How Pervasive Is Drug Use In The United States? Essay Sample
Drugs are chemical substances which usually connotes remedy for illness and hurting and other uncomfortablenesss both mentally and physically. It is a common cognition that bulk of drugs are synthesized by pharmaceutical companies from workss. algae. minerals. and carnal infusions. The antibiotic penicillin comes from a species of cast. The hurting stand-in morphia comes from opium which a juice of works called opium puffy. Diabetic individuals use insulin extracted and purified from cowss and pig pancreas. Many unwellnesss and uncomfortablenesss can now be easy treated with the usage of drugs. Drugs can bring around diseases and alleviate uncomfortablenesss because it can alter the organic structure processes. History tells us that the built-in belongingss of drugs to alleviate hurting and uncomfortablenesss are largely discovered by chance. This is so because drugs to be effectual need an exact sum or dose to be taken in by the organic structure. Unintended effects usually are observed if drugs are used below and over the recommended dosage and can ensue to habit –forming phenomenon or drug maltreatment.
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This is peculiarly the instance in hurting stand-ins. stimulation and anti- sedative drugs. To safeguard the people against the hazard of drug maltreatment. the U. S. Food and Drug Administration or U. S. FDA was created in 1927. Drugs in the market are classified into over the counter drugs or OC and prescription drugs. Those outside the categorization are considered forbidden drugs and hence the usage and ownership is illegal. It is a common cognition that it is the inclination of people to seek something that is prohibited because they know from experience that they can acquire high utilizing these prohibited drugs. This is the ground for the drug dependence and maltreatment phenomenon that is blighting the bulk of Americans at present. It is the terminal consequence of prohibition which is the chief push of the U. S. government‘s war on drugs. If so. so. what should be the alternate move to halt and or decrease the drug dependence job. and the immoralities associated with it. Will it be legalization? This paper aims to document the claim Is America a Drug Culture: How permeant is drug usage in the United States? 2 that America is a drug civilization and this is the 1 responsible for the great ailments in today’s society.
Furthermore. this paper aims to document the statements for prohibition against legalisation of all prohibited drugs which appear to be seen by a huge bulk as the following best alternate. America’s love affair with drugs started in 1870 when Chinese workers looking for a better lives work with the constitution of railway system which became the anchor of American development and expansionism. The Chinese bring with them the pattern of smoking opium ( Drug Enforcement Administration. org. no day of the month ) . At first. the racialist white Americans ignore the pattern but subsequently on as they became familiar with the Chinese labourers. they begin sing the smoke lairs established in insular communities by the Chinese. A figure of young person and middle- aged Americans became addicted with opium and so the graduated table of dependence increased as a figure of opium- incorporating elixirs and cure- all medical specialties became available. The Drug Enforcement Administration. org. farther reported that the American authorities fright of a full blown dependence by America enacted the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 necessitating labeling of all medical specialties incorporating opium and cocaine. Opium trade was banned as a consequence of understandings between U. K. . U. S. and China in 1911.
The Prohibitionist stance of America toward drugs was observed in 1914 ( Drug Enforcement Administration. org. . n. d. ) when the Harrison Narcotic Act was enforced. The act requires everybody involved in sale of opiates and cocaine to register and pay prohibitory revenue enhancement. However. the physicians and druggists pay merely the enrollment fee for the ground that the drugs is for professional pattern merely. As a consequence of heavy revenue enhancements and imprisonment for non-tax remunerators. opium and cocaine became restricted drugs. The Drug Enforcement Administration. org. farther stated that under the fundamental law. the authorities can non merely curtail the sale of the drug as it is against the jurisprudence. nevertheless. the power to revenue enhancement trade goods is a right by the authorities. America’s love affair with drugs harmonizing to Drug Enforcement Administration. org. continue with the debut of cocaine. a Is America a Drug Culture: How permeant is drug usage in the United States? 3 charming drug as the inkinesss termed it as it makes people experience better although the illness is non cured. In 1920’s the fad on marihuana was experient courtesy of the Mexicans.
