Henry Viii 2 Essay Research Paper Henry

9 September 2017

Henry Viii 2 Essay, Research Paper

Henry VIII

King of England, born 28 June, 1491 ; died 28 January, 1547.

He was the 2nd boy and 3rd kid of his male parent, Henry VII. His senior

brother Arthur died in April, 1502, and accordingly Henry became heir

to the throne when he was non yet rather 11 old ages old. It has been

asserted that Henry & # 8217 ; s involvement in theological inquiries was due to the prejudice

of his early instruction, since he had at first been destined by his male parent for

the Church. But a kid of 11 can barely hold formed womb-to-tomb

rational gustatory sensations, and it is certain that secular rubrics, such as those of Earl

Marshal and Viceroy of Ireland, were heaped upon him when he was

five. On the other manus there can be no inquiry as to the male child & # 8217 ; s great

precociousness and as to the broad range of the surveies which he was made to

pursue from his earliest old ages.

After Arthur & # 8217 ; s decease a undertaking was at one time formed of get marrieding him to his

brother & # 8217 ; s widow, Catherine of Aragon, who, being born in December,

1485, was more than five old ages his senior. The dialogues for a papal

dispensation took some small clip, and the Spanish Queen Isabella, the

female parent of Catherine, so approaching her terminal, grew really impatient. Hence a

hurriedly drafted Brief incorporating the needed dispensation was in private

sent to Spain in 1504, to be followed some months subsequently by a Bull to the

same consequence which was of a more public character. The being of these

two instruments afterwards caused complications. Owing, nevertheless, to

some political scheming of Henry VII who was seeking to overreach his

rival Ferdinand Prince Henry, on achieving the age of 14, was

made to enter a formal protest against the proposed matrimony with

Catherine, as a affair arranged without his consent. Still, when his male parent

died in 1509, Henry carried out the matrimony nine hebdomads after his

accession, he being so eighteen, and demoing from the first a thorough

finding to be his ain maestro. Great popularity was won for the

new reign by the civil death and executing of Empson and Dudley, the

instruments of the late male monarch & # 8217 ; s extortion. Besides this, it is nem con

attested by coevalss that the immature crowned head possessed every gift

of head and individual which could elicit the enthusiasm of his people. His

accomplishment in manful athleticss was about equalled by his intelligence and his

devotedness to letters. Of the complicated foreign policy which marked the

beginning of his reign no item can be given here. Thankss partially to

Henry & # 8217 ; s personality, but still more to the ability of Wolsey, who shortly took

the first topographic point in the council chamber, England for the first clip became a

European power. In 1512 Henry joined Pope Julius II, Ferdinand of

Spain, and the Venetians in organizing the & # 8220 ; Holy League & # 8221 ; against the King of

France. Julius was feverishly set on trailing the & # 8220 ; savages & # 8221 ; ( i.e. the

Gallic and other aliens ) out of Italy, and Henry cooperated by

roll uping ships and soldiers to assail the Gallic male monarch in his ain

rules. No really conspicuous success attended his weaponries, but at that place

was a triumph at Guinegate outside Therouanne, and the Scotch, who, as

the Alliess of France, had threatened invasion, were disastrously defeated

at Flodden in 1513. During all this clip Henry remained on excellent

footings with the Holy See. In April, 1510, Julius sent him the aureate rose,

and in 1514 Leo X bestowed the honorific cap and blade, which were

presented with much sedateness at St. Paul & # 8217 ; s.

The League holding been broken up by the selfish policy of Ferdinand,

Henry VIII now made peace with France and for some old ages held the

balance of power on the Continent, though non without separating with a

good trade of money. Wolsey was made a cardinal in 1515 and exercised

more influence than of all time, but it was slightly against his advice that

Henry, in 1519, in secret became a campaigner for the sequence to the

imperium, though pretense at the same clip to back up the campaigning of

Francis, his ally. When, nevertheless, Charles V was successful, the Gallic

male monarch could non afford to dispute with Henry, and a slightly hollow and

insincere reclamation of their friendly relationship took topographic point in June, 1520, at the

celebrated & # 8220 ; Field of the Cloth of Gold & # 8221 ; , when the most luxuriant courtesies

were exchanged between the two sovereign. The chance of this

reconciliation had so alarmed the Emperor Charles that, a month

before it took topographic point, he visited Henry in England. In point of fact a

uninterrupted game of machination was being played by all three sovereigns,

which lasted until the period when Henry & # 8217 ; s concluding breach with Rome led him

to turn his chief attending to domestic concerns. Meanwhile the

strength of Henry & # 8217 ; s place at place had been much developed by

Wolsey & # 8217 ; s wise diplomatic negotiations, and, despite the dearness of some of

