Impact of advertisments on consumer
Being part of marketing process, advertising is nowadays rampant in every organization. In order for an organization to be successful, major chunks of their capital have to be invested in making advertisements. No company can become a market leader if they do not invest a lot in their promotion (Hussainy et al., 2008). The fact cannot be denied of advertising, being taken as another effective approach towards gaining competitive advantage. Media and papers are flooded with numerous advertising concepts about its essential role in creating the image of the product in the mind of consumers. The fact remains that advertising is one best approach among all marketing efforts (Katke, 2007).
Marketing is used to make customers aware of your products and services and is a promotional tool. This tool is used for the need to communicate end users. History shows that different symbols were used for the awareness and promotion of products but its different in the modern world .It has been found that applying marketing and its strategies result not only in gaining consumers trust but also, the organization enjoys advantages of market share. Before actually advertising their advertisements, marketers must need to have a know how about the buying behavior of customers for having positive impact on their target audience. The aim of analyzing consumer behavior is to know about those factors which influence customers in specific situations for example in monetary aspect (Ayanwale et al., 2005).
It is therefore important on part of the marketer to understand the needs of consumers, their target audience, likes and dislikes of consumers and time slot for which the advertisement will be on aired, while creating any advertisement. Advertisements must be attractive enough to let consumer not only identify the product but also retain it in their mind. The advertisements have an impact on thought, assessment and purchases (Romaniuk and Sharp, 2004). It is not important that if any consumer watches any advertisement he will go and buy it immediately but what actually important is that the consumer definitely considers that brand before purchasing the product.
Advertising does the role of reminding consumers of the brand as it is only through advertisements that the consumers are able to connect with the organization. Hierarchy-of-effects model says that affect of advertising results in the recognition of brand and the advertisement, which results in formation of attitude towards the advertisement and brand ultimately leading to buying decision (Mendelson and Bolls, 2002). Effect of advertising on consumers according to Will Rogers: “Advertising is the art of convincing people to spend money they don’t have for something they don’t need” Objective of our research:
The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of advertisement on consumer brand choices. The result of this study will be addition of new information in our current marketing knowledge. Literature review:
For achieving success, organizations nowadays, search for number of options. In order to gain competitive advantage companies are not only using research and development but are also training people and using various technologies. In order to keep the loyalty of the consumer, organizations view simple marketing concept as a valuable approach. Advertising is therefore thought to be the leading weapon to beat competitors in the modern world.
Philip Kotler (1988) views Advertising as:
“It consist of non personal form of communication conducted through paid media under clear sponsorship” Advertising acts as a link between a person who has something to offer and the other one who buys it. It also helps sellers reach customers with the information which ought to be provided (Sakren, 1990). Advertising gives the knowledge about the product and develops ideas about the product in consumers mind (Morden, 1991).Both the authors are therefore of the view that Advertisement is a major source for consumer to get detailed information about the product but it is not necessary that every product needs to get advertised , as is the case with many such products like Mercedes, Rolls Royce, who have sufficient confidence that consumers are well aware of their products. Advertising has influenced our lives since its beginning and has had always been a great influence on the buying patterns of the consumers (Wright, Warner & winter, 1971; Wells, Burnett & Moriarty 1995; Jugneheimer & Whiet 1980).
Advertising aims towards maintaining positive response towards advertisement and the brand till customer buys that product and through this constructive response developing an emotional attitude in consumers mind. Advertisements should be aimed to develop a positive feeling because positive feelings towards advertisement help customers in remembering the product in contrast with those advertisements creating negative feelings. (Goldsmith and Lafferty,2002) .Positive feeling about the product may attract the consumer once but if it’s inferior quality disappoints him ,no matter how much positive feeling there is for the ad ,consumer won’t buy the product again.
Therefore, for long term relationship, effective advertisement and good quality should move side by side. Advertising aims at building satisfaction in consumers’ minds. It makes consumers aware of their needs and wants and through that, present them with the available products which would satisfy them, tell them ways of how to spend their money and leave it on their will to buy or not buy the offer (Kotler, 1993).Kotler has been clear in defining the responsibility of marketing team to provide accurate and detailed information in a catchy way and make consumers realize that this is what they want. Consumer buying behavior:
Research claims that personality is a key factor effecting consumer buying behavior. (Engel, Blackwell & Miniard, 1986). . The audience must get what the advertiser has in his mind. This would prove the advertisement to be a success and would lead the consumer in buying a product (Clow & Back, 2002). Arens (1996) comments about advertisements to be extremely informative as they inform the customers about the features and attributes of product which ultimately results in the formation of rational brand preference of consumer toward the product.
