Describe the evolutionary process of organization design and different perspectives of organization design and their relevance. Q. Explain the meaning and purpose of Job design and briefly discuss the impact technology has on Job design. Q. Discuss the purpose of organizational analysis and briefly describe the tools which could be used for organizational analysis and their effectiveness. Q. Identify different kinds of change which take place in organization and strategies which are used for change and their effectiveness.

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Discuss how resistance to change can be handled before implementing it. Give examples. Q. Discuss the process of institution building and the role of chief executive in institution building with an example. 1. Organization design-A process for improving the probability that an organization will be successful. More specifically, Organization Design is a formal, guided process for integrating the people, information and technology of an organization. It is used to match the form of the organization as closely as possible to the purpose(s) the organization seeks to achieve.

Through the design process, organizations act to improve the probability that the collective efforts of members will be successful. Typically, design is approached as an internal change under the guidance of an external facilitator. Managers and members work together to define the needs of the organization then create systems to meet those needs most effectively. The facilitator assures that a systematic process is followed and encourages creative thinking. Hierarchical Systems

Western organizations have been heavily influenced by the command and control structure of ancient military organizations, and by the turn of the century introduction of Scientific Management. Most organizations today are designed as a bureaucracy in which authority and responsibility are arranged in a hierarchy. Within the hierarchy rules, policies, and procedures are uniformly and impersonally applied to exert control over member behaviors. Activity is organized within sub-units (bureaus, or departments) in which people perform specialized functions such as manufacturing, sales, or accounting.

People who perform similar tasks are clustered together. The same basic organizational form is assumed to be appropriate for any organization, be it a government, school, business,

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church, or fraternity. It is familiar, predictable, and rational. It is what comes immediately to mind when we discover that … we really have to get organized! As familiar and rational as the functional hierarchy may be, there are distinct disadvantages to blindly applying the same form of organization to all purposeful groups. To understand the problem, begin by observing that different groups wish to achieve different outcomes.

Second, observe that different groups have different members, and that each group possesses a different culture. These differences in desired outcomes, and in people, should alert us to the danger of assuming there is any single best way of organizing. To be complete, however, also observe that different groups will likely choose different methods through which they will achieve their purpose. Service groups will choose different methods than manufacturing groups, and both will choose different methods than groups whose purpose is primarily social.

One structure cannot possibly fit all. , the form of organization must be matched to the purpose it seeks to achieve. The Design Process Organization design begins with the creation of a strategy — a set of decision guidelines by which members will choose appropriate actions. The strategy is derived from clear, concise statements of purpose, and vision, and from the organization’s basic philosophy. Strategy unifies the intent of the organization and focuses members toward actions designed to accomplish desired outcomes.

The strategy encourages actions that support the purpose and discourages those that do not. Creating a strategy is planning, not organizing. To organize we must connect people with each other in meaningful and purposeful ways. Further, we must connect people with the information and technology necessary for them to be successful. Organization structure defines the formal relationships among people and specifies both their roles and their responsibilities. Administrative systems govern the organization through guidelines, procedures and policies.

Information and technology define the process(es) through which members achieve outcomes. Each element must support each of the others and together they must support the organization’s purpose. Exercising Choice Organizations are an invention of man. They are contrived social systems through which groups seek to exert influence or achieve a stated purpose. People choose to organize when they recognize that by acting alone they are limited in their ability to achieve. We sense that by acting in concert we may overcome our individual limitations.

When we organize we seek to direct, or pattern, the activities of a group of people toward a common outcome. How this pattern is designed and implemented greatly influences effectiveness. Patterns of activity that are complementary and interdependent are more likely to result in the achievement of intended outcomes. In contrast, activity patterns that are unrelated and independent are more likely to produce unpredictable, and often unintended results. The process of organization design matches people, information, and technology to the purpose, vision, and strategy of the organization.

Structure is designed to enhance communication and information flow among people. Systems are designed to encourage individual responsibility and decision making. Technology is used to enhance human capabilities to accomplish meaningful work. The end product is an integrated system of people and resources, tailored to the specific direction of the organization. 2. Job design refers to the way that a set of tasks, or an entire job, is organized. Job design helps to determine: • What tasks are done? • How the tasks are done, • how many tasks are done, and • in what order the tasks are done.