England & # 8217 ; s presentations against France, before the Gallic male monarch became

the emperor & # 8217 ; s captive at Pavia, the odium of the demand for money fell

upon the curate, while Henry retained all his popularity. Indeed,

whatever alienation might be felt, the people had no leader to do

rebellion possible. The old aristocracy, partially as a consequence of the Wars of the

Roses, and partially owing to the inhibitory policy dictated by the dynastic

frights of Henry VII, had been reduced to impotence. In 1521 the most

outstanding baronial in England, the Duke of Buckingham, was condemned to

decease for high lese majesty by a subservient House of Peers, merely because

the male monarch suspected him of taking at the sequence and had determined

that he must decease. At the same period Henry & # 8217 ; s prestigiousness in the eyes of the

clergy, and non the clergy merely, was strengthened by his celebrated book, the

Assertio Septem Sacramentorum. This book was written against Luther

and in exoneration of the Church & # 8217 ; s dogmatic instruction sing the

sacraments and the Sacrifice of the Mass, while the domination of the

pontificate is besides insisted upon in univocal footings. There is no ground to

uncertainty that the substance of the book was truly Henry & # 8217 ; s. Pope Leo X

was extremely pleased with it and conferred upon the king the rubric of Fidei

Defensor ( Defender of the Faith ) , which is maintained to this twenty-four hours as portion

of the royal manner of the English Crown. All this success and adulation

were calculated to develop the natural masterfulness of Henry & # 8217 ; s character.

He had long shown to spoting eyes, like those of Sir Thomas More,

that he would contradiction in nil. Without being guilty of noteworthy

extravagance in comparing with the other sovereign of his clip, it is dubious

if Henry & # 8217 ; s married life had of all time been pure, even from the first, and we

cognize that in 1519 he had, by Elizabeth Blount, a boy whom, at the age of

six, he made the Duke of Richmond. He had besides carried on an machination

with Mary Boleyn which led to some complications at a ulterior day of the month.

Such was Henry when, likely about the beginning of the twelvemonth 1527,

he formed a violent passion for Mary & # 8217 ; s younger sister, Anne. It is possible

that the thought of the divorce had suggested itself to the male monarch much earlier

than this ( see Brown, & # 8220 ; Venetian Calendars & # 8221 ; , II, 479 ) , and it is extremely

likely that it was motivated by the desire of male issue, of which he

had been disappointed by the decease in babyhood of all Catherine & # 8217 ; s kids

save Mary. Anne Boleyn was restrained by no moral consciences, but she

saw her chance in Henry & # 8217 ; s infatuation and determined that she would

merely output as his acknowledged queen. Anyhow, it shortly became the 1

absorbing object of the male monarch & # 8217 ; s desires to procure a divorce from Catherine,

and in the chase of this he condescended to the most unworthy agencies.

He had it set about that the Bishop of Tarbes, when negociating an

confederation in behalf of the Gallic male monarch, had raised a uncertainty as to the Princess

Mary & # 8217 ; s legitimacy. He besides prompted Wolsey, as official emissary, to keep with

Archbishop Warham a private and conniving enquiry, citing Henry to

prove before them that his matrimony was valid. The lone consequence was to give

Catherine an intimation of what was in the male monarch & # 8217 ; s head, and to arouse from her

a solemn declaration that the matrimony had ne’er been consummated.

