How to Read Literature Like a Professor Essay Sample

9 September 2017

I. Every Trip Is a Quest ( Except When It’s Not )
The five most of import things that make up a pursuit involve the chief character really traveling on the pursuit. a location of where the seeker must travel. the ground of traveling on the quest. challenges and jobs faced along the pursuit. and so the existent ground why the pursuit was of import. “The existent ground for a pursuit is ever self-knowledge” ( Foster 3 ) . As the quest continues on. less is heard about the original ground why the pursuit is even started. and by so the character has already gone through some alterations. In “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” . Huck and Jim embark on a pursuit along the Mississippi River to Cairo. trusting that Jim would eventually be able to be a free adult male. During the journey. a friendly relationship is formed between Jim and Huck. and they stumble upon obstructions about everyplace they went because most of the South was still prejudice against inkinesss.

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By the terminal of the novel. Huck realizes that how society treats Jim and other inkinesss is incorrect. and he chooses his friendly relationship with Jim over the values and imposts he has been surrounded by turning up. II. Nice to Eat with You: Acts of Sacramental manduction

In chapter two Foster explains that anytime two or more characters are eating together. that that is an act of Communion. but non in a spiritual sense. Sacramental manduction refers to the portion of mass where everyone comes together as a whole and experiences one act together. Whenever characters in a scene come together and eat. it symbolizes a peace between them ; it’s rare to see characters non bask themselves while eating. Foster explains how. “breaking staff of life together is an act of sharing and peace” ( Irving 8 ) . The arrangement of eating nutrient is a really personal act in novels. because normally it is around characters that you are comfy with. At dinner tabular arraies is when you can calculate out how each character feels about one another. and at dinner tabular arraies. the writer normally portions the interior ideas of a character. In William Golding’s. “Lord of the Flies” . Golding uses the campfire as a dinner tabular array. as the childs centre around eating whatever they had hunted. During these scenes. you can see how each character reacts to another. and how sides were drawn. In Raymond Carver’s. “Cathedral” . the chief character overcomes his disliking of people who are different when he and the blind sit down for a repast and he realizes that they portion a common bond. III. Nice to Eat You: Acts of Vampire

Foster introduces the original of a lamia in this chapter. Vampires are non merely good-looking. picket. burn-in-the-sun. violent leechs. lamias can be in human signifier. Actual vampirism. like the instance of Dracula trades with a batch of lecherousness. but in a more actual sense. vampirism trades with. “selfishness. development. [ and ] a refusal to esteem the liberty of other people” ( Foster 16 ) . To calculate out if there is. so. a lamia in a narrative. you must look out for an older adult male. or adult female. that represents antique corruptness. Then that character normally goes for a immature guiltless female and uses her all up. the “vampire” takes off her artlessness and her young person. Until finally. there is the decease of the immature female. non in the actual sense. and the older male continues to populate on.

That is when you know there is a lamia in the narrative. A lamia is fundamentally any character in a narrative that uses other people to acquire what they want. they are selfish. Much like the characters from “Mean Girls” . they place their ain desires before others. A batch of the characters in “The Great Gatsby” are lamias. they suck up all the wealth from their parents and when they have all that they want. they ne’er hear from the parents once more. The invitees at Jay Gatsby’s parties merely use him because they want to acquire into the party. non because they like him. Daisy Buchanan is an illustration of a female lamia who merely married Tom for his money. she besides sucks up all of Jay’s love. IV. If It’s a Square. It’s a Sonnet

Foster defines a sonnet as being. “fourteen lines long and written about in iambic pentameter” ( Foster 23 ) . He tells the reader that a sonnet gets its significance through its signifier. 14 lines. When you read a verse form. expression at the existent form of all the lines put together. if it is. or close to. a square. so it is a sonnet. Foster so describes the types of sonnets. There is the Petrarchan sonnet which is an octave followed by a six. An octave being eight lines group together and a six being six lines group together. “These eight lines carry one thought. those six another related idea” ( Foster 26 ) . A Shakespearean sonnet is structured by 3 quatrains and so reasoning with a pair. Foster explains that the first 2 quatrains have a significance all together while the 3rd quatrain and the stoping pair have intending together every bit good. The bulk of Shakespeare’s poesy is broken down into sonnets. Hence. we have the name. “Shakespearian Sonnet” . Much of his ignoble sonnets dealt with the affair of love. His last two lines of his sonnets would ever bind in with the chief thought presented in the first quatrain. V. Now. Where have I Seen Her Before?