Advertisers’ foremost aim is to reach their target audience in order to attract them in lieu of which they spend a lot of money. To achieve this goal marketers need to understand consumer behavior which involves understanding all the mental and emotional processes of the people who buy goods and services to fulfill their needs and wants. Understanding Consumer buying behavior is a key towards a successful advertisement campaign as has been well said by Arens. Understanding the consumer buying behavior would involve a deep study of consumer psychological processes and the eight stages of their buying decision process. Goldsmith and Lafferty (2002) illustrate that consumers will purchase the product only when they watch an advertisement and develop a likeness for it. Caciappo, Haughtveat and Petty (1992) point out that consumers not only themselves get influenced by the advertisements but also they have an impact on their friends , spouse and relatives.
Goldsmith and lafferty, unlike Caciappo, Haughtveat et al. believe that advertisements are the only source to get information about the product . In contrast, the other three also support word of mouth acquired from friend and relatives. Rook (1987) aptly describe consumers’ buying decisions are solely based on ease rather than ways that are most favorable and they intend to find ways that would be easier rather than complications of buying process. Effects of advertising on buying behavior:
Russell and Lane (1996) observe that numerous organizations believe advertisements to be a magic as they modify consumer behavior about the product in the market. Marketing activities affect consumer behavior both internally and externally. Consumers’ perceptions are strongly influenced by their continuous disclosure to advertisements (Bergh, Bruce & Katz, 1999). Advertising has great affects on the buying decisions of the customers. They affect consumers’ knowledge by giving out information and portraying personality and life style of consumers (David, 2001). Another source tells us that Radio commercials play an important part in affecting listeners’ interest on products and Services (Rajagopal, 2011) .However in current times we see that radio advertisements prove not to be that effective as this media is not exposed to much of the consumers. According to the above school of thoughts, advertisements provide information which may be of use for the end users, but in actual they only provide that portion of information which somehow benefits them and the rest of it remains hidden.
Advertisements as an effective emotional influencer:
Hsu and Mo, (2009) found this out, that when involvement was increased, consumers’ attention towards the advertisements that were related to the products’, also increased. There is a positive relation between frequency of advertisements shown and emotional responses of consumers (Bezijian et al., 2008) .In contrast Brassington and Pettitt, (2001) views are: For the consumer to develop an emotional response towards the product it is important that the advertising is equally emotional. According to Carrigan and Attala (2001), advertisements that are made in accordance with the social and environmental conditions result in the increase of buyers’ demand for products. Advertisements may act as a stimulus for consumers who may or may not purchase the product in response to it. Stimulus could be either the four P’s that is product, price, place or promotion or it could be economical, technological etc. buyers may also have an internal stimulus which might be occupation, personality etc.
All these stimuli have great effects on consumers’ buying decisions (Kollat and Willett, 1967). It has been rightly viewed by Kollat and Willett that economic and technological conditions do have an impact on buying decisions of consumers. For instance, the new technology has left behind with it, radio and news paper. As from the economic perspective, we see that consumers nowadays do not respond to tourism advertisement because due to current recession people cannot afford such leisure activities. Advertisements may not always result in the purchase of a certain product for instance, a viewer might watch the advertisement and make a decision not to buy a snowmobile but rather learn from the advertisement that snowmobile is a fun thing to do and is a socially approved amusement.(Anonoymus,1978). This might not result in the purchase of snowmobile by himself but his positive word of mouth may get others to buy the product. Negative approach of advertisers:
A report suggests that various advertising methods including behavioural advertising, profiling, geolocalization, mobile phone advertisements and various other advertisements on social networking sites are an ‘ATTACK’ on the privacy of consumers unless consumers have consented to on it. (Anonymous, 2010). This phenomenon is observed in the current times as many private companies buy highly confidential information(mobile numbers, addresses) in return for little amount of money from banks or cellular companies. The purpose of television product advertisements is to induce a purchase.
But, in thirty seconds of sight and sound, each advertisement conveys numerous messages which may extend far beyond the product impacting moral values and wishes of one’s’ society. Some may even mislead on vital purchasing decisions. (Anonoymus, 1978). This view carries weight as it can be clearly observed in Pakistani Detergent advertisements which are encouraging children to get themselves muddy by portraying that dirt is good.
How advertisements make audience develop inferiority complex: A recent study has found out that advertisers’ use of extra ordinarily attractive males and females in their ads make women and men alike feel inferior and old for which they try hard to look and appear as good as those portrayed in the magazines and ads. This greatly affects their buying patterns (Hawkins, Best, Coney 1998). The above thoughts are utterly in compliance with the current times. Nowadays, people not only observe the models using the specific product in the advertisement but they actually believe that their lives can be revolutionized by using that product which sometimes adversely affects their mental and family status. Effective advertisements are:
Belch & Belch (1998) illustrate that advertisements that are effectively communicated, guide the customer in the direction of the purchasing of brand. Bucklin, Randolph and Lattin (1991) claim that good brand advertisements attract customers who then as a result do their shopping in accordance with these brand advertisements. The effective advertising campaign of leading retail companies show that advertisements produce sizeable excitement among consumers and increase volume of sales.(Rajagopal, 2011) Advertising encourages people to purchase things and hence contribute towards creating awareness ( Bijmolt et al., 1998).