Harmonizing to Drug Enforcement Administration. org. ( n. d. ) . during the WW II government and in the psychedelic old ages of Vietnam war in early 1960’s. diacetylmorphine and LSD became the fad. In all of all these drug fad experiences. the Drug Enforcement Administration. org. ( n. d. ) claimed that the U. S. authorities sticks to its prohibition stance although it proved futile in collaring the lifting figure of drug dependent Americans. These moving ridges of drug debut into the flow of the American society left two overlapping coevalss exposed to a clear civilization of drugs. In the visible radiation of the government’s war on drugs and dry scheme. the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy [ ONDCP ] . ( 2002 ) revealed that in 2001. about 0. 7 % of 12 twelvemonth old reported cocaine usage at least one time a month compared to its extremum in 1979 at 9. 9 % . The ONDCP farther reported that in the same twelvemonth. marihuana usage by 12 twelvemonth and older childs was 5. 4 % compared to 14. 2 % extremum in 1979. The newsbatch. com ( 2007 ) reported marijuana smoke by 12 twelvemonth and older childs in 2005 to be 40. 1 % of the population. 13. 8 % used cleft. 13. 9 % psychedelic drugs. 9. 4 % inhalants. and 20 % of the population ventured on non-medical usage of psychotherapies. Based from these information. the tendency of forbidden drug specifically marijuana usage is diminishing in 2001 from its extremum in 1979.
However. an dismaying tendency of approximately 350 % [ 14. 2 % to 40. 1 % ] addition was observed from the study of 12 twelvemonth and older childs from 2001 to 2005. The Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring ( ADAM ) revealed informations to back up the pervasiveness of forbidden drug usage among arrested felons. The ONDCP ( 2002 ) . reported that in 1988. Is America a Drug Culture: How permeant is drug usage in the United States? 4 54 % of male arrestees from Kansas City and Indianapolis were tested positive for drug usage at arrest clip while 83 % was registered from New York City. Among the grownup female arrestees. 44 % and 41 % tested positive for drug usage at the clip of apprehension from St. Louis and Detroit severally. The ONDCP ( 2002 ) . further reported that in 1999. 50 % of arrestees from San Antonio. Texas and 77 % in Atlanta tested positive for drug usage. In New York City. 81 % of female arrestees in 1999 tested positive. During the first nine months of 2001. 51. 8 % of male arrestees in Dallas. Texas and 77. 5 % in New York City tested positive for drugs at apprehension clip.
The information show that among the felons arrested. higher drug usage was observed from New York City compared to other metropoliss like Kansas and San Antonio in Texas for both sexes from 1999 to 2001. This lone prove that the more sophisticated the environment. the higher the inclination of the people to make offense and the higher the likeliness that the felon is a drug user. From the informations provided by Drug Use Forecasting and reported by ONDCP ( 2002 ) . in 1999. female arrestees positive for marihuana was 9 % in Laredo and 39 % in Oklahoma City and increased to 27. 2 % in Laredo and 58 % in Omaha in the first nine months of 2001. This goes to demo that despite the rigorous execution of the prohibition on illegal drugs. the increasing tendency continues. Due to prohibition of psychotropic substances like marihuana and pep pills. the young person in their desire to see the high they experienced with forbidden drugs turned into over the counter and prescription drugs. Leinwand ( 2006 ) of USA Today revealed the term pharming which. “was short for pharmaceuticals. such as the powerful analgesics Vicodin and OxyContin” .
The adolescents in pharming parties take in handful of tablets and capsules of Is America a Drug Culture: How permeant is drug usage in the United States? 5 prescribed medical specialties and literally o.d.ing themselves to acquire the high feeling. The writer farther reported that drug counsellors all over USA are get downing to be cognizant of this pharming pattern. This belowground pattern is distributing like wild fire and is now a portion of the lifting abuse of prescription drugs by teens every bit good as immature grownups. The writer besides revealed the pattern called trail-mixing which really is a mixture of a analgesic and cough sirup and other pills taken from the medicine cabinet of teen’s place. The teens besides exchange their ascertained trail mixes recipes through cyberspace confabs and messaging and codify their pills non by name but by colourss. The federal drug functionaries admitted that they are surprised and no pre-emptive moves were taken to collar the lifting tendency in maltreatment of prescription drugs as their plans focus on baccy. marihuana and Methedrine.
Leinwand ( 2002 ) reported that Nora Volcow. manager of National Institute of Drug Abuse blamed physicians in the proliferation of prescription drugs. Internet pharmaceuticss selling prescription drugs with small or no audience should be closed instantly. Harmonizing to studies. 3 out of 5 teens can easy squash in prescription tablets from their medical specialty cabinets. the writer farther reported. The really distressing fact is the perceptual experience of teens that the prescription drugs are safe because it is being prescribed by physicians. The writer besides reported that the teens claimed they can easy acquire high with prescription drugs merely like what they experienced with marihuanas and cleft and the drug is readily available. Furthermore. the teens claim that they get high with prescription drugs without infixing acerate leafs to their arm. The writer reported a instance affecting a high school adolescent from Boston who foremost tasted OxyContin pills from a friend in school. After that. the adolescent took the pill on occasion to interrupt Is America a Drug Culture: How permeant is drug usage in the United States? 6 the humdrum of his day-to-day marihuanas wont smoke by oppressing the tablet and whiffing it. After his male parent died of malignant neoplastic disease. to alleviate him of sorrow. daily. he sniff five 80 milligram tablets.
