Human Rights Law
The steps need to be followed to strategise printing business unit in its competitive environment:- a)Planning for a brighter future starts with analyzing inner strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Internal evaluation coupled with an environmental scan of the competitive landscape. b)Differentiate your firm – It’s all about creating a unique value proposition. Start with your SWOT analysis. Everything is fair game (e. g. technology, experience, certifications, commendations, price, value, etc. ).
Invest in technology – Examples would include Web software that would allow customers to place and track orders, ERP suites, HR software applications, and other industry-specific technology. d)Identify new markets – Typically the more avenues of distribution you have, the better off you are. If, for example, you cater to the commercial market, consider the government space or even the aerospace and the aircraft sectors. e)Enhance your Website – Your Website should be optimized so that it becomes a powerful Internet marketing platform for generating sales leads contributing to both short and long-term growth of sales.
Invest in Training – Great companies realize the value of their employees and staff development. Don’t wait for the upturn to focus on training. Trained employees are more confident, productive and resilient. g)Forge strategic alliances – Understand your core competencies, know what customers are looking for, and forge strategic partnerships to shore up your product and service portfolios. h)Trim costs surgically – Across the board cost cutting is risky at best. Analyze expenses with your key staff, one line item at a time. This way you can make strategic cuts, one cut at a time. And most importantly should be the last resor.
Optimize your advertising effort – Go beyond traditional print advertising in trade journals and other publications. Be creative and don’t discount using Web-based technology (e. g. pay-per-click advertising). And be sure to track the ROI for each activity to make your money count. j)Build a strong sales force – Develop a unified sales team focused on customer needs and expectations. Indeed, your sales representatives should become business partners to your customers. Following are main items of printing business:- •Banners, Booklets, Bookmark, Brochures and catalogs. •Business Cards, Calendars •Carbonless Forms
The commercial printing industry is shifting to faster production of smaller order quantities with more color, the major benefit of digital printing over offset and other printing methods. While digital inkjet printers began at the small end of printers, technology is increasingly able to make digital printers with greater capacity. Operations & Technology A typical commercial printer has different presses and binding equipment available to work on various types of jobs. The main printing process used is offset lithography, using either individual sheets (sheet fed presses) or continuous rolls of paper (web presses).
Sheet fed presses print up to 16 pages of letter-sized product (a 16 page “signature”) at a time, at speeds up to 15,000 impressions per hour. Web presses print 32 pages at a time at speeds over 40,000 impressions per hour, and are usually used for production runs of more than 50,000 copies. Presses usually print in one, two, four, or six colors; some presses can print eight. Digital presses are still used primarily in specialty applications. Paper is the biggest individual manufacturing cost, often amounting to 25 percent of revenues.
Printing papers are often coated, and are bought in sheets or rolls from distributors. Some customers provide their own paper, but most is bought for customers, with a modest price markup. Paper prices can vary significantly from year to year. Digital technology is changing the competitive landscape of the commercial printing market. Prices for digital color pages are falling below offset printing prices and companies who fall behind in the shift to digital printing are at risk. Sales & Marketing The largest single market for printing services is advertising, for newspaper inserts, magazines, and direct mail materials.
Although some work may be done regularly for large customers under long-term contracts (magazines, product catalogs, and phone books), most is on a project basis, often after a bidding process. Work may be episodic and many printers keep extra presses to meet anticipated peak demands. Marketing is usually done by a traditional sales force calling on potential customers. Commercial printing is a local business. Small printers can compete effectively with large ones because the small size and high variability of most printing jobs means that few economies are achieved by having larger presses.
The high degree of personal attention that most print jobs require, such as client approvals of proofs and “press checks” during actual printing, means that customers prefer to use a local printer. Price is often a secondary consideration to quality and timeliness. Some types of printing, such as magazines and catalogs with large print runs, are more effectively handled by large printers. Innovation Coming up with innovative marketing strategies to market your business, does not have to be difficult.