The chief thought in this chapter is that. “stories grow out of other narratives. poems out of other verse forms. And they don’t have to lodge to genre. Poems can larn from dramas. vocals from novels” ( Foster 33 ) . Stories all root from other original work and original work root from other plants. Basically. all narratives and characters have been inspired by other author’s narratives and characters. Writers get their alone manner from other novels or verse forms they have read. They besides write based off their childhood. negotiations with friends. vocals. and films. There is so much that goes on within an author’s caput when he or she writes. History is another beginning of inspiration. When you bit by bit begin to read other books. you will derive delectation when descrying out those similar state of affairss that you read three old ages ago.

It becomes a kind of “Where’s Waldo” game. The most of import portion is when the readers “recognize elements from some anterior text and get down pulling comparings and analogues that may be antic. parodic. tragic. anything” ( Foster 34 ) . Both the “Harry Potter” series and the “Lord of the Ring” series both center around a immature character who does recognize that he is destined for something bigger than himself. Both Harry and Frodo encounter fabulous animals that they merely defeat because they have something that their enemies don’t have. friends. Friends whom are loyal buddies. At the terminal of each series. they both realize that they both have to decease for the greater good. VI. When in Doubt. It’s From Shakespeare…

This chapter glorifies the popular happening of William Shakespeare in many many plants. “He’s everyplace. in every literary signifier you can believe of. And he’s ne’er the same: every age and every author reinvents its ain Shakespeare” ( Foster 38 ) . Shakespeare has become stuck in our civilization and caputs. His quotation marks are said and written in novels and films even if you don’t recognize that they are from Shakespeare. “We love the dramas. the great characters. the fabulous addresss. the witty repartee even in times of duress” ( Foster 42 ) . The ground that Shakespeare is referenced so frequently is because the linguistic communication he uses in his quotation marks is beautiful and memorable. They enhance intending. Writers besides write their narratives while seting a different angle of Shakespeare’s narrative so that they can show their ain significance. Speaking of retellings. the 1996 remaking of “Romeo and Juliet” was a contemporary version of the original drama which immature people could associate to. “The Accidental Billionaires” was a narrative of Mark Zuckerberg and his rise to power. and his turning greed for it. much like the narrative of Julius Caesar. “The Great Gatsby” relates to “Romeo and Juliet” because both narratives deal with category differences that create a struggle within love. Romeo and Juliet came from different households. hence non able to show love with each other. On the other manus. Jay Gatsby and Daisy came from different categories turning up. so Daisy had moved on and married a adult male within her category. VII. …Or the Bible

It’s difficult reading a narrative. “without running into citations. secret plans. characters. [ and ] whole narratives drawn from the Bible” ( Foster 52 ) . Similar to Shakespeare. the many mentions to the Bible comes from the fact that the authorship in the Bible is beautiful. which includes many fables. Another ground why the Bible is such an of import tool for an writer is because of the moral lessons and narratives that are in the Bible. The narrative of Adam and Eve tells the narrative of Eve’s loss of artlessness and perpetrating wickedness. This is a narrative that can be seen everyplace. particularly in cheesy adolescent situation comedies. Some writers take allusions from the Bible and utilize them for the interest of sarcasm. They are used to “heighten continuities between the spiritual tradition and the modern-day minute but to exemplify a disparity or disruption” ( Foster 52 ) . The narratives from the Bible are to a great extent used because it shows the emotions and moral picks that occur in both the yesteryear and the present. “Rebecca” is a perfect illustration of scriptural sarcasm. The chief character marries Maxim. a rich adult male who has had a married woman before. The chief character becomes obsessed believing that her hubby is still in love with Rebecca. This alludes to the Rebekah in the Bible who was so beautiful that her hubby pretended that she was his sister so that he would non be killed over her. Ironically. in this narrative. Maxim killed Rebecca because of how atrocious she was.