The writer reported that the adolescent claimed that he feels nil can unnerve him when he got high with OxyContin tablets. The federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration reported harmonizing to the writer that exigency room admittances related to adolescent prescription drug overdoses in 2004 is about a one-fourth of 1. 3 million entire admittances. Furthermore. the writer reported that in 2005 study conducted by Partnership for a Drug-Free America. about 4. 5 million young person or 19 % of young person population admitted holding taken analgesics Vicodin and OxyContin and stimulations like Ritalin or Adderall for the intent of acquiring high. The teens admitted that they are hooked to prescription drug o.d.ing to acquire high due to peer force per unit area. handiness is non a job and they consider it more socially acceptable and descent than taking in street drugs. In the interim. the pharmaceutical companies continue with their schemes to make new market by detecting new utilizations of their merchandises and pass oning them to clients via telecasting commercials. cyberspace web sites and client mailings.
Leinwand ( 2002 ) reported that the pharmaceutical company bring forthing the drugs claimed that 29 million doses of vicodin was sold in 2004 compared to 15 million four old ages before and OxyContin sold 24 million compared to 15 million in 2000. Sing that the American drug civilization was developed with prohibitionist scheme of the authorities enforced. it is high clip to analyse and see other schemes to assist buffer the consequence of the drug maltreatment threat on society. The Drug Enforcement Administration. com ( n. d. ) . reported that under the dry scheme. the drug dependence is non satisfactorily checked. The writer revealed Is America a Drug Culture: How permeant is drug usage in the United States? 7 statements for abolishment of the dry scheme of the U. S. authorities. 1. Prohibition violate the Torahs of the province The federal drug agents arrest people providing medical marihuanas to provinces where the substance is legal. This act go against the province Torahs enacted and lawfully approved by the citizen. 2. The right to privateness by persons is violated America believe that what they do to their ain organic structure is their private concern.
What they do in their places is their ain private concern and the authorities has no right collaring people for what they are making in their private places. Right to privateness is guaranteed under “ Life. Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness” of the Declaration of Independence. 3. Prohibition violates the right to due procedure The pattern of the authorities in prehending private belongingss and reselling them the minute one is arrested and a instance filed in tribunal in relation to drug trafficking is unconstitutional because the instance is still under judicial proceeding. 4. Prohibition proves excessively dearly-won for the revenue enhancement remunerators. The entire cost incurred by society in 1998 from illegal drug usage was about $ 24. 4 billion while the disbursals to incorporate the offense ( tribunal. prison and interdiction attempts ) was about $ 22. 5 billon. Prohibition is a dearly-won exercising and waste of money sing the cost. 4. Prohibition was non able to cut down the degree of drug dependence Data gathered by the European ESPAD and US Monitoring the Future revealed that Is America a Drug Culture: How permeant is drug usage in the United States? 8 in 1999. Netherlands’ informations on 10th class marihuana usage is about 28 % compared to 32 % in the U. S.
In the 16 to 59 old ages old bracket in 2000. in the US. 9. 5 % of the populations are marijuana users compared to merely 4 % in Netherlands. Much higher user per centum was besides observed in US on cocaine. pep pills. diacetylmorphine and morphia than Netherlands. The Netherlands has legalized the usage of marihuanas and all other drugs while the US spent taxpayer’s money to fund the prohibitionist stance and still achieved a much higher user per centum proposing that the stance is uneffective. The American people were forced to believe the prohibitionist’s doctrine that doing drugs illegal must greatly cut down its usage. It’s really clear that the prohibitionist solution is more expensive than the job sing the prisons are crammed of drug maltreatment wrongdoers. criminalism and belongings devastations still exist. lost productiveness of those jailed and most significantly the rights and the fundamental law is trampled upon. Soft on drug states like Nederlands have non experienced this drug maltreatment job of the US’ magnitude.
