Helping Todays Youth Essay Research Paper In

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Helping Today? s Youth Essay, Research Paper

In today? s society, a troubled adolescent or arch stripling is labeled a

juvenile delinquent. Yet the current definition of a juvenile is based entirely upon, most of

the times, on stereotypes. A delinquent may be a troublesome adolescent with complicated

jobs at place, school, or with friends. He may hold utmost physical and/or

emotional demands, or he may merely be a kid who committed a simple error. ? Was he

luckless to acquire caught making something foolish? Did he run off from place because of

household problems or to show independency? What sort of aid does he necessitate and

precisely how much? ? ( Erickson 126-127 ) . At this point, a probation officer helps in

doing determinations that have an of import and good impact on the lives of those

called? delinquents? ( Erickson 7 ) . Probation can be defined in two different ways: as an

organisation or a procedure. As an organisation, probation is? a service bureau designed to

help the tribunal and execute certain services in the disposal of condemnable justice. ? As

a procedure, probation is? an probe for the tribunal and the supervising of individuals in

the community? ( Carter and Wilkins 77 ) . Sing the diverse definitions on the

topic of probation, the myths and truths about the juvenile justness system can besides be

found.

Although juvenile offense is a serious national job, Marcia Satterthwaite, a

societal worker, criticizes the effectivity of the legal system as a whole. She claims that

the system has been losing its confidentiality between the officer and the client, that it

does non deter offense efficaciously, that penalty should be more rigorous, and that

there is a? deficiency of focal point? on the demand to protect society from the juvenile ( 61-63 ) .

Harmonizing to Satterthwaite, unsafe kids are released to perpetrate even more Acts of the Apostless of

offense. Ron Boostrom, a probation officer working for the metropolis of Los Angeles, agrees

that in the terminal, ? the delinquent is dumped back into the same household, the same

community, and the same jobs that existed before the? rehabilitation? ? ( 246 ) .

Boostrom believes that the juvenile system teaches these childs the trade of offense, to

hatred, and even go dedicated to acquiring even with the society that excluded them in

the first topographic point ( 238 ) .

The truth is that the major cause of low self-pride is due to the juvenile? s

milieus. In most instances, subject, supervising, and fondness tend to be losing in

the place itself ( Satterthwaite 180 ) . If probation officers would non be able to

communicate to others about the juvenile, the officer would hold no beginnings of

information and would be left without an thought as to how to near a end for the kid.

If penalty were to be harsher and juveniles were to be treated and sentenced as

grownups, taxpayers? disbursals would increase. Longer sentences for juveniles cost

taxpayers more but do non needfully give better consequences, while bar plans

work more expeditiously than imprisonment and cost much less. To maintain a adolescent locked

up for a twelvemonth cost more than $ 30,000. Harmonizing to Mike Males, this sum of money is

able to cover 10 striplings? part-time occupations, a probation officer to work with 25

juveniles, coach one hundred kids falling behind in their surveies, or supply

? recreational options? for two hundred kids with nil to make after school ( 1 ) .

Delinquents are kids who? have been pushed beyond the bounds of their abilities,

desires, and outlooks? ( Erickson 127-129 ) . Normally, they seem to desire and necessitate

subject and way and perpetrate the offense either for attending, wonder, exhilaration,

retaliation, or peer force per unit area and credence ( 137 ) . Over clip, these juveniles tend to

mature and turn out of their delinquent stage to be able to acquire off from a life of offense

( 140 ) .

Although probation can be exciting and carry throughing for the probation officer,

Erickson states that it can besides be really frustrating and detering because of the clients

and the system ( seven ) . At the beginning of the occupation, officers are committed and really

dedicated to assisting troubled kids become successful grownups. They visit the

wrongdoer? s household, they interview and communicate with school decision makers, and they

go highly involved in the mundane lives of those juveniles ( Satterthwaite 53 ) .

With one client, officers have a great sum of work to take attention of, but when the

probation sections assign an mean caseload of about 40 juveniles per officer, it

becomes more hard to give a sufficient sum of attending to each person

kid. ? While most probation officers have maestro? s grades and can supply both household

and group therapy & # 8230 ; probation sections are grossly short-handed and underfunded?

