Hybridoma Technology – A Biotechnology Technique Introduction: Hybridoma technology is used to produce a hybrid cell. These hybrid cells are produced by fusing B-lymphocyte with tumour cell and they are called as myeloma cells. Thus these hybrid cells have got the ability to produce antibodies due to the B-lymphocyte genetic material and also capacity to divide indefinitely in the culture due to the presence of tumour cell or myeloma cells involved in the production of hybrid cells.
Therefore, these hybrid cells produced from hybridoma technology are cultured in laboratory or passaged or sub cultured using mouse peritoneal cavity and these cells produces monoclonal antibodies, and this technology is called as hybridoma technology. Hybridoma technology was first discovered by G. Kohler and C. Milstein during 1975. They were also awarded Nobel Prize along with N. Jeme in Physiology and Medicine field during 1984. B-lymphocytes are pre-programmed to respond to a single type of antigen or antigenic determinant, therefore they produce single type of antibody specific to the specific antigen.
When an antigen reacts with B-lymphocyte receptors, lymphocytes divide rapidly and produce a clone of B cells, all these B cells produce antibodies against that specific antigen and this is called as clonal selection. That is B-lymphocytes produce only one type of antibodies which are specific to only one type of antigen or antigenic determinant. But fully differentiated antibody producing B-lymphocyte cells known as plasma cells does not divide when cultured in a laboratory.
Procedure of Hybridoma Technology: 1. B-lymphocytes are extracted from the spleen of an animal, but usually it is extracted from the mouse, which has been immunized with the required antigen against which monoclonal antibodies are produced. Mouse is immunized by giving antigen injection along with an adjuvant via subcutaneously or by peritoneal cavity; this is followed by booster doses of the antigen. Adjuvant is nonantigenic in nature but they stimulate the immune system.