Theodore Roosevelt, who had the support of progressive health care reformers In the 1912 election but was defeated. During the Great Depression in 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Isadora Fall and Edgar Storyteller to help draft provisions to Roosevelt pending Social Security legislation to include publicly funded health care programs. These reforms were attacked by the American Medical Association as well as state and local affiliates of the AMA as “compulsory health insurance. ” Roosevelt ended up removing the health care provisions from the bill in 1935.

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Fear of organized medicine’s opposition to universal health care became standard for decades after the sass. Following the second world war, Harry Truman proposed national health care, but this was defeated. However, in 1946 the National Mental Health Act was passed. The Medicare program was established by legislation signed Into law on July 30. 1965. By President Lyndon B. Johnson. Medicare is a social insurance program administered by the United States government, providing health Insurance coverage to people who are either age 65 and over, or who meet other special criteria. Ђ In his 1974 State of the union address, President Richard M. Nixon called for comprehensive health insurance. On February 6, 1974, he introduced the Comprehensive Health Insurance Act. Onion’s plan would have mandated employers to purchase health insurance for their employees, and provided a federal health plan, similar to Medicaid, that any American could Join by paying on a sliding scale based on The New York Daily News wrote that Ted Kennedy rejected the universal health coverage plan offered by Nixon because It wasn’t everything he wanted it to be.

Kennedy later realized it was a missed opportunity to make major progress toward his goal. The uninsured According to the united States Census Bureau, in 2008 there were 46. 3 million people In the US (15. 4% of the population) who were without health Insurance for at least part of that year. The percentage of the non-elderly population who are uninsured has been generally increasing since the year 2000. The causes of this rate of insurance remain a matter ofpolitical debate.

Page 2 History U. S. Essay

Rising insurance costs have contributed to a trend in which fewer employers are offering health insurance, and many employers are managing costs by requiring higher employee contributions. Many of the uninsured are the working poor or are unemployed. Others are healthy and choose to go without It. Somehave been rejected by Insurance companies and are considered “insurable”. Some are without health insurance only temporarily. Some choose faith-based alternatives to health Insurance. Employment-age adults (ages 18 to 64) and more than 27 million worked at least part time.

Approximately 61% of the roughly 45 million uninsured live in households with incomes under $50,000 (13. 5 million below $25,000 and 14. 5 million at $25,000 to $49,000). And 38% live in households with incomes of $50,000 or more (8. 5 million at $50,000 to $74,999 and 9. 1 million at $75,000 or more). Today,45. 7 million Americans lack adequate medical care as a result of the economic recession and high unemployment rates plaguing the United States. As stated by the Census Bureau, people of Hispanic origin were the most affected by being uninsured; nearly a third of Hispanics lack health insurance.

In 2004, about 33% of Latino were uninsured as opposed to 10% of white, non-Latino However, this rate decreased slightly from 2006 to 2007, from 15. 3 to 14. 8 million, a decrease of 2 percentage points (34. 1% to 32. 1 The health care system in the United States endorses race and class discrimination. According to DRP. Paul Farmer, this prejudice fuels structural violence, or “the avoidable disparity between the ability to fulfill basic human needs and their actual fulfillment” caused by a poor distribution of resources by those in power.

Farmer’s theory suggests that in cases such as the uninsured Hispanics in the United States, structural violence increases as an individual’s socioeconomic status decreases. According to the Census Bureau, in 2007, there were 8. 1 million uninsured children in the US. Nearly 8 million young adults (those aged 18-24), were uninsured, representing 28. 1% of their population. Young adults make up the largest age segment of the uninsured, are the most likely to be uninsured, and are one of the fastest growing segments of the uninsured population.

They often lose coverage under their parent’s’ health insurance policies or public programs when they reach age 19. Others lose coverage when they graduate from college. Many young adults do not have the kind of stable employment that would provide ongoing access to health insurance. According to the Congressional Budget Office the plan the way it is now would have to cover unmarried dependents under their parent’s’ insurance up to age 26. These changes also affect large employers, including elf-insured firms, so that the firm bears the financial responsibility of providing coverage.

The only exception to this is policies that were maintained continuously before the enactment of this legislation. Those policies would be grandfathered in. Health Care Facts In 62% of all personal bankruptcy in the United States, medical debt is cited as a factor, the biggest single factor of all. This rarely occurs in other countries in the the nation on health care than any United Nations member state except for East Timer (Timer-Lest), although the actual use of health care services in the U. S. , by cost measures of health services use, is below the median among the world’s developed countries.

The number of people in America without health insurance coverage at some time during 2006 totaled about 16% of the population, or 47 million people. Of these 47 million uninsured people, nine million or roughly twenty percent, reside in households whose income totals greater than $75,000 In addition, many or most of those with insurance are not sufficiently insured, with high-deductible policies, policies that do have limits on what they will pay for or policies that cost a significant percentage of their income. Ђ In spite of the amount spent on health care in the U.

S. , according too 2008 Commonwealth Fund report, the United States ranks last in the quality of health care among developed countries. The World Health Organization (WHO), in 2000, ranked the US health care system 37th in overall performance and 72nd by overall level of health (among 191 member nations included in the study). Public Opinion Many Americans express a desire for health care reform because they see it as too expensive and because they perceive that insurance companies avoid meeting health costs through coverage exclusions, caps, and co-pays.

They also express concern that the system as a whole does not cover everyone and that many people are under- insured or uninsured. A majority (depending on which poll you follow) support the creation of a government-run insurance plan to compete with private insurers, known as a public option, and a significant majority support a single-payer health care system. Causes The major reason health care has not been expanded despite decades of urgent debate is that it threatens the entrenched system, which puts forth social controls to maintain the status quo.

Legislation expanding health care coverage ultimately fails s lawmakers struggle to gain support for a reform bill among their colleagues and the general population, due to their distorted sentiment of the superiority of the American economic system of administering health care. Another factor propelling the uninsured status of Americans is the government’s decision to isolate them. According to anthropologist Gay Becker, “The U. S. Yester fosters an organized approach of containment toward the uninsured… Which keeps services” (Becker 2007:299). By disregarding the uninsured as a minority group, the government does not need to be concerned about their economic drain or the impact hey will make on the health care system. As a result, many of these discriminated people feeling so disenfranchised and normalized that they often avoid the health care system altogether, even when facing chronic, life-threatening illnesses.

Consequences A report from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies states: “Lack of health insurance causes roughly 18,000 unnecessary deaths every year in the United States. ” A 2009 Harvard study published in the American Journal of Public Health found more than 44,800 excess deaths annually in the United States associated with insurance. Johns Hopkins University professor Vaccine Navaho stated, more broadly, in 2003, “The problem does not end here, with the uninsured.

An even larger problem is the undesired” and “The most credible estimate of the number of people in the United States who have died because of lack of medical care was provided by a study carried out by Harvard Medical School Professors David Homeliness and Staffer Hollander (New England Journal of Medicine 336, no. 11 [1997]). They concluded that almost 100,000 people died in the United States each year because of lack of needed care”three times the number of people who died

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