobs of probation caused by? big caseloads, low wage, small
preparation, and unequal community resources? ( Whitehead 3-9 ) . Though officers
effort to give equal sums of supervising to each kid and supply good impact
on a juvenile, the instability of excessively many clients and either excessively much or non plenty
contact with them can do emphasis for the officer and a deficiency of motive for the client
( 41 ) . When an officer can non look to divide his or her personal jobs from those
of a client, imbibing dependences, emphasis, and other occupational jeopardies seem to ensue in
their lives ( Erickson 33 ) . Along with the probation officer losing control of his ain life,
the delinquent, excessively, appears to perpetrate more condemnable Acts of the Apostless because of the deficiency of attending
In order to extinguish the most common troubles that exist in the probation
business, alterations are necessary in non merely the system itself, but besides in the attitudes
and behaviours of the juvenile and officer. One of the most of import ends is to forestall
kids from go againsting any farther so they can go responsible and successful grownups.
The 2nd most of import end is to protect society from the condemnable Acts of the Apostless of kids.
Parents need to learn kids self-control by supervising the kid? s behaviour,
acknowledging the different behaviours when they occur, and penalizing those which are
unacceptable ( Boostrom 181 ) . Through instruction, intervention, and fondness, bar
of condemnable Acts of the Apostless reaches juveniles and assists them into a healthier and better life. To be
able to utilize these constituents at the earliest phase possible, is to maintain these adolescents
off from of all time come ining the juvenile justness system in the first topographic point. With the aid of
instruction, preparation, and support for the staff, probation officers can be better prepared to
take on diverse instances of all types ( Anonymous 1-2 ) . The juvenile justness system demands
betterment. Probation officers, Judgess, and household members need to do effectual
determinations about who should truly be incarcerated and/or receive probation. If an discourtesy
made is non highly serious and the client and officer can hold on a penalty, the
kid does non necessitate to show himself upon a justice. If either the client or officer want to
do an visual aspect in tribunal, an understanding can non be reached, or menaces have been made
affecting either parties or others, a tribunal determination is most suggested ( Carter and Wilkins
142 ) .
In add-on, to doing the right picks, good community plans are besides
necessary to put delinquents in a better environment to be able to win. Though
juveniles tend to steal, trespass, battle, imbibe, take drugs, usage profanity, run off from
place, and miss school, many solutions were being thought about to forestall these defects
( Erickson 125 ) . The first has already been mentioned and trades with? toughening up?
and puting juveniles in grownup tribunals. Harmonizing to Satterthwaite, taking wrongdoers
from society for longer periods of clip will cut down offense. Those who have non
committed a serious offense will come to the realisation of the possible penalties ( such
as life in prison, the decease punishment, etc. ) . Violent wrongdoers would be less likely to reiterate
their offenses by larning from their first lesson ( 64-65 ) . Nationally, 38 % of juveniles are
charged with a violent offense, 41 % are charged with offense against belongings, and the
staying 15 % on drug charges. Fifty-seven per centum of those arrested for the first clip
did non reiterate an act of offense, 27 % got arrested one time or twice more, and 16 % went on to
go? chronic wrongdoers? ( See Appendix ) . Though these figure figures may demo
a measure to success, it is five times more likely for a juvenile to be sexually assaulted, two
times more likely to be beaten by staff, and a 50 per centum opportunity that they will be attacked
with a arm in an grownup installation. When released, juveniles turn into violent felons
because of the insensibility they suffered in prison ( Satterthwaite 67-69 ) .
A 2nd solution was so proposed in which immature wrongdoers would be
rehabilitated, to put them in community organisations. Boot cantonments, for illustration, are
school-based ambiances that teach childs self-discipline, increase self-pride,
supply exercising and guidance chances, and aid develop them for a G.E.D. Angstrom
plan called High Impact emphasizes teamwork, provides life and occupation accomplishments, and
physiques a sense of personal and community achievements ( Satterthwaite 70-71 ) . The
Girls and Boys Clubs of America aid young person? take part in stru
ctured recreational and
instruction activities, concentrating on personal development, communicating sweetening,
job resolution, and determination devising accomplishments? ( Thornberry 5 ) . With this plan, 1990
statistics prove that 90 % of the young person attended one time a hebdomad or more, 26 % attended on a
day-to-day footing, 48 % showed betterment in the academic country, 33 % showed improved
classs, and another 33 % had much better attending ( 6 ) . Juvenile hall is besides another
option. Although it includes school attending during the twenty-four hours, educational plans,
and voluntary services, this method is excessively expensive. In 1996/97 entirely, 5,967 bush leagues had
been locked up, 5,024 were males and 943 were females ( Anonymous 1-3 ) . Costing an
norm of $ 108 per twenty-four hours, per kid, taxpayers are paying $ 644,436 mundane. Alternatively of
utilizing so much money inefficiently, a bigger solution can be reached. A Young person Aid
Panels plan helps to make kids before they commit offenses in the first topographic point. This
specific plan is made from a group of citizens who are trained to manage instances
affecting first-time wrongdoers or juveniles who have committed minor offenses. These
trainers act as probation officers when seeking to work out declarations with the wrongdoer,
but alternatively, they get the kid involved with the community, and the community with the
kid ( Satterthwaite 73-74 ) . The people of this organisation non merely look at the safety
of the populace, but they attempt to assist adolescents recognize where they stand and what they
demand to make to better. When these juveniles are eventually released from probation,
aftercare is needed. Still, more monitoring and support has to take topographic point by working with
household, by maintaining a better oculus on the juvenile at school, and by forestalling hereafter
jobs. Satterthwaite provinces, ? America? s success & # 8230 ; depends non so much on specific
jobs for penalizing & # 8230 ; but on our overall willingness to put in the state? s young person?
