Hypertensive Heart Disease
Patient Information: The patient, Fred Jones, living in Florida, the USA, has suffered hypertensive heart disease during seven years and died at the age of 64.
The hypertensive heart disease represents the pathology of the cardiovascular apparatus, which is developed as a result of the dysfunction of the other body essential systems (“Hypertensive Heart Disease,” 2016). The cause is the increased blood pressure that appears on a regular basis. This chronic condition may be provoked by the disorders in higher vascular regulation centers, renal functions, or neurohumoral mechanisms. These dysfunctions lead to critical changes in the cardiovascular system, nervous system, and kidneys. In the patient’s case, the disease has developed over the last seven years. Being at the age belonging to the risk group, the patient experienced frequent cases of elevated blood pressure, which was caused by the chronic kidney dysfunction. Kidneys failed to filter fluid that led to hypertension. Besides that, the improper following of the prescribed diet can also be the cause that contributed to the rapid and fatal development of the disease.
It is suggested that the early period of the disease took place without any symptoms, and the first signs appeared at the age of 57 when the patient started experiencing headaches and dyspnea. Then, after several months, the patient visited a doctor, who measured blood pressure by a sphygmomanometer. It displayed 127 mmHg of systolic blood pressure and 79 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure. The usual patient’s measurements were 115-120 mmHg (systolic blood pressure) and 65-75 mmHg (diastolic blood pressure). Thus, the first increased measurement showed elevated blood pressure. After that, the patient was observed by his doctor during the next two years, and the elevated blood pressure became his chronic condition showing the increased numbers of blood pressure. Along with that, the patient suffered from regular headaches, dyspnea, and chest pain. During the next three years, the patient’s pressure raised to 140/90 mmHg. During the last two years, the disease developed rapidly to the second stage and then to the third stage, when the patient’s blood pressure grew to 185/121 mmHg, and then to 210/127 mmHg correspondingly. At the second stage, the analysis showed the increase in creatine in blood plasma and augmentation of the left ventricle. During the last stage, the patient experienced severe visual impairment and several times overcame the hypertension crises. The last case occurred to be the fatal one.
The patient was diagnosed with hypertensive blood disease caused by renal hypertension. The increased blood pressure was provoked by chronic kidney dysfunction and, as a result, the disruption of the circulatory function (“High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease,” 2014). The diagnosis was made by the control of the blood pressure and its regular measurements along with the analysis for creatine and urea for the control of kidney functions.
As the primary cause of the increased blood pressure was kidney failure, the main treatment was aimed at regulating the function of kidneys and following the special diet, which is essential when a patient experiences kidney dysfunction. The diet included less intake of salt, alcohol, eating less animal fat and consuming more fresh vegetables and fruits. It was also recommended to have moderate-sized potions of food. The patient was also directed to have a regular annual course in the specialized sanatorium. However, the latter recommendation was ignored by the patient. Also, the drugs, namely loop diuretics, were prescribed to regulate the renal function. For the normalization of blood pressure, thiazide diuretics and adrenoblockers were assigned.
At the early stages of the disease, it was prognosed that the patient’s state is not likely to become worse if he follows the diet and the prescribed treatment regularly. However, after the first two years of the disease, when it progressed quickly and irreversibly, the main objectives of the treatment was to support the patient’s life at the appropriate level and improve his quality of life. Surgical intervention was possible; however, the patient refused to make any operations.