There are a number of paths that one can follow, which can be highly successful, to help you create marketing approach that fits one’s needs and budget. Rather than slide into the busy fourth quarter with the same old marketing bag of tricks, you can get a jump on your competitors by embracing new tactics for increasing leads and sales. Always be alert to new opportunities, ideas, to market your business. An example is you can give direct access to your regular customers through internet by remote printing software giving them a unique id account so that they can directly send the files to the work station.
Finance Commercial printers generally keep low material inventories and don’t require inventory financing. Receivables are generally collected within 60 days, and are sometimes financed. Equipment is often financed, or is leased. Presses have become more expensive, though more versatile, because of computerised controls and enhancements. Some printers have difficulty maintaining adequate workplace air quality standards, and emit pollutants into the air, mainly because of solvents in ink and the solvents used to clean ink from printing plates.
Some printers also generate toxic wastes because of inks and solvents. Workplace safety may also be a problem, although the illness and injury rate has decreased rapidly in the past decade. Human Resources Production personnel in commercial printing plants include employees with special skills in operating complicated machines, Computer operators, Graphic Designers, Creative Designers, and lower-paid, relatively unskilled workers. The number of people employed in commercial printing has been declining in the last five years, as more of the work has become automated.
The industry’s annual injury rate is comparable to the national average for all industries. Competitive Advantage A competitive advantage is one gained over competitors by offering consumers better value. You increase value by lowering prices or increasing benefits and services to justify the higher price. Differentiation and cost leadership strategies search for competitive advantage on a broad scale, while focus strategies work in a narrow market. Sometimes, businesses look for a combination strategy to please customers looking for multiple factors such as quality, style, convenience and price.
Cost Leadership Strategy To practice cost leadership, organizations compete for the largest number of customers through price. Cost leadership works well when the goods or services are standardized. That way, the company can sell generic acceptable goods at the lowest prices. They can minimize costs to the company in order to minimize costs to the customer without decreasing profits. A company either sells its goods at average industry prices to earn higher profits than its competitors or it sells at below-industry prices, trying to profit by gaining the market share.
Wal-Mart is an example of a company with a cost leadership strategy. Differentiation Strategy Differentiation strategy calls for a company to provide a product or service with distinctive qualities valued by customers. You draw customers because you set yourself apart from the competition. To succeed at this strategy, your business should have access to leading scientific research (or perform this research); a highly skilled and creative product development team; a strong sales and marketing team; and a corporate reputation for quality and innovation. Apple, for example, uses differentiation strategy.
Focus Strategy Focus strategy is just what it sounds like: concentrate on a particular customer, product line, geographical area, market niche, etc. The idea is to serve a limited group of customers better than your competitors who serve a broader range of customers. A focus strategy works well for small but aggressive businesses. Specifically, companies that do not have the ability or resources to engage in a nationwide marketing effort will benefit from a focus strategy. Focus can be based on cost or differentiation strategy. It involves focusing the cost leadership or differentiation on a small scale.
The idea is to make your company stand out within a specific market sector. Integrated Cost Leadership-Differentiation Strategy Companies that integrate strategies rather than relying on a single generic strategy are able to adapt quickly and learn new technologies. The products produced under the integrated cost leadership-differentiation strategy are less distinctive than differentiators and costs are not as low as the cost-leader, but they combine the advantages of both approaches. A somewhat distinctive product that is mid-range-priced can be a bigger draw to customers than a cheap generic product or an expensive special one.
What are your perceptions on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? Would you like to amend any of the articles or add a new article to the declaration? Human rights are international norms that help to protect all people every where from severe political, legal and social abuse. Example of human rights are the right to freedom of religion, the right to a fair trail when charged with a crime, the right not to ne tortured, and the right to engage in political activity. These rights exist in morality and in law at the national and international levels.