From this it followed that there had ne’er been any hindrance of

& # 8220 ; affinity & # 8221 ; to exclude her brotherhood with Henry, but merely the much more easy

dispensed hindrance known as publicae honestatis. The best canonists

of the clip besides held that a apostolic dispensation which officially removed the

hindrance of affinity besides involved by deduction that of publicae

honestatis, or & # 8220 ; public decency. & # 8221 ; The corporate suit was thereupon

dropped, and Henry now set his hopes upon a direct entreaty to the Holy

See, moving in this independently of Wolsey, to whom he at first

communicated nil of his design so far as it related to Anne. William

Knight, the male monarch & # 8217 ; s secretary, was sent to Pope Clement VII to action for the

declaration of nothingness of his brotherhood with Catherine, on the land that the

distributing Bull of Julius II was obreptitious i.e. obtained by false

pretensions. Henry besides petitioned, in the event of his going free, a

dispensation to contract a new matrimony with any adult female even in the first

grade of affinity, whether the affinity was contracted by lawful or

improper connection. This clearly had mention to Anne Boleyn, and the

fabricated nature of Henry & # 8217 ; s painstaking consciences about his matrimony is

betrayed by the fact that he himself was now using for a dispensation

of exactly the same nature as that which he scrupled approximately, a

dispensation which he subsequently on maintained the Catholic Pope had no power to


As the Catholic Pope was at that clip the captive of Charles V, Knight had some

trouble in obtaining entree to him. In the terminal the male monarch & # 8217 ; s envoy had to

return without carry throughing much, though the ( conditional ) dispensation

for a new matrimony was readily accorded. Henry had now no pick but

to set his great affair into the custodies of Wolsey, and Wolsey, although

the whole divorce policy ran counter to his better judgement, strained

every nervus to procure a determination in his maestro & # 8217 ; s favor. An history of the

mission of Gardiner and Foxe and of the failure of the divorce

proceedings before the apostolic commissioners, Wolsey and Campeggio,

chiefly on history of the production of the Brief, has been given in some

item in the article CLEMENT VII, to which the reader is referred. The

annulment of the cause to Rome in July, 1529, owing, no uncertainty, in portion

to Queen Catherine & # 8217 ; s most sensible protests against her weakness in

England and the irresistible impulse to which she was subjected, had many

of import consequences. First among these we must number the shame and autumn

of Wolsey, hitherto the lone existent cheque upon Henry & # 8217 ; s unruliness. The

unbelievable beastliness of the praemunire, and attendant arrogation,

which the cardinal was pronounced to hold incurred for obtaining the

cardinalate and legation from Rome though of class this had been

done with the male monarch & # 8217 ; s full cognition and consent would alone suffice to

cast Henry as one of the basest of world. But, secondly, we may

hint to this same crisis the rise of both Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell,

the two great designers of Henry & # 8217 ; s new policy. It was Cranmer who, in

the fall of 1529, made the momentous suggestion that the male monarch should

consult the universities o

degree Fahrenheits Europe upon the inquiry of the nothingness of his

matrimony, a suggestion which at one time brought its writer into favor.

The undertaking was carried out every bit shortly as possible with a munificent outgo

of payoffs, and the usage of other agencies of force per unit area. The consequence was of course

extremely favorable to the male monarch & # 8217 ; s wants, though the universities which lay

within the rules of Charles V were non consulted. The replies were

submitted to Parliament, where the male monarch still kept the pretence of holding

no personal involvement in the affair. He professed to be enduring from

consciences of scruples, now rendered more acute by such a weight of

learned sentiment. With the same shrewdness he persuaded the taking

aristocracy of the land to compose to the Catholic Pope praying him to give sentence

in Henry & # 8217 ; s favor for fright that worse might follow. All this drew the male monarch

into closer dealingss with Cranmer, who was made embassador to the

emperor, and who, a twelvemonth or two afterwards, despite the fact that he had

merely married Osiander & # 8217 ; s niece ( his 2nd married woman ) , was summoned place to

go Archbishop of Canterbury. The necessary Bulls and the cerebral cortex

were obtained from Rome under menace that the jurisprudence ( referred to once more

below ) for the abolishment of annates and first-fruits would be made

permanent. The hovering Clement who likely hoped that by

doing every other sort of grant he might be able to keep the

place he had assumed upon the more critical inquiry of the divorce

conceded Bulls and cerebral cortex. But to profit by them it was necessary that

Cranmer should take certain prescribed curses of obeisance to the Holy

See. He took the curses, but committed to composing a solemn protest that he

considered the curses in no manner adhering in scruples, a process which

even so prejudiced a historian as Mr. H.A. Fisher can non forbear from

depicting as a & # 8220 ; signal dishonesty. & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; If & # 8221 ; , asks Dr. Lingard, & # 8220 ; it be simony to

purchase religious office by money, what is it to buy the same by

bearing false witness? & # 8221 ; The male parent of the new Church of England, and future compiler

