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10th “ B ” GRADE, SCHOOL NO. 1276

MOSCOW – 1999

England UNDER


Henry VIII Tudor ( 1491-1547 )

was the 2nd boy of Henry VII.

His brother Arthur, being merely 15, married to Catherine,

the daugter of the Spanish sovereign.

But in a really few month he sickened and died.

Henty VII arranged that the immature widow

should get married his 2nd boy Henry,

so 12 old ages of age, when he excessively should be 15.

A few old ages after settling this matrimony, in 1509,

the King died of the urarthritis.

King Henry the Eighth was merely 18

old ages of age when he came to the throne.

Peoples said he was a fine-looking male child, but

in subsequently life he did non look handsome at

all. He was a large, burly, noisy, small-eyed,

large-faced, jowly chap, as we

know from the portrayals of him, painted by

the celebrated Hans Holbein* .

The male monarch was dying to do himself

popular, and the people, who had long dis-

liked the late male monarch, believed to believe that

he deserved to be so.

He was highly fond of show and show, and so were they. There-fore there was great rejoicing when he married the Princess Catherine, and when they were both crowned. And the King fought at tourneies and ever came off winning – for the courtiers took attention of that – and there was a general call that he was a fantastic adult male.

The premier front-runners of the late King, who were engaged in money-raising affairs, Empson, Dudley, and their protagonists, were accused of a assortment of offenses they truly had been guilty ; and they were pilloried, and

so beheaded, to the satisfaction of the people, and the enrichment of the


The Pope, so tireless in acquiring the universe into problem, had assorted

himself up in a war on a continent of Europe, occasioned by the reigning

Princes of small disputing provinces in Italy holding at assorted times married

into other royal households, and so led to their claiming a portion in those petit larcenies

Governments. The King, who discovered that he was really fond of the Pope, sent a trumpeter to the King of France, to state he must non do war

upon the male parent of all Christians. As the Gallic King did non mind this relationship in the least, and besides refused to acknowledge a claim King Henry made to certain lands in France, war was declared between the two coun-


England made a blundering confederation with Spain, and got doltishly taken in by that state, which made its ain footings with France when it could,

and left England in the stumble. Sir Edward Howard, a bold admiral, boy of the Earl of Surrey, distinguished himself by his courage against the Gallic

in this concern ; but, unluckily, he was more courageous than wise, for, planing into the Gallic seaport of Brest with merely a few row-boats, he

attempted to take some strong Gallic ships, good defended with cannons.

The consequence was, that he was left on board of one of them with non more than about a twelve adult male, and was thrown into the sea and drowned.


After this great licking the King took it into his caput to occupy France in

individual, foremost put to deathing that unsafe Earl of Suffolk whom his male parent had left in the Tower, and naming Queen Catherine to charge of his king-dom in his absence. He sailed to Calais, where he was joined by Maximi-lian, Emperor of Germany, who pretended to be his soldier, and who took

wage in his service. The King might be successful plenty in assumed battles, but his thought of existent conflicts chiefly consisted in fliping satiny collapsible shelters of bright colorss that were disgracefully blown down by the air current, and in

doing a huge show of a gaudy flags and aureate drapes. Fortune, nevertheless, flavoured him better than he deserved: he gave the Gallic conflict, and they took such an anaccountable terror, and fled with such

speed, that it was of all time afterwards called by the English the Battle of

Spurs** . Alternatively of following up his advantage, the King, happening that he had had plenty of existent combat, came home once more.

The Scots King, though about related to Henry by matrimony, had taken portion against him in this war. The Earl of Surrey, as the English gene-

ral, advanced to run into him when he came out of his ain rules and crossed the river Tweed. The two ground forcess came up with one another when

the Scots King had besides crossed the river Till, and was encamped upon

the Hill of Flodden. Along the field below it, the English, when the hr of conflict came, advanced. The Scots ground forces, which had been drawn up in five great organic structures, so came steadily down in perfect silence. So they, in their bend, advanced to run into the English ground forces, which came on the one long line ; and they attacked it with a organic structure of spearman, under Lord Home.