VIII. Hanseldee and Greteldum
In this chapter. Foster expresses how “modern authors can’t presume a common organic structure of cognition on the portion of their readers” ( Foster 59 ) . Because for me. and most of the other pupils who had to read “How to Read Literature Like a Professor” . we have non read all of Shakespeare’s dramas or the whole Bible. So what are writers to make? Simple. relate to our childhood favourites. Writers use elements from childhood books “to add deepness and texture to your narrative. to convey out a subject. to impart sarcasm to a statement. to play with readers’ deeply ingrained cognition of faery tales” ( Foster 62 ) . They use the narratives from childhood phantasies so that readers will be familiar with the narrative. while the writer might utilize this cognition so that they can set a turn to the narrative. In a new novel. readers look for the childhood mentions so that they can do sense of the narrative and that will assist the reader learn the significance of the work.

The narrative of “Hansel and Gretel” relates to “The Kite Runner” because the storyteller. Amir and his friend Hassan gets into problem as childs. As the narrative goes on. Amir tells the narrative of how he left his place and escaped to America. as how Hansel and Gretel left their place in hunt of something new. While in America. Amir reflects upon his fatherland and gets a missive that calls him to travel back. His fatherland becomes foreign to him and he feels threatened. like how Hansel and Gretel are in danger in the witche’s place. Finally the childs kill the enchantress. and Amir blinds Assef who would be the scoundrel in this novel. IX. It’s Greek to Me

This chapter offers another genre that novels allude to. the narratives of ancient Grecian myths. What Foster means by “myth” is narrative. “the ability of narrative to explicate ourselves to ourselves in ways that natural philosophies. doctrine. mathematics. chemistry- all really utile and enlightening in their ain right-can’t” ( Foster 65 ) . They help explicate certain supernatural thoughts but besides supply its ain lessons. These lessons shape our civilization and assist us populate with a certain position of life.

Writers may utilize tribal myths that pertain to their background or community. They use these narratives because they matter to non merely him. but to his community. Writers besides use classical myth to assist understand the context of the work. Some characters are named after Greek or Roman characters to assist qualify where they stand. Writers use ancient narratives to assist readers understand the context of the narrative. merely like how writers use the Bible. Shakespeare. and childhood narratives. “Homer gives us four great battles to of the human being: with nature. with the Godhead. with other worlds. and with ourselves” ( Foster 71 ) .

Amir struggles to return place in “The Kite Runner” . Like Odysseus. Amir must travel through hard obstructions before he feels like he is place. His male parent. Baba. reminds us of Hector because Baba sacrificed his luck to protect his household by get awaying to America. Baba is besides similar Achilles because during his celebrity in Afghanistan. he strived to keep his pride. self-respect. and his name. X. It’s More Than Just Rain or Snow

Foster provinces that “Weather is ne’er merely conditions. It’s ne’er merely rain. And that goes for snow. Sun. heat. cold. and likely sleet” ( Foster 75 ) . Rain is used as a secret plan device because it adds an uncomfortable scene to both the characters and the state of affairs. It besides can add suspense or enigma to a scene ; I mean when is fog used for a happy walk in the park?

Rain can typify the cleaning of person. Water is associated with metempsychosis. get downing over. much like how baptism washes off our wickednesss. Rain can rinse off whatever troubles the character has had. and they will be replenished into a new life. Rain is vitalizing. It helps the animate beings and the workss in the universe thrive. it’s the indispensable ingredient that every homo needs.

Fog symbolizes confusion. as one can non clearly see while in fog. “fog is mental and ethical every bit good as physical” ( Foster 80 ) . Snow is much similar rain. it is really pure. really clean. but excessively much of it can go soiled or overpowering. Snow can cover a past minute. much like how rain washes off what is dirty.

In “The Awakening” . the chief character becomes ill of her topographic point in society and is ill of her existent topographic point where she lives. She ever ponders about the ocean as a topographic point where she can eventually be free. At the terminal of the novel. she runs into the ocean naked and drowns herself. the ocean being the baptismal fount to rouse her into a new life. a life of freedom she ever wanted.