( Satterthwaite 57 ) . After reaching a client, talking to persons who know the

wrongdoer, doing an lineation as to how to travel approximately in order to assist the juvenile, fixing

studies on informations of tribunal, school, constabulary apprehension sheets, and old probation studies,

doing determinations as to whether the kid should travel to tribunal or whether an understanding can

be reached between the student nurse and probationee, sing places, doing tribunal

visual aspects and a great sum of telephone calls, a probation officer is frequently worn out

and disillusioned ( Whitehead 37-39 ) . In some instances, some probation officers become

convinced that societal work is an business that has no wages or significance, some return

to more traditional casework scenes, and some remain in this field. Those who decide

that they will stay in the juvenile justness system, are most normally criticized for

being uneffective. Three major phases describe the procedure of a probation officer? s occupation:

one, ? toughening-up? , two, ? mellowing? , and three, ? burning-out? . Burn-out is one of

the most common jobs of probation caused by? big caseloads, low wage, small

preparation, and unequal community resources? ( Whitehead 3-9 ) . Though officers

effort to give equal sums of supervising to each kid and supply good impact

on a juvenile, the instability of excessively many clients and either excessively much or non plenty

contact with them can do emphasis for the officer and a deficiency of motive for the client

( 41 ) . When an officer can non look to divide his or her personal jobs from those

of a client, imbibing dependences, emphasis, and other occupational jeopardies seem to ensue in

their lives ( Erickson 33 ) . Along with the probation officer losing control of his ain life,

the delinquent, excessively, appears to perpetrate more condemnable Acts of the Apostless because of the deficiency of attending

and subject.

In order to extinguish the most common troubles that exist in the probation

business, alterations are necessary in non merely the system itself, but besides in the attitudes

and behaviours of the juvenile and officer. One of the most of import ends is to forestall

kids from go againsting any farther so they can go responsible and successful grownups.

The 2nd most of import end is to protect society from the condemnable Acts of the Apostless of kids.

Parents need to learn kids self-control by supervising the kid? s behaviour,

acknowledging the different behaviours when they occur, and penalizing those which are

unacceptable ( Boostrom 181 ) . Through instruction, intervention, and fondness, bar

of condemnable Acts of the Apostless reaches juveniles and assists them into a healthier and better life. To be

able to utilize these constituents at the earliest phase possible, is to maintain these adolescents

off from of all time come ining the juvenile justness system in the first topographic point. With the aid of

instruction, preparation, and support for the staff, probation officers can be better prepared to

take on diverse instances of all types ( Anonymous 1-2 ) . The juvenile justness system demands

betterment. Probation officers, Judgess, and household members need to do effectual

determinations about who should truly be incarcerated and/or receive probation. If an discourtesy

made is non highly serious and the client and officer can hold on a penalty, the

kid does non necessitate to show himself upon a justice. If either the client or officer want to

do an visual aspect in tribunal, an understanding can non be reached, or menaces have been made

affecting either parties or others, a tribunal determination is most suggested ( Carter and Wilkins

142 ) .

In add-on, to doing the right picks, good community plans are besides

necessary to put delinquents in a better environment to be able to win. Though

juveniles tend to steal, trespass, battle, imbibe, take drugs, usage profanity, run off from

place, and miss school, many solutions were being thought about to forestall these defects

( Erickson 125 ) . The first has already been mentioned and trades with? toughening up?

and puting juveniles in grownup tribunals. Harmonizing to Satterthwaite, taking wrongdoers

from society for longer periods of clip will cut down offense. Those who have non

committed a serious offense will come to the realisation of the possible penalties ( such

as life in prison, the decease punishment, etc. ) . Violent wrongdoers would be less likely to reiterate

their offenses by larning from their first lesson ( 64-65 ) . Nationally, 38 % of juveniles are

charged with a violent offense, 41 % are charged with offense against belongings, and the

staying 15 % on drug charges. Fifty-seven per centum of those arrested for the first clip

did non reiterate an act of offense, 27 % got arrested one time or twice more, and 16 % went on to

go? chronic wrongdoers? ( See Appendix ) . Though these figure figures may demo

a measure to success, it is five times more likely for a juvenile to be sexually assaulted, two

times more likely to be beaten by staff, and a 50 per centum opportunity that they will be attacked

with a arm in an grownup installation. When released, juveniles turn into violent felons

because of the insensibility they suffered in prison ( Satterthwaite 67-69 ) .

A 2nd solution was so proposed in which immature wrongdoers would be

rehabilitated, to put them in community organisations. Boot cantonments, for illustration, are

school-based ambiances that teach childs self-discipline, increase self-pride,

supply exercising and guidance chances, and aid develop them for a G.E.D. Angstrom

plan called High Impact emphasizes teamwork, provides life and occupation accomplishments, and

physiques a sense of personal and community achievements ( Satterthwaite 70-71 ) . The