At first they had the best of it ; but the English fought with such heroisms, that, when the Scottish King had about made his manner up to the Royal standart, he was slain, and the whole Scots power routed. Ten 1000 Scottish work forces lay dead that twenty-four hours on Flodden Field. For a long clip after-wards, the Scots peasantry used to believe that their male monarch had non been

truly killed in this conflict, because no Englishman had found an Fe belt he wore about his organic structure as a repentance for holding been an impious boy. But, whatever became of his belt, the English had his blade and sticker, and the ring from his finger, and his organic structure was recognized by English gent-lemen who had known the Scots King good.


When King Henry was doing ready to regenerate the war in France, the Gallic King was contemplating peace. His Queen, deceasing at this clip, he proposed, though he was upwards of 50 old ages old, to get married King Henry ‘s sister, Princess Mary, who, becides, being merely 16, was bet-

rothed to the Duke of Suffolk. As the dispositions of immature Princesss were non excessively much considered in such affairs, the matrimony was conclu-ded, and the hapless miss was escorted to France, where she was immidiately left as the Gallic King ‘s bride, with lone one of her English attenders. That one was a pretty immature miss named Anna Boleyn, niece of the Earl of

Surrey, who had been made Duke of Norfolk after the triumph of Flodden


The Gallic King died within three month, and left the immature Queen a immature widow. The new Gallic sovereign, Francis I, seeing how of import

it was to his involvements that she should take for her 2nd hubby no 1 but an Englishman, adviced her foremost lover, the Duke of Suffolk, when King Henry sent him over to France to bring her place, to get married her. The

Princess being herself so fond of that Duke, as to state him that he must either make so so, or lose her forever, they were wedded ; and Henry after-

wards forgave them. In doing involvement with King, the Duke of Suffolk had addressed his most powerful favorite and advisor, Thomas Wol-sey*** – a name really celebrated in history for its rise and ruin.

Wolsey was the boy of a respectable meatman at Ipswich, in Suffolk, and

recieved so exellent instruction that he became a coach to the household of Mar-

qius of Dorset, who afterwards got him appointed one of the late King ‘s

chaplains. On the accession of Henry VIII, he was promoted and taken into great favor with the King – whether he were a foreign sovereign or an English Lord – was obliged to do a friend of the great Cardinal Wolsey.

He was a cheery adult male, who could dance and jest, and sing and drink. He was wondrous fond of gaudery and glister, and so was the King. He knew a good trade of the Church acquisition of that clip, much of which consisted of happening disingenuous alibis and pretensions for about any incorrect thing, and in

reasoning that black was white, or any other coloring material. This sort of larning pleased the King excessively. For many such grounds, the Cardinal was high in appraisal with the King, and, being a adult male of greater ability, knew how to pull off him. Never had there been seen in England such province as that Lord Cardinal kept. His wealth was equal, it was reckoned, to the wealths of the Crown. His castles were every bit glorious as the King ‘s, and his cortege was eight hundred strong. He held his Court, dressed out from top to toe in flaring vermilion ; and his really places were aureate, set with cherished rocks.

His followings tode on blood-horses, while he, with fantastic mannerism of humbleness in the thick of his great luster, ambled on a mule.

Though the influence of his baronial priest, a expansive meeting was arranged to take topographic point between the French and English Kings in France, but on land belonging to England. A colossal show of friendly relationship was to be made on the occation, and trumpeters were sent to proclaim with audacious trumplets through all the chief metropoliss of Europe, that, on a certain twenty-four hours, the Kings of France and England, as comrades and brothers in weaponries,

each attended by 18 followings, would keep a tourney against all knights who might take to come.

Charles, a new Emperor of Germany ( the old one being dead ) , wanted to forestall that aliance between the two crowned heads, and came over to Eng-

land and secured Wolsey ‘s involvement by assuring that his influence should do him Pope when the following vacancy occured. On the twenty-four hours when the Em-

peror left England, the King and the Court went over to Calais, and thence

to the topographic point of meeting, normally called the Field of the Cloth of Gold.

There were assumed palaces, impermanent chapels, fountains running vino, great basements full of wine free as H2O to all comers, silk collapsible shelters, gold lacing and aureate king of beastss, and such things without terminal. And, in the thick of all, the rich Cardinal outshone and outglittered all the Lords and gentlemen assembled. After a pact had been made between the two Kings with every bit much sedateness as if they had intended to maintain it, the lists – 900 pess long,

and 320 wide – were opened for the tourney. Then, for 10 yearss, the

two crowned heads fought five combats every twenty-four hours, and ever crush their polite antagonists.