Eleven. …More Than It’s Gon na Hurt You: Refering Violence
Foster emphasizes that “Violence is one of the most personal and even adumbrate Acts of the Apostless between human existences. but it can besides be cultural and social in its implications” ( Foster 88 ) . Violence in existent life is merely force in existent life. while force in literature frequently has a deeper significance. Unlike enigma books. force is symbolic action.

The decease of worlds can demo how small we are to the universe. It can demo how alone we truly are in this universe. and it can assist us recognize that we should non take life for granted. Writers are the God of their ain written Earth and so they have the power to kill off any of the characters for the interest of the narrative. Sometimes a decease occurs to raise struggle. or merely a complication within the narrative.

Some writers would utilize certain types of force to demo the epoch the scene is in. Other times. force represents a battle. either political. or a battle from one’s inner ego. When Tom Buchanan slaps Myrtle Wilson during a party at Tom’s flat in “The Great Gatsby” . this was non merely a random smack of no ground ; it showed the intervention that work forces gave to adult females during those times. The act of force besides showed the value of Myrtle to Tom compared to Daisy’s value to Tom.

Romeo’s self-destruction was an act of sarcasm because he did non cognize that Juliet was kiping the whole clip. His violent death represented the battle between their love and their families’ hatred. In the terminal. the lone manner they could of all time be together. was if they both died. and left their universe. Twelve. Is that a Symbol?

Harmonizing to Foster. symbols are all comparative. it’s all position. “Some symbols do hold a comparatively limited scope of significances. but in general a symbol can’t be reduced to standing for merely one thing” ( Foster 98 ) . Foster explains that if you of all time come across something that straight stands for something else. so that is an fable. An fable is meant to give a message. if you are diffident about the certain message. so the fable fails.

A symbol has a overplus of significances and it can be interpreted in a figure of ways. Most of the clip. a symbol isn’t ever cut-and-dried. It will be up to you to calculate out what the symbol means. and you must utilize “questions. experience. [ and ] preexisting knowledge” ( Foster 100 ) to calculate it out. The more you question the text. or the symbol. the easier it will be to group your ideas together and come up with a decision that might use. It comes down to your imaginativeness ; it is the reader’s occupation to calculate out what they think the message is.

In “The Great Gatsby” . the eyes of T. J Eckleburg are plastered onto a large hoarding. They look over the characters in the vale of decease ; they symbolize God’s small presence in their lives. The attenuation of the hoarding causes his eyes to go full of sorrow. as if he is judging the characters and glowering upon their failed moralities.

In “Lord of the Flies” . the conch symbolizes the civilisation that they had left behind. the conch bids regard and it helps implement the regulations. Like most thoughts that promote order. the conch loses its power as clip on the island moves on. and it is wholly disregarded as the childs fall into savageness. Thirteen. It’s All Political

Hidden within written plants are the political point of views and sentiments of the authorities. In fact. there was likely 200 pages worth of ostracizing the authorities in “A Prayer for Owen Meany” . but we aren’t allowed to utilize that book as a mention so I won’t explain. “Nearly all authorship is political on some level” ( Foster 111 ) . The political part of novels can cover with the jobs of the people and wrongs done by those in charge.

Sometimes an writer characterizes a individual and gives him certain political facets merely so the writer can acquire his sentiments spoken without being really upfront about how he feels. Trying to accomplish 1s free will is another political job that writers tend to make struggle about. The battle for your individuality is ever at that place. its enemies being the society around him or the type of authorities the character lives in.