Girls and Boys Clubs of America aid young person? take part in stru

ctured recreational and

instruction activities, concentrating on personal development, communicating sweetening,

job resolution, and determination devising accomplishments? ( Thornberry 5 ) . With this plan, 1990

statistics prove that 90 % of the young person attended one time a hebdomad or more, 26 % attended on a

day-to-day footing, 48 % showed betterment in the academic country, 33 % showed improved

classs, and another 33 % had much better attending ( 6 ) . Juvenile hall is besides another

option. Although it includes school attending during the twenty-four hours, educational plans,

and voluntary services, this method is excessively expensive. In 1996/97 entirely, 5,967 bush leagues had

been locked up, 5,024 were males and 943 were females ( Anonymous 1-3 ) . Costing an

norm of $ 108 per twenty-four hours, per kid, taxpayers are paying $ 644,436 mundane. Alternatively of

utilizing so much money inefficiently, a bigger solution can be reached. A Young person Aid

Panels plan helps to make kids before they commit offenses in the first topographic point. This

specific plan is made from a group of citizens who are trained to manage instances

affecting first-time wrongdoers or juveniles who have committed minor offenses. These

trainers act as probation officers when seeking to work out declarations with the wrongdoer,

but alternatively, they get the kid involved with the community, and the community with the

kid ( Satterthwaite 73-74 ) . The people of this organisation non merely look at the safety

of the populace, but they attempt to assist adolescents recognize where they stand and what they

demand to make to better. When these juveniles are eventually released from probation,

aftercare is needed. Still, more monitoring and support has to take topographic point by working with

household, by maintaining a better oculus on the juvenile at school, and by forestalling hereafter

jobs. Satterthwaite provinces, ? America? s success & # 8230 ; depends non so much on specific

jobs for penalizing & # 8230 ; but on our overall willingness to put in the state? s young person?

( 75 ) .

In truth, the success or failure rate of the juvenile justness system depends entirely

upon the attempt put in by both the probation officer and client. The officer can state the

offender what to have on, who he can and can non speak to, what clip he has to be place at,

and what regulations he has to populate under ( Satterthwaite 57 ) . If the wrongdoer decides to disobey,

subject is required. In 1948-1950 a survey was done on 5,020 juveniles who had been

placed on probation and had been antecedently convicted. The figure of male childs was more

than nine times that of misss, 4,586 males versus 434 females ( See Appendix ) . In the

procedure, surveies proved that non merely were the bulk of juveniles convicted for

community discourtesies against belongings, but that towards the terminal of the test and mistake

experiment, the success rates were by and large higher for females than those for males, and

for those who were older instead than younger ( Radzinowicz 4-5 ) . Wrongdoers were

released and normally tend to be released from probation in two ways. The first is early

expiration based on good advancement and the 2nd is expiration based on completion of

the full period of supervising originally given ( Radzinowicz 44 ) .

The 2nd instance survey was performed in November of 1975 for a period of three

old ages. The survey was used to compare the effectivity of traditional probation

processs and analyze the consequences. Often, consequences were encouraging, particularly when

there was a good relationship between the social worker and client. The Concerted

Behavior Demonstration Project ( CBDP ) was designed for behavior alteration and

transactional analysis ( TA ) intervention. It was used to analyse the sum of intervention

given to the client, compare the probation system to other methods of intervention, better

the result of social worker and client, and develop a manner to assist probation sections

aid juveniles ( Jesness 1-3 ) . In order to be able to carry through these ends, a great

sum of information was needed to be collected. The social worker needed to be observed,

background, psychological, and behavioural informations needed to be analyzed and carefully

evaluated. From the clients, there was a broad scope of factors that influenced statistics of

the rates of success and the rates of failure. Although the theoretical account age for this experiment

was 16 old ages of age, clients were every bit immature as eight and every bit old as 22.

Ethnicity besides varied. Fifty-two per centum were white, 30 % were black, 13 % were

Mexican-American, and the staying 5 % were other groups. Of all the juveniles, 81 %

consisted of males while a really low 19 % were females. Covering with economic system and

household position, 13 % were found to have aid from the public assistance plan, 90 % were

already populating with a household of their ain, 54 % with both parents, and 36 % with lone

either the female parent or male parent. The balance either lived in surrogate places or with a relation.

After much survey, the group of officers found that 69 % of the striplings had a job

with being awol from school, 84 % were sent to the principal? s office for misbehaviour,

73 % were suspended, 50 % had run off from place, 39 % vandalized edifices, 45 %

fought in pack related activities, and 60 % were involved with drugs. Along with the

clients runing in everything from age to instruction position, the officers involved in the

experiment besides varied. Military officers were anyplace between the ages of 23 to

25 old ages old. Seventy-eight per centum were male and 22 % were female.