Of class, nil came of all these all right behaviors but a rapid reclamation of the war between England and France, in which the two Royal com-panions longed really seriously to damage one another. But, before it broke out once more, the Duke of Buckingham was disgracefully executed on Tower Hill, on the grounds of a discharged retainer – truly for nil, except the foolishness of holding believed in a mendicant of the name of Hopkins, who had pretended to be a prophesier, and who had mumbled and jumbled out some bunk about the Duke ‘s boy being destined to be really great in the land. It was believed that the unfortunate Duke had given offense to the great Cardinal by showing his head freely about the disbursal and absurdness of the whole concern of the Field of the Cloth of Gold.

The new war was a short 1, though the Earl of Surrey invaded France once more, and did some hurt to that state. It ended in another pact of peace between the two lands, and the find that the Emperor of Germany was non such a good friend to England in world, as he pretend-ed to be. Neither did he maintain his promise to Wolsey to do him Pope, though the King urged him. So the Cardinal and King together found out that the Emperor of Germany was non a adult male to maintain religion with. They broke off a jutting matrimony between the King ‘s girl Mary, Prin-cess of Wales, and that crowned head, and began to see whether it might non be good to get married the immature lady, either to Francis himself, or to his eldest boy.


There now arose at Wittemberg**** , in Germany, the great leader of the mighty alteration in England which is called The Reformation***** , and which set the people free from their bondage to the priests. This was a erudite Doctor, named Martin Luther****** , who knew all about them, for he had been a priest, and even a monastic, himself. The sermon and authorship of Wickliffe******* had set a figure of work forces believing on this topic, and Luther, happening one twenty-four hours to his great surprise, that there truly was a book called the New Testament which the priests did non let to be read, and which contained truths that they suppressed, began to be really vigorous agains the whole organic structure, from the Pope downward. It happened, while he was yet merely get downing his work or rousing the state, that a mendicant named Tetzel came into his vicinity selling what were called Indulgences, by sweeping, to raise money for fancifying the St. Peter ‘s Cathidral at Rome. Those who bought an Indulgence of the Pope were supposed to purchase themselves from the penalty of Heaven for their offenses. Luther told the people that Indulgences were worthless spots of paper.

The King and the Cardinal were mightly incensed at this given ; and the King ( with the aid of Sir Thomas More******** , a wise adult male, whom the afterwards repaid by striking off

his caput ) even wrote a book about it, with

which the Pope was so good pleased that he

gave the King the rubric of Defender of the

Faith. The King and Cardinal besides issued

flaring warnings to the people non to read

Luther ‘s books, on hurting of excommunica-

tion. But they did read them for all that ; and

the rumor of what was in them spread far

and broad.

When this great alteration was therefore traveling

on, the King began to demo himself in his

truest and worst colorss. Anne Boleyn, the reasonably small miss who had gone abroad to France with her sister, was by this clip grown up to be really

beautiful, and was one of the ladies in attending on Queen Catherine. Queen Catherine was no longer immature or pretty, and it is likely that she was non peculiarly equable, holding been ever instead melan-choly, and holding been made more so by deceases of four of her kids when they were really immature. So, the King fell in love with the just Anne Boleyn. He wanted to acquire rid of his married woman and marry Anne.

Queen Catherine had been the married woman of

Henry ‘s brother Arthur. So the King called

his favorite priests about him, and said

that he thought that it had non been lawful

for him to get married the Queen.

They answered that it was a serious busi-

cape, and possibly the best manner to do it

right, would be for His Majesty to be de-

vorced. That was the reply the King was

pleased with ; so they all went to work.

Many machinations and secret plans took topographic point to

acquire this devorce. Finally, the Pope issued

a committee to Cardinal Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggio ( whom he sent over from Italy for the intent ) , to seek the whole instance in England. It is supposed that Wolsey was the Queen ‘s enemy, because she had reproved him for his mode of life. But, he did non at foremost cognize that the King wanted to get married Anne Boleyn, and when he did cognize it, he even went down on his articulatio genuss, in the enterprise to deter him.