“The Jungle” is a monolithic political novel candied in pig’s blood and dissolved rats. It shows the rough economic problems that low-class households starved in while focus oning around a household adult male who loses hope as the narrative goes on. It besides gives visible radiation to the corruptness and insanitary conditions that went on in the mills. By the terminal of the novel. after Jurgis’ married woman dies. he loses all hope in the universe. until one twenty-four hours his life becomes changed because of a certain socialist motion. And here enters the author’s political sentiments. which really encompasses the whole last chapter of the book. The writer uses the narrative of Jurgis and his household as poignancy so that we. the readers. will be empathic and impart a bigger ear towards socialism. Fourteen. Yes. She’s a Christ Figure. Too

Even if you are Judaic. Muslim. or Atheist. you will detect Christian themes all around you. “We unrecorded in a Christian culture” ( Foster 117 ) . and in most novels. you will see Christian influences. No affair what faith you are. it is of import to cognize the context of the bible so you can grok in depth European and American literature.

You must be on the sentinel for Jesus-like figures when you are reading. They will ne’er be perfect C transcripts of him. but they will be similar. The character will likely exhibit some glow upon him. he should be morally good. although non ever the instance. If the character seems to ever give for others. so you are one inch closer to holding a Christ figure. Like Jesus. if the character is tempted to make wrong-doing. so that is another characteristic.

I would hold usage the other summer reading book for an illustration. but once more. I am regretful to state that we can’t mention to that large. and that would be rip offing for this chapter. But another illustration of a Christ-like figure would be Simon from “Lord of the Flies” . He was unlike the other male childs. he was truly good. he followed his ethical motives. and he cared for the small kids. Jesus has his word to distribute but Simon had the truth he had to portion. and they both died in the act of talking what they had to talk. There is an dry difference though. when Jesus died. his message was eventually spread. and things got better. But when Simon dies. the male childs are still following a barbarous motion. and things get darker and worse. Fifteen. Flights of Fancy

Flight has a strong literary significance in narratives. They can. “introduce a specific historical and racial mention that is outside the experience of most readers” ( Foster 127 ) . which is what Morrison did in “Song of Solomon” . The character. Solomon. went back to Africa by winging off. alleviating him of the ironss and bonds that kept him bounded. So winging. fundamentally. means freedom.

Flying can assist a character earn freedom from specific state of affairss. or mundane things that conveying weight upon your shoulders. It doesn’t needfully intend winging in the actual sense either. Your psyche can wing off. as in you let travel of whatever negative energy within you. and the universe around you becomes newer.

When sarcasm work stoppages. as it ever does. flight can go the antonym of freedom. When one tries to get away their state of affairs. they sometimes fail and so life becomes worst for them. they will still be imprisoned. Falling is besides symbolic because in novels. some writers allow their characters to populate those certain falls. The autumn allows the character to recognize whatever he has been losing in his life. “there is an component of metempsychosis in their cheating what would typically turn out to be certain death” ( Foster 131 ) .

In the Harry Potter series. winging was ever Harry’s opportunity of get awaying. He escaped from his uncle and aunt’s house by a winging auto in “The Chamber of Secrets” . he flies off from the Magyar Horntail on his broom handle in “The Goblet of Fire” . and he escaped a clump of decease feeders in Hagrid’s winging minibike in “The Deathly Hallows” . XVI. It’s All About Sexual activity

Anything and everything can stand for sex. Sexual activity does non hold to be the actual: a two people holding sexual intercourse with each other. sex can be used with fruits or how a landscape is shaped. “The knight becomes the emblem of pure. if unseasoned. masculinity in hunt of a goblet. the Holy Grail. which if you think about it is a symbol of female gender as understood one time upon a clip: the empty vas. waiting to be filled” ( Foster 136 ) . You must be acute in seeking for these concealed sexual Acts of the Apostless.

Masturbation can besides be symbolized with any actions or any points. no gag intended. Whenever a character is making an uneven action with intense passion. there is a good opportunity that the character is masturbating. Most of the clip. the writer will detail this action really carefully so you can see how this action pleasures the character.

In “Lord of the Flies” . the boys participate in a mass ritual-like dance around the campfire. This could stand for an intense binge. for the male childs are moving animal-like. shriek and bellow. while the lone visible radiation comes from the campfire which can merely demo some of the male childs monstrous faces. The chief character Ralph. and his pal Piggy began to take portion of this action that resembles a late dark rave. This symbolizes the seduction of the male childs hearts into this lubricious like party. Seventeen. …Except Sexual activity

The act of sex itself is non truly interesting in novels. Unless you are a 9th grader traveling through hormonal alterations. and if so. so that explains all those animal love books I saw my friends read. “The farther truth is that even when [ authors ] compose about sex. they’re truly composing about something else” ( Foster 144 ) . I hope you have noticed a form by now. that everything ever means something.