Eighty-seven per centum were white, 7 % were Mexican-American, 4 % were black, and 2 %

were Oriental. Education degrees for these officers ranged from 16 % holding a maestro? s

grade, 38 % traveling beyond the unmarried man degree, 44 % holding a four-year grade, 2 people

with a biennial grade, and overall, the mean length of experience was five and a half

old ages ( Jesness 6-9 ) . Out of 152 juveniles, 56.2 % expressed a high positive respect by

holding their job behaviour remitted and 36.5 % expressed a low positive respect

without rectifying their behaviours. After a six month follow-up, of 71 wrongdoers, 11 %

had failed with a high positive respect and of 60 wrongdoers 33 % failed with low positive

respect. In cases where at that place existed a common liking and high positive relation, merely

19 % of the officer? s instances failed. In cases where at that place existed a common disfavor, 40 %

of the instances failed ( 21-22 ) . Data proved that it was non needfully the social worker? s

personality or attitude that helped the clients, but the fact that he did or did non make

? equal eventuality undertaking? with a peculiar client that made the greatest

difference ( 21 ) . Caseloads of more than 50 clients were ever on call from school

principals, constabularies, Judgess, attorneies, and parents to be able to vouch effectual

intervention, but basic services were performed ( 28 ) . In truth, job behaviour remittal

was made possible by holding more concerted parents, instructors, and equals, irrespective of

the type of intervention provided.

The job with the juvenile justness system is genuinely a major issue when covering

with the United States. As seen over clip, the juvenile delinquency rates have increased,

traveling anyplace from 100s of kids to the many 1000s recognized today.

Although more and more kids are being placed on probation, in most instances, a lesson

is non learned and the juvenile merely goes back to the same bad wonts. Through the

many solutions being proposed, the procedure is a? test and mistake? based experiment.

When one solution seems to neglect, another is thought about to assist do a difference

in a juvenile? s life. Money and control are two factors that do non impact the behaviour

alteration. Males provinces, ? Merely by assailing the conditions that lead childs to

crime-social ailments: poorness, force, drug maltreatment, dysfunctional households, and neglecting

schools-can the state genuinely protect its most cherished resource, its kids? ( 75 ) .

Talking with Ceasar Arambula, a Los Angeles county healer, he states that out of all

the delinquents and kids placed on probation, merely approximately 15 % really win.

Although the figure figure is really low, the condemnable jurisprudence field is? the field of the hereafter?

and more probation officers will be needed to help in doing a kid? s life that of a

successful grownup.

WORKSs Cited

Anonymous. ? Juvenile Institutions. ? Probation Department. 30 June 1997: 3 pp.

On-line. Internet. 11 June 1999. Available

World wide web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.co.alameda.ca.us/probation/detail009.htm.

Anonymous. ? Statement of Juvenile Officer? s Philosophy. ? 3 pp. On-line. Internet. 11

June 1999. Available World wide web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.slnedu.com/sites/16circrt/philsphy.htm.

Arambula, Caesar. Personal interview. 16 June 1999.

Boostrom, Ron. Digesting Issues in Criminology. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press,

Inc. , 1995.

Carter, Robert M. , and Leslie T. Wilkins. Probation, Parole, and Community

Correctionss. 2nd erectile dysfunction. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. , 1976.

Erickson, Charles L. Introduction. Perils of Probation. By Erickson. Springfield, Ill:

Charles C Thomas, 1980.

Erickson, Charles L. Perils of Probation. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1980.

Jesness, Carl F. , et Al. ? An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Contingency Contracting

with Delinquents. ? Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency ( 1975 ) : 1-30.

Males, Mike. ? Fact Sheet: Juvenile Justice. ? 2 pp. On-line. Internet. 11 June 1999.

Available WWW: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.rt66.com/~nmcc/juv.htm.

Radzinowicz, L. LL. D. The Results of Probation. Vol. X. New York: St Martin? s

Imperativeness, 1958.

Satterthwaite, Marcia. Juvenile Crime. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 1997.

Thornberry, Terence P. , and James H. Burch II. ? Gang Members and Delinquent

Behavior. ? Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. May 1997: 9

pp. On-line. Internet. 11 June 1999. Available

World wide web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.connect.more.net/lists/mo-caring/1998.11/0008 & # 8230 ;

Whitehead, John T. Burnout in Probation and Corrections. New York: Praeger

Publishers, 1989.

Plants Consulted

? No. 353. Juvenile Apprehensions for Selected Discourtesies: 1980-1996. ? Statistical Abstract of

the United States. 118th erectile dysfunction. Austin, Texas: Hoover? s Business imperativeness, 1998.

? Motion of Youth Authority Parole Population, California, 1990-1997. ? California

Statistical Abstract. Sacramento, CA: State of California, 1998.

Appendix

Age and Sex of Offenders Put on Probation

The Results of Probation. Chart. New York: St Martin? s Press, 1958.

331

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