of its Holy Eucharist, was non come ining upon his maps under really propitious


But the Church which was shortly to be brought into being likely owes

even more to Thomas Cromwell than to its first archbishop. It is

Cromwell who seems to hold suggested to Henry as a deliberate policy

that he should get rid of the empire in imperio, throw off the papal

domination, and do himself the supreme caput of his ain faith. This

was in fact the class which from the latter portion of 1529 Henry

undeviatingly followed, though he did non at first travel to lengths from which

there was no retreat. The first blow was struck at the clergy by affecting

them in Wolsey & # 8217 ; s praemunire. Some anti-clerical alienation there had

ever been, partially, no uncertainty, the leftovers of Lollardy, as was instanced

in the instance of Richard Hunne, 1515. This, of late old ages, had been a good

trade aggravated by the importing into England of Tyndale & # 8217 ; s annotated

New Testament and other books of dissident inclination, which, though

prohibited and burnt by authorization, still made their manner among the people.

Henry and his curates had, hence, some popular support upon which

they could fall back, if necessary, in their run to cut down the clergy

to abject entry. At the beginning of 1531 the Convocation of

Canterbury were informed that they could buy a forgiveness for the

praemunire they had incurred by showing the male monarch with the tremendous

amount of 100,000 lbs. Further, they were bidden to acknowledge the male monarch

as & # 8220 ; Protector and Supreme Head of the Church of England. & # 8221 ;

Convocation struggled urgently against the demand, and in the terminal

succeeded in infixing the making & # 8220 ; so far as is allowed by the jurisprudence of

Christ. & # 8221 ; But this was merely a brief reprieve. A twelvemonth subsequently Parliament under

force per unit area passed an edict prohibiting the payment to the Holy See of

Annates or first-fruits, but the operation of it was for the present

suspended at the crowned head & # 8217 ; s pleasance, and the male monarch was meanwhile

solicited to come to an amicable apprehension with & # 8220 ; His Holiness & # 8221 ; on the

topic of the divorce. The step amounted to a decently veiled menace

to retreat this beginning of income from the Holy See wholly if the

divorce was refused. Still the Catholic Pope held out, and so did the queen. Merely a

small clip before, a commission of Godheads and bishops of class by the

king & # 8217 ; s order had visited Catherine and had impolitely urged her to

retreat the entreaty in virtuousness of which the male monarch, contrary to his self-respect,

had been cited to look personally at Rome ; but though deprived of all

advocate, she stood house. In the May of 1532 farther force per unit area was brought

to bear upon Convocation, and resulted in the alleged & # 8220 ; Submission of

the Clergy & # 8221 ; , by which they practically renounced all right of statute law

except in dependance upon the male monarch.

An honorable adult male like Sir Thomas More could no longer feign to work

with the Government, and he resigned the chancellorship, which he had

held since the autumn of Wolsey. The state of affairs was excessively strained to last, and

the terminal came through the decease of Archbishop Warham in August, 1532.

In the assignment of Cranmer as his replacement, the king knew that he

had secured a subservient tool who desired nil better than to see the

apostolic authorization overthrown. Anne Boleyn was so big, and the

male monarch, trusting, no uncertainty, on what Cranmer when consecrated would be

ready to make for him, went through a signifier of matrimony with her on 25

January, 1533. On 15 April Cranmer received consecration. On 23 May,

Parliament holding meanwhile forbidden all entreaties to Rome, Cranmer

pronounced Henry & # 8217 ; s former matrimony shut-in. On 28 May he declared the

matrimony with Anne valid. On 1 June Anne was crowned, and on 7

September she gave birth to a girl, the hereafter Queen Elizabeth.

Clement, who had antecedently sent to Henry more than one admonishment upon

his abandonment of Catherine, issued a Bull of exclusion on 11 July,

declaring, besides, his divorce and remarriage nothing. In England Catherine was

deprived of her rubric of Queen, and Mary her girl was treated as a

asshole. Much understanding was aroused among the public, to run into

which terrible steps were taken against the more conspicuous of the

disaffected, peculiarly the & # 8220 ; Nun of Kent & # 8221 ; , who claimed to hold had

disclosures of God & # 8217 ; s displeasure at the recent class of events.

In the class of the following twelvemonth the breach with Rome was completed.