Sometimes when a character has sex. it is so they can experience freedom. Sexual activity can typify a individual’s freedom from whatever limitations she has. It besides shows the author’s freedom in his authorship. his response towards censoring. Some sex is political sex. “O’Brien’s composing about sex is truly composing about release. or sometimes the failure of release ; it’s spiritual or political or artistic subversion” ( Foster 149 ) . In most novels that are post-modern epoch. most sex by adult females was an effort to interrupt from the societal hierarchy. because we all know that work forces would hold kept womans and personal businesss.

In “1984” . the sex that Winston Smith and Julia have is merely an act of rebellion against the authorities and Big Brother. Julia herself admits to holding sex with other members of the “party” . demoing that she merely uses other’s organic structures for her ain selfish act of rebellion.

In “The Awakening” . Edna darnels on his hubby because of her new found freedom and self-expression she feels. She hates the universe she lives in. which classifies her under a certain type of adult female. Edna wants to interrupt the woman-like stereotypes. so by holding sex. she is arising against society. Eighteen. If She comes Up. It’s Baptism

If one falls into H2O. he will either dice or be saved. If the character is saved. so gets one more opportunity with life. a life he likely did non value before this near-death experience. “Symbolically. that’s the same form we see in baptism: decease and metempsychosis through the medium of water” ( Foster 155 ) . The individual goes in the H2O welcoming decease. and so still lives. but with a new position on life. the individual will be a changed adult male afterwards.

To parallel the old statement. one can take to submerge himself. Alternatively of submerging in H2O. you can submerge in the adversities of life. By taking self-destruction. you choose. “not merely [ the ] relation to the universe around [ the character ] but his mode of go forthing it” ( Foster 156 ) . A troubled individual might hold lived an country where his free will was stripped from him. so the lone pick he had available was decease.

Whether the individual lives or dies. they will go forth their old life behind and go a new individual. At the terminal of “The Awakening” . Edna chooses to kill herself by immersing herself into the ocean. Edna was submerging in a society which merely kept smothering her from what she wanted to be. She decided to go forth her universe and achieve freedom in another better universe. By submerging in the H2O. she eventually achieved going a individual of her ain. a single she ever wanted to be. XIX. Geography Matters…

Location. Location. Location. Yes I shall get down this page with a cliche . But what is non cliche . is puting in a narrative. The location of the narrative is important. and I do non intend merely a topographic point. “geography is puting. but it’s besides ( or can be ) psychological science. attitude. finance. industry- anything that topographic point can hammer in the people who live there” ( Foster 166 ) .

Geography adds secret plan and struggle. A sudden blizzard. a hurricane. a inundation. and the long steep hills that teases a schoolboy in a chair. Speaking of schoolboys in chairs. geographics can assist specify a character. A character may go forth their hometown to a new topographic point. and one time at that place. they do things they would ne’er make. they become a wholly different individual.

Geography can besides be a character. A foreign topographic point can do a character to experience intimidated. it can get the better of the character if it is that unsafe.
In “The Adventures of Huck Finn” . Huck and Jim travel down the Mississippi River. which provides them with freedom and danger. The raft of the river helps them get away the land they step on because if you have realized. every clip they go on land. they ever get into problem. which plays into the fact that they do non cognize the racialist south country. The island in “The Jungle” forces the male childs into isolation and causes tenseness between each other. The island presents itself as an chance for the childs to travel brainsick with no regulations and no construction. but the island besides brings out the barbarian in their Black Marias. Twenty. …So Does Season

Season symbolizes the alterations of clip. and besides the alterations of characters with their age. The authors use imagination and really descriptive diction to do the readers feel as if we are altering with the character.

