Higher Education in Brazil and South Africa
In Brazil, free education is presented by the ministry of education, which offers scholarships for graduate degrees, masters, doctoral, and post-doctoral for Brazilian and immigrants who have Brazilian citizenship. The top universities and research centres are free institutions, funded by either the local state (state universities) or the federal government (federal universities). Graduate scholars can get paid if they qualify for incentive but competition is extremely fierce.
Admission to higher education in Brazil is to a large extent limited to the higher socio-economic groups. Free universities have restricted spaces and admission is determined by highly competitive exams, thus excluding those who have not had a high quality secondary education or attended a costly introductory course.
In Brazil is no exception to the global phenomenon of increasing Higher Education enrolment yet access is still very limited, with only 90% net enrolment. A number that is still all the more unacceptable given that Brazil is not a low income country.
The funds current initiatives for achieving equitable access in Brazil
The increase of the private sector is the main support of higher education policy in Brazil. In the recent years it has been the expansion of the private sector. The public sector has been regarded as expensive and incompetent and unable to deliver the diversity of provision and the awareness to consumers crucial in the current context. The policy is successful in terms of increasing enrolment.
The student loans and scholarships, there have however, been some efforts to permit students without the income of paying the full fees to attend private institutions. Mostly essential of these is the student loans scheme known as FIES, which was introduced in 1999. It offers 70% of the fees and is paid straight to the institution rather than the student.
Higher education in South Africa
Higher Education transformation in South Africa require a synergy of creative strategies to engage issues of redress. Access to higher education remains on mechanism for achieving this in South Africa higher education. There is a need to enable access by improving student access with success by ensuring their participation. It is stated that current Academic Development initiatives as a means of achieving access with success can only deal marginally with the transformation agenda in South Africa.