The Cardinals opened their tribunal in the Convent of the Black mendicants, in

London. On the gap of the tribunal, when the King and Queen were call-

erectile dysfunction on to look, that hapless lady kneeled at the King ‘s pess, and said that she had come, a alien, to his rules, that she had been a good and true married woman for him for 20 old ages, and that she could admit no power in those Cardinals to seek whether she should be considered his married woman after all that clip, or should be put away. With that, she got up and left the tribunal, and would ne’er afterwards come back to it.

It was a hard instance to seek and the Pope suggested the King and Queen to come to Rome and have it tried at that place. But by the good fortune for the King, word was brought to him about Thomas Cranmer, a erudite Doctor of Cambridge, who had prospered to press the Pope on, by mentioning the instance to all the learned physicians and bishops, and acquiring their sentiments that the King ‘s matrimony was improper. The King, who was now in a haste to get married Anne Boleyn, thought this such a good thought, that sent for Cranmer.

It was bad for central Wolsey that he had left Cranmer to render this aid. It was worse for him that he had tried to deter the King from get marrieding Anne Boleyn. Such a retainer as he, to such a maestro as Henry, would likely hold fallen in any instance ; but he fell all of a sudden and to a great extent. Soon he was arrested for high lese majesty, and died on his manner to Tower. Sir Thomas More was made Chancellor in Wolsey ‘s topographic point.


Meanwhile, the sentiments refering the divorce, of the erudite physicians

and bishops and others, being at last gathered, were forwarded to the Pope, with an prayer that he would now allow it. The unfortunate Pope, who was a timid adult male, was half distracted between his fright of his authorization being set aside in England if he did non make as he was asked, and his apprehension of piquing the Emperor of Germany, who was Queen Catherine ‘s neph-ew. In this province of head he still evaded and did nil. So, the King took the affair into his ain custodies, and made himself a caput of whole Church.

However, he recompenced the clergy by leting Luther ‘s sentiments. All these events made Sir Thomas More, who was genuinely attached to the Church, resign.

Bing now rather resolved to acquire rid of Queen Catherine, and March

ry Anne Boleyn without more bustle, the King made Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury, and directed Queen Catherine to go forth the Court. She obeyed. but replied that wherever she went, she was Queen of England still, and would stay so, to the last. The King so married Anne Boleyn priva-tely, and the new Archbishop of Cantebury, within half a twelvemonth, declared his matrimony with Queen Catherine nothingness, and crowned Anne Boleyn Queen.

She might hold known that no good could of all time come with such incorrect, and that the King who had been so traitorous and so barbarous to his first married woman, could be more traitorous and more cruel to the 2nd. But Anne Boleyn knew that excessively late, and bought it at beloved monetary value. Her matrimony came to its natural terminal. However, its natural terminal was

non a natural decease for her. The Pope was

thrown into a really angry province of head when

he heard of the King ‘s matrimony. Many of

English monastics and mendicants did the same, but

the King took it softly, and was really glad

when his Queen gave birth to a girl,

who was christened Elizabeth, and declared

Princess of Wales as her sister Mary had

already been.

One of the most flagitious characteristics of

the reign was that Henry VIII was ever

paring between the reformed faith with the Pope, the more of his ain topics he roasted alive for non keeping the Pope ‘s sentiments. Therefore, an unfortunate pupil named John Frith, and a hapless simple seamster named Andrew Hewet who loved him really much, and said that whatever John Frith believed he believed, were burnt in Smithfield – to demo what a capital Christian the King was.

But these were quickly followed by two much greater victims, Sir Thomas More, and John Fisher, the Bishop of Rochester. The latter, who was a good and good-humored old adult male, had committed no greater offense so believing in Elizabeth Barton, called the Maid of Kent – another of those pathetic adult females who pretended to be inspired, and to do all kinds of celestial disclosures, though they so uttered nil but evil nonsen-se. For this offense – as it was pretended, but truly for denying the male monarch to be the supreme Head of the Church – he got into problem, and was put in prison. Even so he might hold died of course, but the Pope, to hurt the King, resolved to do him a cardinal. So the King decided that Fisher should hold no caput on which to have on a ruddy Cardinal ‘s chapeau. He was tried with all unfairnence and unfairness, and sentenced to decease. He died like a baronial and virtuous old adult male, and left a worthy name behind him.

The King supposed that Sir Thomas More would be frightened by this illustration. But, as he was non to be easy terrified, and, exhaustively believed in the Pope, had made up his head that the King was non rightful Head of the Church, he positively refused to state that he was. For this cri-me he excessively was tried and sentenced, after holding been in prison a whole twelvemonth.