They are addressed primarily to governments, requiring compliance and enforcement. The main sources of the contemporary conception of human rights are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, 1948b) and the many human rights documents and treaties that followed in international organizations such as the United Nation, the Council of Europe, the Organization of America States, and the African Union 1. The General Idea of Human Rights- The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) sets out a list of over two dozen specific human rights that countries should respect and protect.
These specific rights can be divided into six or more families: security rights that protect people against crimes such as murder, massacre, torture, and rape; due process rights that protect against abuses of the legal system such as imprisonment without trial, secret trial, and excessive punishment; liberty that protect freedoms in area such as belief, expression, association, assembly, and movement; political rights that protect the liberty to participate in politics through action such as communicating, assembling, protesting, voting, and serving in public office; equality rights that guarantee equal citizenship, equality before the law, and nondiscrimination; and social rights that require provision of education to all children and protections against severe poverty and starvation. a)Human Rights are political norms dealing mainly with how people should be treated by their government and institutions. b)Human rights exist as moral and /or legal rights c)Human rights are numerous (several dozen) rather then few. They presuppose criminal trials, governments funded by income taxes, and formal systems of education. d)Human rights are minimal standard. They are concern with avoiding the terrible rather than with achieving the best.
Human rights are international norms covering all countries and all people living today. f)Human rights are high-priority norms. g)Human rights require robust justification that apply everywhere and support their high priority. h)Human rights are rights, but not necessarily in strict sense. As rights they have several features. One is that they have right holders and another feature of rights is that they focus on a freedom, protection, status, or benefit for the right holders (Brandt 1983, 44) 2. The Existence of Human Rights- The most obvious way in which human right exist is the as norms of national and international law created by enactment and judicial decision.
At the international level, human rights norms exist because of treaties that have turned them into international law. At the national level, human rights norms exist because they have through legislative enactment, judicial decision, or custom become part of a country’s law. When rights are embedded in international law we speak of them as human rights; but when they are enacted in national law we more frequently describe them as civil or constitutional rights. As this illustrates, it is possible for a right to exist within more than one normative system at the same time. Enactment in national and international law is one of the ways in which human rights exist. But many have suggested that this is not the only way.
If human rights exist only because of enactment, their availability is contingent on domestic and international political development. Many people have sought to find a way to support the idea that human rights have roots that are deeper and less subject to human decision than legal enactment. 3. Which Rights are Human Rights- Not every question of social justice or wise governance is a human rights issue. For example, a country could have too much income inequality, inadequate provision for higher education, or no national parks without violating any human rights. Deciding which norms should be counted as human rights is a matter of some difficulty. And there is continuing pressure to example lists of human rights to include new areas.
Many political movements would like to see their main concerns categorized as matters of human rights, since this would publicize, promote, and legitimate their concerns at the international level. A possible result of this is “Human rights inflation” the devaluation of human rights caused by producing too much bad human rights currency (Cranston 1973, Orend 2002, Wellman 1999, Griffin 2001b). a) Civil Politics Rights- These rights are familiar from historic bills of rights such as the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789) and the U. S. Bill of Rights (1791, with subsequent amendments) b) Social Rights- Beside the civil and political rights discussed, the Universal Declaration includes social (or welfare) rights.
These include equality and nondiscrimination for women and minorities, access to employment opportunities, fair pay, safe and healthy working condition, the right to form trade unions and bargain collectively, social security, an adequate standard of living (covering adequate food, clothing, and housing), health care and education. c) Minority and Group Rights- Concern for the equal rights of woman and minorities is a longstanding concern of the human rights movement. Human rights documents emphasize that all people, including women and members of minority ethnic and religious group, have the same basic rights and should be able to enjoy them without discrimination. The right to freedom from discrimination figures prominently in the Universal Declaration and subsequent treaties. d) Environment Rights- Considering Environmental Rights which are often defined as rights of animals or of it.
