Human Resource Management in Business Context
Human resource management or mostly named simply as HRM is a strategic method thoroughly thought out for managing industrial relations which accentuate the fact that workforce efficiency and commitment are the key factors in achieving constant competitive advantage or high quality work performance. This is accomplished through a peculiar set of integrated employment policies, programmes and practices intruded in an organisational and social context (Bratton and Gold, 2012). The new HRM model is created from the strategies that contribute mutuality – reciprocal targets, influence, respect and responsibilities.
The theory claims that these methods of mutuality educe involvement in a common activity and therefore implementation of the proposed task (Price, 2004). Storey (2007) claimed that human resource management has two main forms of existence. One of the forms is based on academic discourse and activity – it finds expression in books, academic and business journals, conferences, courses in business schools and so on. The other one is represented by practice in organisations that employ people and therefore have employment relationships and organisational culture.
It is tempting to characterise these two forms as the theory versus reality split. The subdivision of work so that particular tasks or jobs are assigned to individuals seamed most appropriate on the basis of skills, experience or cultural traditions. From ancient times all societies applied division of labour. In some countries traditions demanded tasks being allocated to particular groups, as an example, castes in India. In others, higher position jobs generally have been held for members of power elite.
Modern human resource management targets to identify and develop the most appropriate people for specific jobs regardless their origin, class or gender (Price, 2004). Fortunately, employers seek only for the best results of the business and choose new employees relatively only their skills and possible outcome these people could bring to the organisation. Companies more often are looking for multi-skilled workforce with use of team working with greater concern over attitudes and behaviours rather than matching people to immediate job requirements and strict specialisation.
Due to demographical changes in the labour market, there is a variety of high-skilled people who could become the perfect employees for an organisation. Owing to economic instability in the world, the competition between the potential personnel increases every single day (Beaumont, 1993). As a result, a level of education rises accordingly. Nowadays, nobody is going to surprise an employer with a diploma of higher education. It is a hard time, when people need to work on their experience all the time and build-up their skills and education list non-stop.
Employers are impressed if only a person shows them a number of diplomas and certificates from different additional courses, top-up programmes they successfully finished and so on. The vicious circle of getting experience also exist, when people cannot get one without proving they got one before. It becomes unbelievably difficult not only to be at least noticeable and hopefully get a job, but also it turns incredibly hard for human resources managers to pick the right person for their company.
In addition, I should notice that extra-class professionals do not search for the job – it rather happens in opposite. Bratton and Gold (2012) argued that recruitment is the process of attracting the interest of a range of intelligent people who will apply for jobs within an enterprise. Nevertheless, human resources department is reliable for recruitment process and need to take into consideration a number of vital issues. First of all, HR managers need to consider organisational main objectives and strategies so that they can try to forecast if the person will suit the further plans the firm established.
It is also about predicting if this person is going to make the most valuable contribution not only right now but also in the future of the organisation. Secondly, human resources manager needs to provide an existing working team with a new member who will be not only appropriate for the job being given but also would easily join the team. People who work in the company for a longer time will have to except the beginner; otherwise, even the best employee in the world will not be able to help the firm by sharing his or her knowledge and trying to contribute in the work.
Attitude to organisation, tasks given and the colleagues, person’s behaviour during the working time and after that and team working skills are essential while HR specialist is selecting a newcomer. Employment relationship and organisational culture are ones of the critical factors that affect decision making. The aim of HR manager is to describe a potential employee the key aspects of organisational culture. These are not the obvious cultural differences we stick to as the stereotypes, such as native languages, various religions, predominant gender in the team, etc.but individual culture of organisation, including team’s dress-code, traditions and rules, business ethics colleagues follow, holidays they celebrate together and non-verbal behaviour people use. Strong corporate culture introduces its own features in every single group even these would be just separate branches of the same company. Hofstede (1980) describes most societies as ‘collectivist’ in a non-political sense. In these cultures people obtain their identity from an extended family or a work organisation.
There is a number of cultural dimensions Hofstede (1980) outlined: individualism versus collectivism, inequality between levels in organisations, intolerance of ambiguity, competitiveness, work centrality and job satisfaction. In conjunction with corporate culture, micro-politics within an organisation exist which do affect recruitment and selection processes as well. To sum up all the arguments shown above, I suppose it is hardly possible to choose the best candidate by only looking at his or her application form including CV, checking references and asking some questions in the interview.
New generation became so prepared, so that most of application forms and CVs are fantastically good; interview questions people are practising now in universities and special educational centres; job seeking people put only the best references they have to avoid negative comments from the bosses they had bad relationships with. The selection process gets more sophisticated. Senior managers in HR are prone to explore the information about a degree that is often not matched in academic circles. On the contrary, many academic observers are as prone to neglect the variety of practice in their commentaries.
As a result, I consider that only final trial sessions within the organisation, when the potential employee is working alongside the colleagues, can show perspectives or their absence in the firm, however presence one or the other selection techniques depend on soft or hard human resource management approach. Furthermore, new personnel should pass the assessment centre, including spelling and grammar check and numerical abilities (or any other skills which are marginally required for getting a good job).