When he was doomed to decease, and came off from his test with the border of executioner ‘s axe turned towards him – as was ever done in those times when a province captive came to that hopeless base on balls – he bore it rather serenely, and gave his approval to his boy, who pressed through the crowd in Westminster Hall and kneeled down to recieve it.

But, when he got to the Tower Wharf on his manner back to his prison, and his favorite girl, Margaret Roper, a really good adult female, rushed through the guards to snog him and to cry upon his cervix, he has over-come at last. He shortly recovered and ne’er more showed any feeling but bravery. When he had laid his caput upon the block, he asked jestingly the executioner to allow him set his face fungus out of the manner because for that thing, at least, had ne’er committed any lese majesty. Then his caput was strucked off at a blow.

These two executings were worthy of King Henry VIII. Sir Thomas More was one of the most virtuous work forces in his rules, and the Bishop was one of his eldest and truest friends.


When the intelligence of these two slayings got to Rome, the Pope was enra-ged and prepared a Bull, telling his topics to take weaponries against the King of England and dethrone him. The King took all possible safeguards to maintain that papers out of his rules, and put to work in return to stamp down a great figure of English monasteries and abbeys.

This devastation was begun by a organic structure of commissioners, of whom Tho-mas Cromwell was the caput. It was carried on through to some few old ages to its full completion. There is no uncertainty that many of these spiritual es-tablishments imposed upon the people in every possible manner ; that they had images moved by wires, which they pretended were miraculously mo-ved by Heaven ; that they had spots of coal which they said had fried Saint Lawrense, and spots of toe-nails which they said belonged to other celebrated saints, etc. ; and that all these spots of trash were called Relics, and adored by the nescient people. But, on the other manus, there is no uncertainty either, that the King ‘s work forces punished the good monastics with the bad ; did great unfairness ; demolished many beautiful things and many valuable libra-ries ; destroyed Numberss of pictures, stained glass Windowss, all right pave-ments, and carvings ; and that the whole tribunal were hungrily avaricious and predatory for the division of this great spoil among them. The King seems to hold grown about huffy in the ardor of this chase, for he declared Thomas a Becket a treasonist, though he had been dead for many old ages, and had his organic structure delve up out of his grave. The gold and gems on his shrine filled two great thoraxs, and 8 work forces were needed to transport them off.

These things caused great discontent among the people. The monastics who were driven out of their places and wandered about encouraged their discontent, and there were, accordingly, great rises in Licincolnshire and Yorkshire. These were put down by terrific executings, from which the monastics themselves did non get away.


The unfortunate Queen Catherine was by

this clip dead, and the King was by this ti-

me as tired of his 2nd Queen as he had

been of his first. As he had fallen in love

with Anne when she was in the service of

Catherine, so he now fell in love with ano-

ther lady in the service of Anne.

The King resolved to hold Anne Boleyn ‘s

caput to get married Lady Jane Seymour. So, he

brought a figure of charges against Anne,

impeaching her of awful offenses which she

had ne’er committed, and implicating in

them her ain brother and certain gentlemen in her service. As the Godheads and council members were afraid of the King, they brought in Anne Boleyn guilty, and the other unfortunate individuals accused with her, guilty excessively.

They were all sentenced to decease. Anne Boleyn tried to soften her hus-band by touching letters, but as he wanted her to be executed, she was shortly beheaded.

There is a narrative that the King Saturday in his castle listening really uneasily for the sound of the cannon which was to denote this new slaying ; and that, when he heard it, he rose up in great liquors and ordered out his Canis familiariss to travel a-hunting. He married Jane Seymour the really following twenty-four hours.

Jane Seymour lived merely long plenty to give birth to a boy who was christened Edward, and so to decease of a febrility.


Cranmer had done what he could to salvage some of the Church belongings for intents of faith and instruction. But the great households had been so hungry to acquire clasp of it, that really small could be rescued for such objects. Even Miles Coverdale, who did the people the incomputable service of interpreting the Bible into English ( which the unreformed faith ne’er permitted to be done ) , was left in poorness while the great households clutched the Church lands and money. The people had been told that when the Crown came into ownership of these financess, it would non be necessary to revenue enhancement them. But they were taxed anew straight afterwards.