Name callings and monikers go along with seasons. “she’s all spring and sunlight: he’s all frigid stiffness” ( Foster 178 ) . Seasons represent different emotions and feelings. Summer means happy and winter agencies harsh or sad. Foster educates us and provinces that. “spring has to make with childhood and young person. summer with maturity and love affair and fulfilment and passion. fall with diminution and in-between age and fatigue but besides harvest. winter with old age and bitterness and death” ( Foster 178 ) . Whatever season it is. it affects the temper of the characters and the point of the narrative you are reading.

Upton Sinclair’s “The Jungle” wouldn’t have been the same if there were no vesiculation snowstorms in the narrative. In the narrative. the coming of winter caused fright and terror. Jurgis and his boy had to walk to work in the snow. the snow made the mill more unsafe and colder. and everyone would acquire ill. which they couldn’t afford. The acrimonious cold made their battle crueler for them. The winter became a winter towards the household. in the manner it didn’t attention who it hurt or even killed. it was ruthless.

The terminal of winter was a approval for Jurgis and his household. they used that clip to refill themselves. although there was truly nil to refill. and they could walk to work. and put in the hours they needed to pay for the bare necessities.

Twenty-one. Marked for Greatness
Basically. if a character has some kind of malformation. cicatrix. losing limb. broken limb. or something along those lines. they are traveling to make something unbelievable or heroic. These Markss can state different things refering the character.

“It has to make with being different. truly. Sameness doesn’t present us with metaphorical possibilities. whereas difference- from the norm. the typical. the expected- is ever rich with possibility” ( Foster 194 ) . The grade sets them apart from the crowd. doing them to be more noticed. Some cicatrixs are besides meant to hinder the character from making certain things in life. coercing them to accommodate or pout in their wretchedness of why they had to be this manner. A marker can be how a character is. covering with their attitude or personality.

Some markers are reminders of something important that happened to them in their yesteryear. Normally. these markers bear strong emotions with them ; the grade could cover with a historical epoch. like cicatrixs from being a slave. Fictional characters can be scared mentally and physically excessively. It is merely like post-traumatic emphasis after war.

Harry Potter’s ill-famed cicatrix is a reminder of his mother’s love. It was her love which protected Harry from deceasing as a kid. The cicatrix besides differentiates him from everyone else. whereas he rises as the chosen one. Ironically. the cicatrix is a nexus between him and Voldemort because they are slightly one. The cicatrix helps him get the better of Voldemort in the terminal of the series because he can experience what Voldemort feels. and finally kills him. going bigger than his cicatrix. and defeats Voldemort one time and for all. XXII. He’s Blind for a Reason. You Know

Whenever a character is blind it means. “Every move. every statement by or about that character has to detect. to act otherwise. if merely in elusive ways” ( Foster 202 ) . Basically. the character becomes a nuisance to others and himself. the unsighted character must accommodate to his milieus and other people have to accommodate to him.

But a unsighted character is ne’er merely blind ; it normally means they have a sense of sight spiritually. Foster says that when an writer introduces a unsighted character that they should get down looking for other images or duologue that relates to spy.

A individual doesn’t needfully have to be literally blind ; it can be an drawn-out metaphor. They can be blinded by the truth. or blinded by choler. and even blinded by love. Foster besides explains that “if you want your audience to cognize something of import about your character ( or the work at big ) . present it early. before you need it” ( Foster 205 ) .

The Soothsayer in “Julius Caesar” could see Caesar’s religion but he ne’er heard of what would go on. which is dry. Oedipus Rex has no thought that his married woman is mother and is blinded by this truth all the manner until the terminal of the drama. This gives the drama a great splash of dramatic sarcasm. since the audience knows the truth the whole clip. but Oedipus Rex and the other characters can’t see the audience. Twenty-three. It’s Never Just Heart Disease…

“In literature there is no better. no more lyrical. no more absolutely metaphorical unwellness than bosom disease” ( Foster 208 ) . The ground why is because the bosom is the beginning of all our emotion and character. You can be brave and have a strong bosom. or acquire dumped by a miss and be heart-broken.

