Hernan Cortes

8 August 2017

& # 8211 ; Reasons For Success Essay, Research Paper

Why was Cortes with 508 soldiers able to suppress the Aztec Empire with 1000000s of people? Cortes was able to suppress the Aztecs for several really different grounds. In combination these grounds allowed him to hold the upper manus in the conquering of Mexico. Arguably these grounds can be sorted into six different classs. The assorted causes for Cortes? success will be assessed in a flood tide form. To get down with the Aztecs had a rough testimonial system that was non popular among the people of Mexico. This barbarous testimonial system allowed Cortes to move as a liberator. Furthermore, with the Spanish brought several diseases into Mexico in enchantress they were immune to but the Aztecs were non. The spread of diseases such as little syphilis reduced the Aztec population and furthered Cortes? success accidentally Besides Marina was a tribal miss given as a gift to Cortes, she proved priceless in interpreting local idioms in combination with Geronimo de Aguilar. Besides an of import facet of his success was due to Montezuma? s belief that Cortes was Quetzakoatl. A prevailing ground for the Spanish success was due to their arms particularly their armor and firepower. Possibly the most of import ground of all was that of Cortes? Indian Alliess such as the Tlaxcalans who made up the bulk of his combined ground forces. All these grounds worked together to let Cortes, originally with 508 work forces to suppress the Aztec Empire of 1000000s of people.

To get down with, the Aztec? s cruel testimonial system allowed Cortes to move as a liberator. The procedure of human forfeit was highly common and was feared by the bulk of the common people. The Aztecs as a nutriment for the Sun and all other Gods needed human forfeit. The Aztecs sacrificed between 10,000 and 50,000 victims per twelvemonth. As the bulk of those who were sacrificed were war prisoners who opposed the Aztecs, they evidently greatly feared the barbarous testimonial system. However non merely war prisoners were forfeits, common grownups and kids were besides sacrificed at times. Cortes himself was disgusted at the idea of human forfeit, this allowed him to derive Indian Alliess every bit good as addition regard among Mexican folks that feared and opposed the Aztecs. The bulk of the population feared the procedure hence doing Cortes, whom despised the procedure, an appealing option. Many followed Cortezs as they shared the same positions on the? human forfeit? subject. Because Cortes posed to extinguish the Aztecs it allowed him to look as a liberator of the dictatorship of the Aztec regulation.

Second, a comparatively minor cause for Cortes? success was the issue of disease among the Aztecs. Although this was a reasonably lame ground it really greatly benefited the Spanish in cut downing the Aztec population. The Spanish brought variola to Mexico, said to be linked to an infected slave geting from Spanish Cuba, which caused great agony to the Aztecs. The Spanish were immune to the disease so it posed no menace to Cortes? ain work forces. The Aztecs were demoralized by the cryptic unwellness that killed Indians and spared Spaniards, as if advertisement the Spaniards? indomitability. One negative facet for Cortes nevertheless was that his Indian Alliess suffered from the disease to the same extent as the Aztecs, ensuing in considerable losingss. Smallpox stopped the Aztecs from prosecuting the Spanish around the lake after the Noche Triste. Another illustration where disease benefited the Spanish was the fact that when they landed in 1514, Mexico had a population of 25.2 million. Then 80 old ages subsequently at the terminal of the 16th century the population of Mexico had dropped by 95 % to merely over one million. As we can see disease played a little yet accidentally effectual function in lending to Cortes? success.

Third, another ground that enabled him to suppress the imperium was his transcribers, viz. Marina and Geronimo de Aguilar. After a short warring period with the tabascans they exchanged gifts with one and other. One of these nowadayss was a Mexican miss called Marina ( or Malinche ) who was a enormous plus to the Spanish. Marina knew the linguistic communication of Coatzacoalcos, which was the most common throughout Mexico. She besides knew the linguistic communication of the Tabascans, and possibly the most utile of all she knew Nahuatl, the linguistic communication of the Aztecs themselves. Another of import function was that of Geronimo de Aguilar who had been shipwrecked there in Mexico in 1511. He was intelligent and good educated and picked up on much of the local idioms. In combination Marina and Aguilar were highly utile to Cortes. The interlingual rendition procedure worked in two phases, foremost Marina translated the local linguistic communication into a signifier that Aguilar could understand, so secondly Aguilar translated it into Spanish for Cortes. Marina was really intelligent subsequently larning Spanish herself every bit good as bearing one of Cortes? kids. Marina proved herself to be priceless in assisting Cortes recover from confrontations with the Aztecs and other opposing folks. She besides was of import in assisting Cortes addition Indian Alliess as she could explicate what Cortes could make for them. Marina greatly helped Cortezs in his conquering of the Mexican Empire.