One of the most active authors on a Church ‘s side against the King was a member of his ain household – a kind of distant cousin, Reginald Pole by name – who attacked him in the most violent mode ( though he recieved a pension from him all the clip ) , and fought for the Church for his pen, twenty-four hours and dark. He was beyong the King ‘s range, in Italy.

The Pope made Reginald Pole a central ; but, so much against his will, that it is thought he had hopes of get marrieding the Princess Mary. His being made a high priest, nevertheless, put an terminal to that. His female parent, the Countess of Salisbury – who was unluckily for herself, within the autocrat ‘s range -was the last of his relations on whom his wrath fell. When she was told to put her gray caput upon the block, she answered the executioner that her caput had ne’er committed lese majesty, and if he wanted her caput, he should prehend that. So, she ran unit of ammunition and round the scaffold with the executioner striking at her, and her gray hair bedabbled with blood. And even when they held her down upon the block she moved her caput about to the last, resolved to be no party to her ain brutal slaying. All this the people bore, as they had borne everything else.

Indeed they bore much more ; for the slow fires of Smithfield were continually firing, and people were invariably being roasted to decease – still to demo what a good Christian the King was. He defied the Pope and his Bull, which was now issued, and had come into England ; but he bur-ned countless people whose lone offense was that they differed from the Pope ‘s religios sentiments.

All this the people bore, and more than all this yet. The national spirit seems to hold been banished from the land from this clip. The people who were executed for lese majesty, the married womans and friends of the “ bluff ” King, spoke of him on the scafford as a good and soft adult male.

The Parliament were every bit bad as the remainder, and gave the King whatever he wanted. They gave him new powers of murdering, at his will and pleasure, anyone whom he might take to name a treasonist. But the worst step they passed was an Act of Six Articles********* , normally called at the clip “ the whip with six strings ” , which punished offenses against the Pope ‘s sentiments, without clemency, and enforced the really worst parts of the monkish faith.

Cranmer would hold modified it, if he could ; but he had non the power, being overborne by the Romish party. As one of the articles declared that priests should non get married, and as he was married himself, he sent his married woman and kids into Germany, and began to tremble at his danger. This whip of six strings was made under the King ‘s ain oculus. It should ne’er be for-gotten of him how cruelly he supported the Popish philosophies when there was nil to be got by opposing them.

This sovereign now thought of taking another married woman. He proposed to the Gallic King to hold some of the ladies of the Gallic Court exhibited be-fore him, that he might do his Royal pick. But the Gallic King ans-wered that he would instead non hold his ladies to be shown similar Equus caballuss at a carnival. He proposed to the Dowager Duchess of Milan, who replied that she might hold thought of such a lucifer if she had had two caputs. At last Cromwell represented that there was a Protestant Princess in Germany – those who had the reformed faith were call Protestants, because their leaders had protested against the maltreatments and inflictions of the unreform-ed Church – named Anne of Cleves, who was beautiful, and would reply the intent laudably.

The King sent over the celebrated painter, Hans Holbein, to take her a portrayal. Han dynasties made her out to be so fine-looking that the King was satis-fied, and the matrimony was arranged. But Hans had flattered the Princess. When the King first saw her, he swore she was “ a great Flanders female horse ” , and said he would ne’er get married her. Bing obliged to make it, he would non give her the nowadayss he had prepared, and would ne’er detect her. He ne’er forgave Cromwell his portion in the matter. His ruin day of the months from that clip.

It was quickened by his enemies, in the involvements of the unreformed faith, seting in the King ‘s manner, at a province dinner, a niece of the Duke of Norfolk, Catherine Howard. Falling in love with her on the topographic point, the King shortly divorced Anne of Cleves on pretension that she had been antecedently betrothered to person else, and married Catherine. It is likely that on his nuptials twenty-four hours he sent his faithful Cromwell to the scaffold, and had his caput struck off.

It shortly came out that Catherine Howard was non a faithful married woman, and once more the awful axe made the King a widowman. Henry so applied him-self to oversing the composing of a spiritual book called “ A ne-cessary philosophy for any Christian Man ” .

