Human Rights and Students

8 August 2016

In South Africa HIV is spread mainly through: • Sexual contact • Breast feeding • Mother to child In keeping with International standards and in accordance with education law and the constitutional guarantees of the right to a basic education, right not to be unfairly discriminated against, the right to life and bodily integrity, right to privacy, the right to safe environment and the best interests of the child. 2. PURPOSE / INTENTION OF THIS POLICY To prevent the spread of HIV infection. To demystify HIV & AIDS • Allay fears • Reduce stigma

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Instill non-discriminatory attitudes Develop knowledge, skills, values and attitudes inorder that they may adopt and maintain behavior that will protect them from HIV infection and to support infected and affected. The policy provides a framework for development of provincial and schools policies and strategic plans for implementation thereof It further recommends establishment of health advisory committees 3. TARGET GROUP • Learners and Educators in public schools • Students and Educators in further education and training institutions • Broader school community

Provincial and District officials 4. THE SALIENT FEATURES/KEY MESSAGES OF THE POLICY 4. 1 Premises Because of an increase of infection rates, learners, students and educators with HIV & AIDS will increasingly form part of the population of schools and institutions. Non-discrimination and equality with regard to learners, students and educators 4. 2 HIV & AIDS testing and admission of learners and students and / or the appointment of educators 4. 3 Attendance at schools and institutions by learners or students – right to attend any school/institution. 4.

Disclosure of HIV & AID statusLearners and educators are not compelled to disclose their status. In cases where voluntary disclosure of their status has been done, it should be treated confidentially. 4. 5 A safe school / institution environment Provision must be made for all schools and institutions to implement Universal precautions to eliminate risk of transmission. 4. 6 Prevention of HIV transmission during play and sport 4. 7 Education on HIV & AIDS – not to be seen as add on, but part of the curriculum 4. 8 Duties and responsibilities of learners, students, educators and parents

Refusal to study with or teach a learner or student with HIV and AIDS or to be taught by an educator with HIV and AIDS. 5. WHAT ARE ITS IMPLICATIONS IN RELATION TO OTHER POLICES? 5. 2 Revised National Curriculum Statement 5. 2. 1 HIV and AIDS issues cut across all learning areas and therefore in the development of learning programmes these issues must be captured. 5. 3 Assessment Policy 5. 3. 1 It is important that learners who are likely to experience barriers to learning and development are identified early, assessed and provided with learning support.

Multiple opportunities, adaptive methods of assessment.. 5. 4 Education WP 6 – Inclusive ed. (barriers and orphans, learners at risk) 5. 4. 1 The development of an inclusive education and training system must take into account the incidence and impact of the spread of HIV and AIDS and other infectious diseases. 5. 5 Norms and Standards for funding 5. 5. 1 For the provisioning of all the appropriate equipment to implement universal precautions to eliminate risk of transmission (first aid kits, rubber gloves) 5. 6 Work Place Skills plan 5. 6.

Should include development programmes that would address issues on HIV and AIDS. 5. 7 IQMS 5. 7. 1 Whole school evaluation, school development plans (vision, mission) and school improvement plans must also include HIV and AIDS planned strategy to cope with the pandemic. • SASA o Learners of compulsory school – going age with HIV/AID may be granted exemption form attendance in terms of Section 4(1) o If and when learners become incapacitated schools and institutions should make work available to them for study at home and should provide support where possible.

Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996. 5. 9. 1 To prevent discrimination, all learners, students and educators should be educated about fundamental human rights. 6. WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE GAPS BETWEEN POLICY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS? Insufficient training for educators with regard to HIV and AIDS Insufficient resources available at institutions Insufficient funding to purchase the necessary resources needed to address the issues of HIV and AIDS at institutions Inadequate co-ordination of inter and intra-departmental initiatives concerning HIV and AIDS

Policy should be updated at regular intervals to accommodate the progress made in the prevention and treatment of HIV and AIDS. In all instances, this policy should be interpreted to ensure respect for the rights of learners, students and educators with HIV/AIDS, as well as other learners, students, educators and members of the school and institution communities. I hope this letter guides you with a better understanding of the policy and the importance there of. Kind Regards, Vindette Section 2 Important People Puppet show Grade level: 1- 2 Learning objectives: Following this activity, students will be able to

Define a support system Identify important adults in their support system Describe situations in which an adult should be told about a problem Tell an adult when they have a problem Time required: Two lessons, 30 minutes each Materials: Sticks, cardboard, pictures from magazines of adults who can help (parents, grandparents, neighbours, doctors, nurses, teachers, fire fighters, police, crossing guards, child care workers) Description of activity: Introduction: Define a support system. Have students identify adults in helping professions who can be a part of their support system. Activity:

Have students make puppets of these important adults using magazine pictures mounted on cardboard attached to sticks to hold them up. Once each student has his/ her own puppet, ask each student to either (a) explain who the person is and how she/he can help children, or (b) participate in a play in which different members of support system help a child. Give students the opportunity to practise telling the puppet about a problem. Homework Students cut pictures from magazines in preparation for this activity. Evaluation Students can identify adults in helping professions who are a part of their support system.

The teacher might develop a rubric with the following criteria to assess students’ performance: A: The student will define a support system, identify a minimum of four adults in a support system, create stick puppets and actively participate in the explanation and/ play. B: The student will define a support system, identify a minimum of Three adults in a support system, create stick puppets and actively participate in the explanation and/ play. C: The student will not be able to define a support system, identify a minimum of One adult in a support system, create stick puppets, but will not participate in the explanation and/ play.

The student did not complete the assignment Rewriting Fairy tales Grade level: 3 -4 Learning objectives: Following this activity, students will be able to. Identify abusive and unsafe situations Formulate plans to make them safe Describe how to help a friend when he/ she is in an unsafe situation Say no! Get away! Tell someone! Time required: 30 minutes Materials: Grimm’s fairy tales (specifically Hansel and Gretel, Red Riding Hood and Rapunzel) Description of activity: Define the four forms of abuse: physical, sexual, emotional and neglect. Have each student read one fairy tale that depicts abuse.

Afterward, have the class discuss the fairy tales and the types of abuse depicted. Ask students what they would do in similar situations, whom they would tell, and what measures could have been taken to protect the children from abuse. Have students rewrite each fairy tale, eliminating the abuse and making the children safe. Homework Children read the fairy tale at home. They also could review old nursery rhymes to assess the different forms of abuse. Evaluation Students can identify adults in helping professions who are a part of their support system.

The teacher might develop a rubric with the following criteria to assess students’ performance: A: The student will define four forms of abuse, read one fairy-tale, and rewrite one fairy tale with an appropriate ending. Fairy tale will be grammatically correct. B: The student will define four forms of abuse, read one fairy-tale, and rewrite one fairy tale with an new ending. The assignment will have some grammatically/ spelling errors. C: The student will define two forms of abuse, read one fairy-tale, but will not be able to rewrite the story. D: The student did not complete the assignment

Children’s Bill of rights Grade level: 5-6 Learning objectives: Following this activity, students will be able to • • • • Define basic needs of all individuals and the specific needs of children Describe the responsibilities of parents. Describe what happens when needs are not met. List Children’s Rights and responsibilities. Time required: 30 minutes Materials: Copies of Children’s Rights, Butcher paper and pencils. Description of activity: This activity can be a cooperative effort with “Children’s Rights” written on the chalkboard, compiled by the students, or an independent writing assignment.