Fourthly, Montezuma believed Cortes to be the great god Quetzakoatl who was returning to take back the Aztec imperium. What benefited Cortes in this instance was the confusion environing Montezuma whether or non Cortes was truly the great God. This confusion gave Cortes clip to move while Montezuma thought. This was of great benefit as it made Montezuma discerning when he was confronted with Cortes. Several facets proved to Montezuma that Cortes was

Quetzakoatl. Cortes preached a faith of love, clemency and compassion, and he forbade human forfeit and instituted bloodless offerings. Both these things helped to convert Montezuma as both Cortes and Quetzakoatl housed these features. Quetzakoatl was besides the God of boom and lightning which was easy represented my the Spanish heavy weapon. On the other manus assorted facets showed Cortes to non be the prophesised God. Cortes spoke of a superior ( King Charles ) , in which Quetzakoatl wouldn? T have. Furthermore Cortes himself couldn? t speak the linguistic communication of Nahuatl, and Montezuma found it difficult to believe that he could hold forgotten his ain linguistic communication. I have illustrated merely a few of the many points on each side of the statement, but it should give you an thought of the province of head Montezuma was in at the clip. Montezuma was highly confused by the state of affairs and wasn? t certain what he should make. This state of affairs allowed Cortes to progress with his programs before Cortes had clip to to the full entree the state of affairs. Montezuma was intimidated as the Spanish defeated the tlaxcalans, whom the Aztec? s had ne’er defeated, and so allied with them. Some of Montezuma? s advisors opted for him to defy the Spanish, nevertheless he replied? What good is opposition when the Gods have declared against us? ? Montezuma now felt the philosophical foundation of his imperium fall ining. Montezuma? s confused province allowed the Spanish to easy capture him and take over his imperium.

In add-on, the Spanish military laterality greatly assisted them in their conquering of the Aztec Empire. This was a immense advantage as their horse, steel and firepower outdid the Aztec? s in every regard. Although the Spanish arrived with a mere 508 people, their arms frightened the Aztecs and local folks with horse and Spanish cannon in which they had ne’er seen earlier. Spanish m? cubic decimeter? vitamin E arms consisted of blades, and expresswaies, utilizing difficult Toledo steel that was far stronger and retained their border far longer than any of their battlers. The Spanish fought in a everyday, regimented manner with legion back up units, straight in contrast with their battlers who trained in the Iberian tradition of single combat. An illustration of their laterality is shown in the conflict of Otumba in 7th July 1520 when Spanish horse dominated against their Indian oppositions. Another major advantage that the Spanish had over the Aztecs was that they had armour. Spanish steel armor was proof against Indian missiles, and it greatly weakened the blows from Aztec obsidian blades. Because lesions were limited to the limbs, face, and cervix and other unarmored parts, Spanish soldiers faced less hazard of decease, while the unarmored Indians and Aztecs were highly vulnerable. A major ground for success was the Spanish? s crossbows and hackbuts. Their crossbows had about double the scope of the Indian bows, every bit good as being more powerful and necessitating less preparation. The hackbuts had a lesser effectual scope but had utmost power. The combination of crossbows and firepower allowed them to fire into unarmored oppositions with deathly consequence. On the Spanish ships were falconets ( rear of barrel loaded, rapid fire rate ) that could make a maximal scope of 2km. The horse attacked with 4m spears and charged down enemies holding the ability to interrupt formations. A strong Spanish advantage was non merely the physical strength of their arms but besides the psychological effects it caused. The gunpowder in the hackbuts and falconets scared the Indians as they had ne’er seen such things before and believed they may be associated with the Gods. The Spanish horse besides worked in this psychological perturbation. At the conflict of Otumba the surprise horse charge caused the scared Indians to run in panic. The Spanish arrived with few Numberss but their utmost military laterality due to their progresss arms and armor allowed them to suppress the Aztec Empire of 1000000s.

Last and most significantly, Cortes gained Indian Alliess such as the Tlaxcalans who made up and highly big per centum of Cortes? force. Through his assorted anti-Aztec policies Cortes was able to derive many valuable Indian Alliess. The Tlaxcalans had been at war with the Aztecs for about a century, and to the Tlaxcalans the Spanish represented their lone hope of interrupting the power of Mexico. They gave Cortes a great sum of item about Tenochtitlan, stating him about the figure of lift bridges on the causeways and even the deepness of the H2O in the lake. Cortezs now had the support of the full tlaxcalan democracy, who created an highly critical ally. Cortes had 50,000 tlaxcalans endorsing him up for the reconquest of Tenochtitlan, every bit good as 25,000 combined other Indians Alliess. During the reconquest about 100,000 were brought up when the causeways were taken, the bulk being Indian and Tlaxcalan supports. 2,000 excess Indian Alliess were provided at the conflict of Otumba. The Alliess were besides put to work in many other ways than contending. During the Noche Triste Cortes assigned 400 tlaxcalans to transport span edifice equipment, 200 to transport heavy weapon, and 300 to guard captives. As we can see, without Cortes? Indian Alliess he would hold had no opportunity of get the better ofing an imperium of 1000000s.

Cortezs was able to suppress the Aztec Empire of 1000000s of people for several grounds of changing importance. The Aztec? s cruel testimonial system, Marina and Aguilar as transcribers, the Spanish military laterality, Cortes? Indian Alliess, the Quetzakoatl myth, and the smallpox epidemic all contributed in the Spanish success. In combination these grounds gave Cortes the upper manus in his conquering of Mexico.

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