Parliament did all that was required of it. Annates, Peter & # 8217 ; s Pence, and

other payments to Rome were eventually abolished. An Act of Succession

entailed the Crown on the kids of Anne Boleyn, and an curse was

drawn up to be exacted of every individual of lawful age. It was the refusal

to take this curse, the preamble of which declared Henry & # 8217 ; s matrimony with

Catherine nothing from the beginning, which sent More and Fisher to the

Tower, and finally to the block. A certain figure of Carthusian

monastics, Brigittines, and Observant Franciscans imitated their soundness and

shared their destiny. All these have been beatified in modern times by Pope

Leo XIII. There were, nevertheless, but a smattering who were therefore true to their

strong beliefs. Declarations were obtained from the clergy in both states

& # 8220 ; that the Bishop of Rome hath no greater legal power conferred upon him

by God in this land of England than any other foreign bishop & # 8221 ; , while

Parliament, in November, declared the male monarch & # 8220 ; Supreme Head of the

Church of England & # 8221 ; , and shortly afterwards Cromwell, a layperson, was

appointed vicar-general to govern the English Church in the male monarch & # 8217 ; s name.

Though the people were cowed, these steps were non carried out

without much alienation, and, to stomp out any open look of this,

Cromwell and his maestro now embarked upon a regular reign of panic.

The sufferer already referred to were most of them brought to the

scaffold in the class of 1535, but 14 Dutch Anabaptists besides

suffered decease by firing in the same twelvemonth. There followed a trial of

the monasteries, unscrupulous instruments like Layton, Legh, and Price

being appointed for the intent. They played, of class, into the male monarch & # 8217 ; s

manus and compiled comperta abounding in charges of scandalous

immorality, which have been shown to be at least grossly overdone. In

pursuit of the same policy Parliament, in February, 1536, moving under

great force per unit area, voted to the king the belongings of all spiritual houses with

less than 200 lbs a twelvemonth of one-year income, urging that the

inmates should be transferred to the larger houses where & # 8220 ; faith merrily

was right good observed. & # 8221 ; The disintegration, when carried out, produced

much popular bitterness, particularly in Lincolnshire and the northern

counties. Finally, in the fall of 1536, the people banded together

in a really formidable rebellion known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. The

insurrectionists rallied under the device of the Five Wounds, and they were

merely induced to scatter by the fallacious promises of Henry & # 8217 ; s

representative, the Duke of Norfolk. The suppression of the larger

monasteries quickly followed, and with these were swept off

countless shrines, statues, and objects of pious fear, on the

stalking-horse that these were strictly superstitious. It is easy to see that the lecherousness

of loot was the motivation which prompted this sweeping arrogation.


Meanwhile, Henry, though taking advantage of the spirit of spiritual

invention now rife among the people whenever it suited his intent,

remained still attached to the sacramental system in which he had been

brought up. In 1539 the Statute of the Six Articles enforced, under the

severest punishments, such philosophies as transubstantiation, Communion

under one sort, otic confession, and the celibacy of the clergy.

Under this act wrongdoers were sent to the interest for their Protestantism merely

every bit ruthlessly as the elderly Margaret, Countess of Salisbury, was attainted

by Parliament and finally beheaded, merely because Henry was

irritated by the denouncements of her boy Cardinal Pole. Neither was the

king less barbarous towards those who were nearest to him. Anne Boleyn and

Catherine Howard, his 2nd and 5th married womans, perished on the scaffold,

but their whilom Godhead merely paraded his indifference sing the destiny to

which he had condemned them. On 30 July, 1540, of six victims who

were dragged to Smithfield, three were Reformers burnt for dissident

philosophy, and the other three Catholics, hanged and quartered for denying

the male monarch & # 8217 ; s domination. Of all the legion suffering existences whom Henry

sent to executing, Cromwell, possibly, is the lone 1 who to the full deserved

his destiny. Looking at the last 15 old ages of Henry & # 8217 ; s life, it is difficult to happen

one individual characteristic which does non arouse repulsive force, and the efforts made

by some authors to gloss over his misbehaviors merely give cogent evidence of the

extraordinary bias with which they approach the topic. Henry & # 8217 ; s

inhuman treatments continued to the last, and so similarly did his incompatibilities. One

of the last steps of arrogation of his reign was an act of suppression

of chantries, but Henry by his last will and testament established what

were practically chantries to hold Masses said for his ain sou

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