He married yet one time more. Yes, unusual to state, he found in England another adult female who would go his married woman, and she was Catherine Parr, widow of Lord Latimer. She leaned towards the reformed faith, and it is some comfort to cognize, that she argued a assortment of doctrinal points with him on all possible occasions. After one of these conversations the King in a really black temper actully instructed Gardier, one of his Bishops who favoured the Roman sentiments, to pull a measure of accusal against her to the scaffold. But one of the Queen ‘s friends knew about it, and gave her timely notice. She fell badly with panic, but managed the King so good when he came to ensnare her into farther statements – by stating that she had merely spoken on such points to deviate his head and to acquire some points of infor-mation from his extraordinary wisdom – that he gave her a buss and called her a sweatheart. And, when the Chancellor came following twenty-four hours to take her to the Tower, the King honoured him with the names of a animal, a rogue, and a sap. So near was Catherine Parr to the block, and so narrow was her flight!


A few more horrors, and this reign was over. There was a lady, Anne Askew, in Lincolnshire, who inclined to the Protestant sentiments, and whose hubby being a ferocious Catholic, turned her out of his house. She came to London, and was considered as piquing against the six articles, and was taken to the Tower, and put upon the rack – likely because it was hoped that she might, in her torment, accuse some objectionable per-sons. She was tortured in a most barbarous mode without expressing a call, but afterwards they had to transport her to the fire in a chair. She was burned with three others, a gentleman, a reverend, and a seamster ; and so the universe went on.

Either the King became afraid of the power of Duke of Norfolk, and his boy the Earl of Surrey, or they gave him some offense, but he resolved to draw them down, to follow all the remainder who were gone. The boy was tried first – of class for nil – and defended himself courageously ; but all the same he was found guilty, and was executed. Then his male parent ‘s bend came. But the King himself was left for decease by a Greater King, and the Earth was to be rid of him at last. When he was found to be deceasing, Cranmer was sent for, and came with all velocity, but found him speechless. In that hr he perished. He was in the fifty-sixth twelvemonth of his age, and the thirty-eighth of his reign.

Henry the Eighth, a bloody autocrat, has been favoured by some Protest-ant authors, because the Reformation was achieved in his clip. But the mighty virtue of his prevarications with other work forces and non with him.

What else can I say about Henry VIII?

He was more a animal than a adult male.

He executed 100s of people.

Though he was wise plenty to govern a state.

His reign was bloody and he did non make a batch for his state.

His six matrimonies caused the state to complete

all pacts with the Roman Church.

And the King ‘s bloody deeds ashamed the mighty England.

For Charles Dickens he was the most

untolerable adult male, a shame for humanity.


& # 183 ;Han dynasties Holbein ( 1497-1543 ) * – the German painter. Known as Hans Holbein Jr.

& # 183 ;the Battle of Spurs** was held on the 16th of August, 1513 a.d. During it the Gallic horse fled because of the progressing ground forcess of Henry VIII and Maximilian I.

& # 183 ;Thomas Wolsey ( 1473-1530 ) *** , Chancellor of England since 1515 boulder clay 1529. Since 1514 – the Archbishop of York, since 1515 – the Cardinal. In 1529 he was arrested for lese majesty.

& # 183 ;Wittemberg**** – the Saxon metropolis where in 1517 Luther read his 95 thesises against the Catholic Church.

& # 183 ;the Reformation***** – the motion against the Ca-tholic Church in Western and Central Europe. It ‘s crea-tor was Luther.

& # 183 ;Martin Luther ( 1483-1546 ) ****** – the leader of the Re-formation. He besides translated the Bible into German.

& # 183 ;John Wickliffe ( 1330-1384 ) ******* – the English refor-mator. He said that the Pope was non necessary and wan-ted the Church to abandon its lands.

& # 183 ;Thomas More ( 1487 – 1535 ) ******** – the great lawer and political leader, was against the Reformation. Bing a author, he created “ Utopia ” . Anne Boleyn, the 2nd married woman of the King, cognizing that More had helped the King to disregard Catherine of Aragon, caused Henry to put to death this clever and honest Chancellor of England.

& # 183 ;Act of Six Articles********* . Was written in 1539. It abolished the monasteries and showed that England was interested in faith and that harm inflicted to the Church was a offense. So, many Protestants were executed.

List of the Used Literature.

1. J. J. Bell. The History of England.

2. L. V. Sidorchenko. Absolute Monarchy.

3. I. I. Burova. Just for Pleasure. Intermediate Level.

4. D. Capewell. The History of English Monarchy.

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