Whatever the character is experiencing. sad. mad. or lonely. it can take over the bosom disease and be the existent ground for a character’s death. An writer besides can utilize what a character’s bosom is experiencing and mix and fit it with a state of affairs or a scene and do it absolutely dry. “ A adult male who in life has put so much stock in “heart”- in trueness and trust. in bravery and fidelity. in holding a true heart- can merely decease by a blow to the heart” ( Foster 211 ) .

When bosom disease is mentioned in a novel. it should non be difficult to calculate out the significance. On the other manus. if a character’s bosom is merely holding emotional jobs or some kind of battle which will shortly let the bosom disease to happen.

In Edgar Allen Poe’s. “The Tell-Tale Heart” . the storyteller is a liquidator who begins to hear a bosom whipping within his floor boards. He believes it is the adult male who he killed when in actuality ; it is merely his guilt in his bosom which is devouring him until he goes insane. By the clip the constabulary get at that place. he confesses to the slaying. Twenty-four. …And Rarely Just Illness

Illnesss in literature can be powerful merely if you use certain unwellnesss. Foster summarizes some regulations that you should cognize refering unwellnesss in literature. The first thing you have to cognize is that some diseases are better than others. to utilize in a narrative I mean. The disease you should take should do for a good image. It should demo in the character at first glimpse. so that it helps develop a character. The more cryptic the disease is. the scarier it is. and the more fear and terror that comes from the mass of people. And most significantly. “it should hold strong symbolic or metaphorical possibilities” ( Foster 217 ) .

Some writers will utilize a character’s illness to demo their personality type. An writer would besides convey a ill character in to do more struggle and convey it possible struggles with the outside universe. Foster so explains how writers use AIDS for the “political angle” . It besides has the metaphor attack by being hibernating and so looking indiscriminately while besides impacting unmindful victims. Death by illness besides can typify the breakability of life and the inquiry of commanding 1s faith.

In “The Jungle” . Jurgis’ gramps dies of unwellness bases for the insanitary conditions that he had to work in. The inhuman treatment of the universe to coerce an old adult male to work merely to convey in money. Many other characters in the book died of disease. demoing how the environment affects their physical and mental wellness. Twenty-five. Don’t Read with Your Eyess

Foster describes how you can non merely merely read a book. you must understand the moralss and ethical motives of the clip. If you don’t transport back to the gladiator yearss. you’ll merely think that they are barbarians and cruel. You have to calculate out the purpose of why the writer wrote what he wrote. “Try to happen a reading position that allows for understanding with the historical minute of the narrative. that understands the text as holding been written against its ain societal. historical. cultural. and personal background” ( Foster 228 ) . Upton Sinclair might drive off some readers because of his favouritism of socialism but you have to look at the state of affairs through his eyes. He was a mudslinger. he investigated the mills. and he saw the hurting in many people. Sing those things would likely because you to oppugn the authorities you live in. he likely merely wanted a alteration for the better. for the workers. Twenty-six. Is He Serious? And Other Sarcasms

In the last chapter. Foster explains the significance of sarcasm. What sarcasm does is that it shatters our outlooks of the result. “irony trumps everything” ( Foster 235 ) . Whatever we expect to go on. the unthinkable will likely go on alternatively. You can work sarcasm into about every scenario conceivable. Foster so merely lists several illustrations of sarcasm in different narratives. Such as the one about the adult male who loved to read dies of a bosom onslaught and. “…the last thing he sees are the books from the bookcase he has pulled over on himself” ( Foster 241 ) . Nowadays. most authors use sarcasm in their plants. it keeps the reader visible radiation on their toes. But for those who have non reached that point. “Irony…provides extra profusion to the literary dish…inviting us. obliging us. to delve through beds of possible significance and viing signification” ( Foster 244 ) . In Romeo and Juliet. the two star crossed lovers’ deceases are dry. Juliet took a potion that put her into a deathly province. but non truly dead. The message of the program ne’er reached Romeo because the mendicant did non make him in clip. and when he finds her. he is heartbroken and decides to kill himself instead than populating without her. when they were alive following to each other the whole clip. When Juliet sees that Romeo and killed himself because of this misinterpretation. she in return putting to deaths herself. excessively.

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