( 75 ) .
In truth, the success or failure rate of the juvenile justness system depends entirely
upon the attempt put in by both the probation officer and client. The officer can state the
offender what to have on, who he can and can non speak to, what clip he has to be place at,
and what regulations he has to populate under ( Satterthwaite 57 ) . If the wrongdoer decides to disobey,
subject is required. In 1948-1950 a survey was done on 5,020 juveniles who had been
placed on probation and had been antecedently convicted. The figure of male childs was more
than nine times that of misss, 4,586 males versus 434 females ( See Appendix ) . In the
procedure, surveies proved that non merely were the bulk of juveniles convicted for
community discourtesies against belongings, but that towards the terminal of the test and mistake
experiment, the success rates were by and large higher for females than those for males, and
for those who were older instead than younger ( Radzinowicz 4-5 ) . Wrongdoers were
released and normally tend to be released from probation in two ways. The first is early
expiration based on good advancement and the 2nd is expiration based on completion of
the full period of supervising originally given ( Radzinowicz 44 ) .
The 2nd instance survey was performed in November of 1975 for a period of three
old ages. The survey was used to compare the effectivity of traditional probation
processs and analyze the consequences. Often, consequences were encouraging, particularly when
there was a good relationship between the social worker and client. The Concerted
Behavior Demonstration Project ( CBDP ) was designed for behavior alteration and
transactional analysis ( TA ) intervention. It was used to analyse the sum of intervention
given to the client, compare the probation system to other methods of intervention, better
the result of social worker and client, and develop a manner to assist probation sections
aid juveniles ( Jesness 1-3 ) . In order to be able to carry through these ends, a great
sum of information was needed to be collected. The social worker needed to be observed,
background, psychological, and behavioural informations needed to be analyzed and carefully
evaluated. From the clients, there was a broad scope of factors that influenced statistics of
the rates of success and the rates of failure. Although the theoretical account age for this experiment
was 16 old ages of age, clients were every bit immature as eight and every bit old as 22.
Ethnicity besides varied. Fifty-two per centum were white, 30 % were black, 13 % were
Mexican-American, and the staying 5 % were other groups. Of all the juveniles, 81 %
consisted of males while a really low 19 % were females. Covering with economic system and
household position, 13 % were found to have aid from the public assistance plan, 90 % were
already populating with a household of their ain, 54 % with both parents, and 36 % with lone
either the female parent or male parent. The balance either lived in surrogate places or with a relation.
After much survey, the group of officers found that 69 % of the striplings had a job
with being awol from school, 84 % were sent to the principal? s office for misbehaviour,
73 % were suspended, 50 % had run off from place, 39 % vandalized edifices, 45 %
fought in pack related activities, and 60 % were involved with drugs. Along with the
clients runing in everything from age to instruction position, the officers involved in the
experiment besides varied. Military officers were anyplace between the ages of 23 to
25 old ages old. Seventy-eight per centum were male and 22 % were female.
Eighty-seven per centum were white, 7 % were Mexican-American, 4 % were black, and 2 %
were Oriental. Education degrees for these officers ranged from 16 % holding a maestro? s
grade, 38 % traveling beyond the unmarried man degree, 44 % holding a four-year grade, 2 people
with a biennial grade, and overall, the mean length of experience was five and a half
old ages ( Jesness 6-9 ) . Out of 152 juveniles, 56.2 % expressed a high positive respect by
holding their job behaviour remitted and 36.5 % expressed a low positive respect
without rectifying their behaviours. After a six month follow-up, of 71 wrongdoers, 11 %
had failed with a high positive respect and of 60 wrongdoers 33 % failed with low positive
respect. In cases where at that place existed a common liking and high positive relation, merely
19 % of the officer? s instances failed. In cases where at that place existed a common disfavor, 40 %
of the instances failed ( 21-22 ) . Data proved that it was non needfully the social worker? s
personality or attitude that helped the clients, but the fact that he did or did non make
? equal eventuality undertaking? with a peculiar client that made the greatest
difference ( 21 ) . Caseloads of more than 50 clients were ever on call from school
principals, constabularies, Judgess, attorneies, and parents to be able to vouch effectual
intervention, but basic services were performed ( 28 ) . In truth, job behaviour remittal
was made possible by holding more concerted parents, instructors, and equals, irrespective of
the type of intervention provided.
The job with the juvenile justness system is genuinely a major issue when covering
with the United States. As seen over clip, the juvenile delinquency rates have increased,
traveling anyplace from 100s of kids to the many 1000s recognized today.
Although more and more kids are being placed on probation, in most instances, a lesson
is non learned and the juvenile merely goes back to the same bad wonts. Through the
many solutions being proposed, the procedure is a? test and mistake? based experiment.
When one solution seems to neglect, another is thought about to assist do a difference
in a juvenile? s life. Money and control are two factors that do non impact the behaviour
alteration. Males provinces, ? Merely by assailing the conditions that lead childs to
crime-social ailments: poorness, force, drug maltreatment, dysfunctional households, and neglecting
schools-can the state genuinely protect its most cherished resource, its kids? ( 75 ) .
Talking with Ceasar Arambula, a Los Angeles county healer, he states that out of all
the delinquents and kids placed on probation, merely approximately 15 % really win.
Although the figure figure is really low, the condemnable jurisprudence field is? the field of the hereafter?
and more probation officers will be needed to help in doing a kid? s life that of a
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