History of Federation of Malaya
The Federation of Malaya (Malay: Persekutuan Tanah Melayu) is the name given to a federation of 11 states (nine Malay states and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca) that existed from 1 February 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957. It was reconstituted as Malaysia with the addition in 1963 of Singapore, Sabah, and Sarawak. History After World War 2, the British came again to Malaya and Britain suggested the formation of the Malayan Union. Malayan Union not only took away the power of the Malays over their nation, but also the rights that belong to the Malays.
Then, the people of Malayan Union started to realise that their country has to be ruled by their own people and not to be ruled by other people of other nations. Due to opposition from Malay nationalists, the Union was disbanded and replaced by the Federation of Malaya, which restored the symbolic positions of the rulers of the Malay states in 1st of February 1948.
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The British government and Malaya leaders signing the agreement of establishing Federation of Malaya at King’s House, Kuala Lumpur. Within the Federation, while the Malay states were protectorates of the United Kingdom, Penang and Malacca remained British colonial territories.
Like the Malayan Union before it, the Federation did not include Singapore, despite its traditional connections with Malaya. The Federation achieved independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on 31 August 1957. In 1963, the Federation was reconstituted as “Malaysia” when it federated with the British territories of Singapore, Sarawak, and British North Borneo (renamed Sabah); the latter territory was claimed to be a part of the Sultanate of Sulu. Singapore separated from Malaysia to become an independent republic on 9 August 1965. Agreement of Federation
The Federation of Malaya Agreement was formulated by the British–Malay Pleno Conference between June and December 1946. At the end of the meeting, the Pleno Conference produced a 100-page “Blue Book”. The Federation of Malaya Agreement was signed on 21 January 1948 at King House by the Malay rulers, and by Sir Edward Gent as the representative of the British government. The Agreement superseded the Agreement creating the Malayan Union, and prepared for the establishment of the Federation of Malaya on 1 February 1948. The position of the Malay rulers was also restored.
As with the Malayan Union, the Federation excluded Singapore, despite its traditional links to Malaya. List of member states * Johore * Kedah * Kelantan * Malacca * Negeri Sembilan * Pahang * Penang * Perak * Perlis * Selangor * Terengganu System of Government The government of the Federation of Malaya was headed by a British High Commissioner with executive powers, assisted and advised by the Federation of Malaya Executive Council and the Federation of Malaya Legislative Council. * The Federation of Malaya Executive Council comprised 7 official and 7 unofficial members.
The Federation of Malaya Legislative Council comprised the High Commissioner as the Council President, 14 official and 50 unofficial members representing the Straits Settlements, business groups and all races. Additionally, 9 State Council Yang Di Pertua (heads of state), Chief Ministers and 2 representatives from the Straits Settlements became unofficial members. * The Malay Conference of Rulers would advise the High Commissioner on immigration issues. The British Resident was replaced with a Chief Minister in each state of the federation. Conditions of citizenship
The conditions of citizenship of the Federation of Malaya were further tightened using law enforcement and naturalization by application. Under the laws, the following were automatically granted citizenship: 1. Citizens of the Sultan of any state 2. British citizens born in Penang or Malacca who have lived continuously for 15 years in the federation 3. British citizens born in the federation whose fathers were born or lived continuously for 15 years in the federation 4. Anyone born in the federation, conversant in the Malay language and following Malay traditions in his or her daily life 5.
Anyone born in the federation whose parents were born and lived continuously for 15 years in the federation Via naturalization (by application), one could achieve citizenship, given these criteria: 1. Born and lived for at least 8 of 12 years in the Federation of Malaya before the application was made 2. Lived in the Federation of Malaya for at least 15 of 20 years before the application was made In both cases (via naturalization), applications must be well-behaved, swear allegiance and clarify their reasons for living in the federation, and are fluent in either the Malay or the English language.
The Federation of Malaya, through its constitution, guarantees the rights and special position of the Malay people as well as rights, powers and sovereignty of the Malay rulers in their respective states. Separation of powers of the federal and state governments The federation agreement Perjanjian Persekutuan set the powers of the federal and state governments. Financial matters must be handled by the respective states. The Sultan was given full power on religious issues and Malay customs. Foreign policy and defense continued to be administered by the British government.