Conceived in this way they do not fit our general idea of human rights because the right holders are not human groups. But more modest formulations are possible; environment rights can be understood as rights to an environment that is healthy and safe. Such a right is human-oriented: it does not cover directly issues such as the claims of animals, biodiversity, or sustainable development. 4. Are Social Rights Genuine Human Rights- The Universal Declaration included social (or “welfare”) rights that addressed matters such as education, food, and employment. Their inclusion has been the source of much controversy (Beetham 1995). Social rights are often alleged to be statements of desirable goals but not really rights.
The European Convention did not including them (although it was later amended to include the rights to education). Instead they were put a separate treaty, the European Social Charter. When the United Nations began the process of putting the rights of the Universal Declaration into international law, it followed the model of the European system by treating economic and social standards in a treaty separation from the one dealing with civil and political rights. This treaty, the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (the “Social Covenant” 1966), treated these standard as rights albeit rights to be progressively realized.
A Human Rights treaty usually contains three parts- •A list of rights. •A specification of what the parties are regards to this list. •A system to monitor and promote compliance with the agreement. 5. International Human Rights Law And Organization- International law now contains many functioning human rights treaties. A number of them have been ratified by more than three-quarters of the world’s countries. This section sketches the development of international measures to promote and protect human rights. The efforts to protect human rights through international treaties began in 1919 in the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Organization of American States, and the African Union.
The international promotion and protection of human rights complements the legal protection of human rights at the national level a) Historical Overview: When a government violates the human rights of its residents they able to appeal to the country’s laws or bill of rights and get a court to order that the violations stop and that the government provide remedies. b) United Nations Human Rights Treaties- The First United Nations treaty was the Genocide Convention, approved in 1948-just one day before the Universal Declaration. c) Other United nations Human Rights Agencies- The UN has several agencies and court, independent of its human rights treaties, to address continuing human rights abuses.
Three notable agencies are the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), which serve as a full time advocate for Human Rights with in the United Nations. •The High Commissioner for Human Rights. •The Human Rights Council. •The Security Council. d)Regional Human Rights Systems-Regional agreements supplements the UN system by promoting and protecting Human Rights in particular part of the world. Three regions-Europe, The America, and Africa- have formulated their own declaration and conventions for the protection and enforcement of human rights. •The European System. •The Inter American System. •The African System •Other Region of the world has yet to establish transnational human rights system. No region system exists in Asia.
The International Criminal Court (ICC) is designed to prevent impunity for human rights crimes, genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. •Promotion of Human Rights By States Means of promotional international human rights include incorporating international norms into a state’s constitutions and criminal law; creating limits on federalism, such as subordinating localities to the federal government; and promoting human rights through propaganda and education. •Non Governmental Organizational-Non governmental organizational such as Human Rights Watch and Doctors without Borders are extremely active at the international level in the area of human rights, war crimes, and humanitarian aid.
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) allow for collaborations between local and global efforts for human rights by “translating complex international issues into activities to be undertaken by concerned citizens in their own community” (Durham 2004). •The Future of Human Rights Law Success in promoting human rights requires hard to achieve success in other areas including building more capable, responsive, efficient, and non corrupt government, dealing with failed states, increasing economic productivity ( to pay for the protections and service that human rights require), improving the power and status of women, improving education, and managing international tensions and conflicts.
Realizing human rights worldwide is a project for centuries, not decades. Still, there are some grounds for optimism. Human rights are more widely accepted then they have ever been. They have become part of the currency of international relations, and most countries participate in the human rights system. Treaty arrangements help encourage and pressure countries to deal with their human rights problems. The human rights project continues and has not failed. An article of Human Rights Declaration Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood Article 2.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it is independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Article 3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. Article 5.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article 6. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. Article 7. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. Article 8. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. Article 9. One shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile Article 10.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. Article 11. (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defense. (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed Article 12. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, or to attacks upon his honor and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. Article 13. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. Article 14. (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations Article 15. (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality. Article 16. (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. Article 17. (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. Article 18.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. Article 19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. Article 20. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association. Article 21. (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.