If we are to see extinguishing the prohibitionist stance of the disposal war on drugs. legalisation is being considered in its topographic point. Miron. . J ( 2001 ) provides an analysis on the virtues of legalisation: 1. The impression of “forbidden fruit” is gone in legalisation It is an recognized fact that when something is prohibited. people usually are more eager to seek it than when it is non prohibited. This is human nature. This is the ground why more and more people are disobeying the jurisprudence because when one did something illegal and non caught and one is benefited by it. the feeling is elevated and subconsciously. one is proud of himself. This out fruit impression resulted to more demand and usage of the Is America a Drug Culture: How permeant is drug usage in the United States? 9 illegal drug therefore doing an addition in drug maltreatment job. addition in its monetary value and promoting the provider to bring forth more merchandises. This explains why under the prohibition stance. drug abuse zooms contrary to belief that it will lessen. The higher per centum marihuana users in US than The Netherlands informations justify this statement. This besides explains why the supply of illegal drugs under dry stance is maintained due to the fact that there is an available market to absorb it. 2. Legalization is much economical
This is so because the authorities will non pass the taxpayer’s money in imprisoning drug wrongdoers. directing them to prison and the productiveness losingss of the wrongdoer will be contained. If drugs are legal. there will be no wrongdoers and there’s no demand for the dearly-won war on drugs plan. 3. Legalization will decidedly cut down the drug dependence job This indirect claim by Miron. . J ( 2001 ) is competently supported by the much lower per centum of population utilizing cocaine. pep pills. diacetylmorphine and morphia in Netherlands than in US by the European ESPAD and US Monitoring the Future bureaus. 4. Legalization will decidedly cut down offense Miron. J ( 2001 ) under the subject Prohibitions and Crime. 1st paragraph said that “Prohibition additions violent offense by forestalling drug market participants from deciding their differences through standard nonviolent mechanisms” . The writer farther stated that “ Suppliers in legal markets can besides utilize advertisement to vie with challengers ; this is hard in a black market. where violent sod conflicts are one possible substitute” . In a black market scenario. the offenses can non be resolved in tribunal due to the fact that their individualities will be Is America a Drug Culture: How permeant is drug usage in the United States? 10 divulged.
The lone left option is resolve it through violent agencies like the instances of slaying and snatch. In a wholly legalized drug selling. advertisement can be done in a legal manner therefore forestalling possible struggles in selling facets. Knowing the statements inherent for both prohibition and legalisation. pupils can lend to minimise if non wholly extinguish the overdosing of prescribe and over the counter drugs. The pupils can organize associations and groups recommending other pupils to halt the belowground “pharming” pattern of others. We are now cognizant that o.d.ing prescribed drugs can besides ensue to addiction therefore destructing ourselves and most significantly our hereafter and that of our friends near to our Black Marias. We are now familiar with the immoralities brought approximately by the prohibitionist stance of the US authorities as respect illegal drugs. Our rights and privateness are trampled upon by the authorities in their attempts to derive success in their stance and addition voter’s acknowledgment and blessing. Under legalisation. offenses will be minimized but non wholly eliminated as offenses is built-in in a capitalist society.
It is true that America is a drug civilization as evidenced by the debut of different pills and drugs of immigrants seeking the American Dream therefore impacting two overlapping coevalss. With legalisation of all drugs. we can go on the Television advertizements. client mailings and hoardings built-in with the prohibitionist stance but now acclaiming our desire to halt the war on drugs by the present disposal and bit by bit develop our civilization on drugs into a more coveted image as evidenced by the experience in The Netherlands. This may non likely go on within the following decennary but the attempts should get down now with our First Measure and that is acknowledging the immoralities of prohibition and being cognizant that legalisation is the best and most appropriate option. Is America a Drug Culture: How permeant is drug usage in the United States?
Dea. org. . ( n. d. ) . Prohibition in America: A Brief History. Retrieved November 10. 2007 from hypertext transfer protocol: //thedea. org/prohibhistory. hypertext markup language Leinwand. D. ( 2006 ) . Prescription drugs find topographic point in adolescent civilization. USA today [ on line ] . Updated June 13. 2006. Retrieved November 11. 2007 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. usatoday. com/news/health/2006-06-12-teens-pharm-drugs_x. htm Miron. J. ( 2001 ) . The economic sciences of drug prohibition and drug legalisation. In Social Research [ on line diary ] . Retrieved November 11. 2007 from hypertext transfer protocol: //findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m2267/is_3_68/ai_80310014/ News Batch ( 2007 ) . How did our drug policy started. In Drug Policy Issues. Updated January 2007. Retrieved November 11. 2007 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. newsbatch. com/drugpolicy. htm White House Office of National Drug Control Policy [ ONDCP ] . ( 2002 ) . Drug Use Trends. Retrieved November 10. 2007 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. whitehousedrugpolicy. gov/publications/factsht/druguse/