First, let the children read the bill of Rights and discuss it in class. Ask them to brainstorm the specific needs of children. Discussion must include issues of culture differences and special needs. I you have each child write his/her own “Children’s bill of Rights”. Homework Before the activity, students can read the bill of rights at home. Evaluation Students can identify adults in helping professions who are a part of their support system. The teacher might develop a rubric with the following criteria to assess students’ performance:

The student will read the bill of rights, actively participate in classroom discussions, and prepare a well- written Children’s bill of rights with a minimum of eight items. B: The student will read the bill of rights, participate in classroom discussions, and prepare a Children’s bill of rights with a minimum of six items. C: The student will read the bill of rights, participate in classroom discussions, and prepare a Children’s bill of rights with a minimum of four items. D: The student did not complete the assignment Section C What is stress? Stress is a normal, everyday occurrence.

It’s our body’s response to feeling afraid, overworked, overstimulated, threatened or excited. We tend to think of stress as a bad thing, but a certain amount of it actually helps us feel alert, energized and interested in life. However, too much stress, particularly when we don’t have any control over it, can make people unhappy and can interfere with their ability to respond to everyday tasks and challenges. Stress can also lead to health problems. Even very young children experience stress, and it’s important for adults to recognize and help children deal with it.

High levels of unrelieved stress can lead to behaviour problems and can interfere with a child’s ability to function normally. When we help children deal with stress, they begin to build coping skills they will need throughout life. Children can experience stress at home, in child care settings, or even in play with others. In the course of an average day, children experience stress when they have to wait, when they want something they can’t have, or when they lose or break one of their toys. Other common sources of a childs stress include: • early or rushed mornings, being hurried • exposure to new situations •

Too many expectations or demands • separation from parents • difficulties with peer friendships • fights or disagreements with siblings • transitioning from one activity or place to another • new beginnings such as starting kindergarten or child care • frequent change of caregivers. These experiences can be stressful, but they are also normal, preschool versions of the sorts of stressors children will face as adults. Learning how to deal with them – with our help – is the first step in developing coping skills. Helping children with “normal” stress Although we can begin to teach and model healthy coping strategies with children, the fact is, they can’t cope with stress on their own very well.

Parents have the ability to help their children deal with day-to-day stress using simple tools every day. It starts with three basics: helping children feel connected to parents and other caregivers, providing a stable and happy home environment, and comforting children when they are overloaded with stress. Connection: When children have secure relationships with their parents, they know that someone will be there to help them deal with their problems. Strong relationships also help children to trust and listen to the adult who is supporting them.

Home environment: Children can handle stress better when they have a healthy, balanced lifestyle with good food, lots of time for physical activity, play and relaxation, and daily routines that make their world feel predictable and safe. Comfort: In order for children to learn to comfort themselves, they first must know what it is like to be comforted. And honestly, one of the best stress-relieving tools you have is your body. Regardless of anything else you might say or do to help a stressed child, the comfort of physical contact is one of the best stress relievers there is.

In fact, research has shown that the positive brain stimulation children get from being touched in early childhood helps build the brain’s pathways that help people cope with stress. Dealing with stress It’s not always easy to tell when children are feeling stressed out, so you need to make an effort to understand what bothers and upsets your child. Don’t wait until you think your child is stressed to start thinking about it. When things are calm, encourage your child to describe his worries or fears. Listen very carefully and try not to interrupt or finish his sentences.

Take his worries or fears seriously, even if they seem silly. Help children find ways to reduce the feelings of stress by getting them involved in activities they enjoy such as playing with favourite toys, reading a book, cuddling with a stuffed animal or stomping on a rug. Even very young children can start to learn relaxation and stress-reducing techniques such as deep breathing. One way to encourage deep breathing in children is to get them to breathe in through their nose and slowly out through their mouth. Ask them to pretend they are blowing up a balloon inside their tummy and then blow the air out through their mouth.

Do this with them. You can also do this yourself to calm down in stressful moments. Your children will learn by watching you. Another fun way to encourage deep breathing is by blowing bubbles. This activity has been used in hospitals to help children cope with stressful illnesses and treatments. No technique will work all of the time. But if something is bothering your child and you’re not sure what it is, it never hurts to go back to the basics.

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