It takes into account all factors which affect the work, and organizes the content and tasks so that the whole job is less likely to be a risk to the employee. Job design involves administrative areas such as: • job rotation, • job enlargement, • task/machine pacing, • work breaks, and • Working hours. A well designed job will encourage a variety of ‘good’ body positions, have reasonable strength requirements, require a reasonable amount of mental activity, and help foster feelings of achievement and self-esteem. 3. Organizational analysis may be done for different purposes.

These include: 1) Enhancing the general understanding of the functioning of Organizations (i. e. educational or research purposes. ) (The direct beneficiary is the researcher or the analyst rather than the Organization). Such a study may aim at enhancing the understanding of human behaviour through a study of it in organisation, or to enhance the understanding of the society as reflected in organisational life. 2) Planning for growth and diversification An analysis or a diagostic study may be necessary for planning growth, diversification, expansion etc.

Organisational analysis may reveal the strengths that could be used for growth and diversification, weak spots that need to be removed in the new plans, the precautions to be taken, structural dimensions to be kept in mind etc. Several insights may be provided on structure, people, systems, styles, technology etc. that have implications for growth. 3) Improving Organisational Effectiveness or Planning General Improvements Organisational Analysis may be used also for improving the general efficiency of an organisation.

On the basis of a diagnosis made out of the analysis action steps could be initiated in terms of toning up administration, introducing new management systems and processes, reduction of wasteful expenditure, introduction of time savers, change of personnel policies to enhance employee motivation, restructuring of some parts, training, elimination of unwanted structures and teasers, improvements in general health of the organisation etc. 4) Organisational Problem Solving Whenever some subsystems departments, units etc.fall sick or start creating problems a diagnosis may be undertaken with a view to identify the source of the problem and take corrective action. A sick unit, a bottleneck, a communication block, a poor performing department, frequently occurring conflict between two departments, repeated failures of a management system or an organisational process, a frequent violation of an organisational norm, fall in discipline, reduction in output absenteeism, increase in conflicts etc. can all lead to the need for an organisational diagnosis of a part of the organisatioin or the entire organisation. tools of organisational analysis

Observation represents the careful and planned method of recording certain phenomena, objects, events in conjunction with a given situation. Constantinescu, etc. (2008) considers it necessary, within the organisation, to focus on observing the interaction between employees, in order to find answers to questions such as: What is the working pace of the employees – slow, methodical, alert, spontaneous? What rituals do you notice in the enterprise? What are the values disseminated? Do the meetings generally provide revealing information? Who participates in these meetings? Who speaks? Whom do these people speak to?

To what extent is sincerity situated in these meetings? How much time is devoted to different topics? The topics which often recur and which are discussed in depth frequently represent indications of the organisational culture values. Observations are used for gathering data on the symbols which are analyzed by the qualitative analysis methods. Observations include mostly behavioural material, but also semantic symbols. Observations of behavioural symbols include monitoring and recording the organizational rituals, such as, for example, the celebration of company day as a ritual of integration.

There will also be careful attention focused on the state and architecture of the buildings, decor, billboards, staff dress code, behaviour and habits, working environment, the way in which everyone fulfils their role, employee behaviour in conflict situations. The analysis of these aspects allows knowing the reality, the working environment, both the organisation’s physical components and the emotional, psychological elements, harder to decipher at first glance. The opinion interview technique always involves oral information, having the advantage of flexibility, of the ability to get specific answers to each question.

Along with the use of the questionnaire, it is one of the techniques most often used in qualitative research. The interview is, however, a complex technique that requires certain abilities and skills from the researcher, especially social, communication and self-reflection skills. The interview is used in the study of organisational culture to collect qualitative data about the cognitive elements of the culture, such as assumptions, values, norms and attitudes. Interviews may also serve to identify symbols, certain expressions, stories, anecdotes specific to the organisation.

“To successfully use the interview in organisational culture research, it is important to determine the persons that will be interviewed, when, where and how the interview will be conducted, the set of questions that will be used and the method of recording it” (Janicijevic, 2011 , p 85). Interviews help us perceive the consistency between what the interviewees say and the facts recorded from other sources. ” These perceptions are generally useful for: · defining an updated vision of the history, the important events and its impact on the functioning of the organisation;

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